• Cognizant 20-20 InsightsHelping Publishers (and Educators)Master Outcome-Based Education   Executive Summary            ...
Behind Act of 2001,2 requires states to develop          Although higher educational institutions (univer-standards in bas...
Custom Publishing and OBE                               create notes, download exercise files, bookmark                   ...
publishing. Educators work with a “local custom           Instructors can search for content across an           field edi...
standards for K-12 education, the real outcome is          •   Support standards that define the desiredfor the educator, ...
•   It’s not simply the inclusion of more online       and tagged to enable reuse at a granular level.                  me...
To truly enable outcome-based education,                              can record data that reveals which content,custom pu...
on an amalgam of multiple standards for a spe-       standards for those outcomes. Collaboration   cific discipline. Conte...
initiatives educators must undertake to create a             analysis into action at the institutional andsystem of educat...
Footnotes1    For an introduction to outcome-based education, and some of the issues this model addresses, see the    arti...
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Helping Publishers (and Educators) Master Outcome-Based Education


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Educational publishers need to leverage learning management systems to deliver unique content and services for the fast-growing outcome-based education market.

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Helping Publishers (and Educators) Master Outcome-Based Education

  1. 1. • Cognizant 20-20 InsightsHelping Publishers (and Educators)Master Outcome-Based Education Executive Summary OBE’s Effect on K-12 Education Educational publishing has changed profoundly In the U.S., Europe and Australia, the effect of during the past 20 years, primarily in response to national, state and local (district-level) estab- an educational reform movement known collec- lishment of standards for education have had a tively as “outcome-based education.”1 profound effect on educational publishing. While many separate calls for change have been The explosion of standards for K-12 education in combined under the outcome-based education the U.S. , especially those defined at the state or (OBE) umbrella — for example, increased edu- local school district levels, emerged in the 1990s cational funding, metrics-based evaluation of and is reflected by initiatives such as: educators, and requirements for better graduation rates — the core of this emerging model is a focus • The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills is a standardized test used from 1991 through on empirically measuring student performance 2002 (and replaced by the Texas Assessment against standards established for each discipline. of Knowledge and Skills in 2003) to assess This student-centered learning philosophy, with its students’ proficiency in reading, writing and emphasis on performance, or outcomes, contrasts math, for grades 3 through 11. (Passing the with traditional educational models which focus grade 11 exam is required for graduation.) on the resources available to the student — the • The Washington Assessment of Student educators, textbooks or other learning materials Learning is the primary educational assess- and assessment tools that have traditionally ment system for the state of Washington from served as inputs for the student. 1997 through 2009. (It is now replaced by the High School Proficiency Exam for high school This white paper discusses the impact OBE has students and the Measurements of Student had on the entire educational publishing market, Progress for grades 3-8.) including K-12, secondary and post-graduate education. It also offers our perspective on how • The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assess- ment System was developed in 1993 in educational publishers should leverage learning response to the state’s Education Reform Act management systems to craft and deliver unique mandating standards-based assessment in content and services for this nascent, but fast- English, mathematics, science and technology/ growing, market. Finally, we recommend changes engineering in grades 3 through 10. to educational processes themselves to overcome the challenges of implementing truly outcome- The best-known and most far-reaching standards- based education. based education law in the U.S., the No Child Left cognizant 20-20 insights | november 2011
  2. 2. Behind Act of 2001,2 requires states to develop Although higher educational institutions (univer-standards in basic skills, and assessments of sities, community colleges, graduate schools, etc.)those skills, to be applied to all students in certain are not often faced with state-defined mandatesgrades, if those states are to receive federal to match pedagogic methods to standards, uni-funding for schools. versities do face pressures for standardization of educational methods for other reasons:In addition to state or national OBE initiatives,local school districts in the ‘90s began mandating • The current lack of widely acceptedcourseware specific to their geographic areas. standards, and their adoption, hindersFor example, school districts could specify that the effective implementation of learningelementary school history instruction reflect technologies. New Web-based methods forlandmarks or events that are part of the history offering educational materials and coursewareof their local area. Districts in Texas and Missouri are hampered by the lack of agreed-uponhave decreed that creationism be taught along standards; breakthroughs in digital delivery ofwith evolution in biology classes. higher education courses suffer from the lack of agreement on how educational outcomesHowever, the effect of the OBE movement is are to be delivered through such methods.certainly not limited to the U.S.: • Collaboration between institutions on how• The Australian government in Canberra courses of learning should be established (Western Australia) has mandated the use of for specific disciplines is retarded due to some form of OBE for grades kindergarten the lack of standardization. Even in such through 10 for several years, and is currently standard-driven disciplines as law, medicine, extending the concept of outcomes, and testing accounting and engineering, differences in to verify those outcomes, for grades 11 and 12. how these standards should be applied make sharing of content, and sharing of pedagogi-• OBE was introduced in South Africa in the late cal approach, difficult. (And, in an increas- 1990s by the post-apartheid government as ingly virtual world, where students expect the part of its Curriculum 2005 program. ability to start their course of learning at oneThe effect of each state, or local school district, institution and continue it at another, the lackmandating unique (and often conflicting) of standardization makes it difficult for institu-subject-specific teaching standards (and for tions to even agree on where a student is inhow students should be assessed against the their course of study and what outcomes theymandated outcomes for each subject) has placed have actually achieved.)a tremendous strain on publishers of K-12 educa- • Integration, sharing and reuse of educationaltional materials. content, and enablement of functions such as federated search across content reposi-No longer can educational publishers depend on tories, is made more difficult if institutionsa go-to-market strategy based on creating one are mandating content creation according toset of materials per subject, per grade, saleable different standards.across an entire country. Now each state orregion, or even each local school district, has its • Assessment and evaluation tools, and theirown specific requirements for textbooks based on critical place in establishing and achievingits own idiosyncratic standards. outcomes in education, are obstructed within a discipline if agreement is not reached on theThe manual customization of educational specific outcomes these tools are meant tomaterials is labor-intensive, time-consuming and evaluate.expensive. Publishers often have to turn downrequests for customized educational materials • Finally, economic pressures brought to bear on students because of the currentbecause they cannot recoup the costs of producing economic malaise have made them morethese materials. critical “shoppers” for educational value. A higher education environment where institu-OBE’s Effects on Higher Education tions cannot agree on standardized outcomesThe demand for an outcome-based approach for a course of education makes it difficult toto education is not limited to K-12 educational students to compare one university’s coursepublishers. set to another’s. cognizant 20-20 insights 2
  3. 3. Custom Publishing and OBE create notes, download exercise files, bookmark key sections, highlight text and build customizedIn reaction to the market’s demand for customized RSS feeds. And, to meet the demands of a mar-educational materials, educational publishers ketplace where mobile devices have becomehave endeavored to create systems where instruc- ubiquitous, Safari Books Online offers the abilitytors can select content from existing textbooks, to search and read directlysequence those content objects into whateverorder they dictate, define custom cover material from cell phones and tablets. Safari Books Onlineincluding title text and images specified by the Subscription plans to Safari allows users to jumpinstructor, and then render the custom productinto print or e-book formats. Books Online may include to related content access to a limited amount of content each month, across severalThe goal of instructors in using these custompublishing platform is to match the instructional or unlimited access to all books, create notes,content used in the teaching of the course to the materials in the digital library. download exerciseoutcomes, defined either by national, state or local McGraw-Hill Create files, bookmark keyschool districts (in the instance of K-12 education),or by standards bodies serving specific academic Originally brought to market sections, highlightdisciplines in the case of higher education, that under the name Primus, text and build McGraw-Hill Create allowsstudents are intended to achieve. What follows educators to build custom edu- customizedare examples of how publishers are responding tothe OBE movement. cational materials by selecting RSS feeds. desired content from multipleSafari Books Online sources, arrange or sequence the content to fit the teacher’s syllabus, and include the teacher’sThe first successful custom publishing engine was own, original content to the mix, if desired.Safari Books Online, founded in 2001 as SafariU.Safari Books Online is a digital library created as Users first find content by searching across aa joint venture of O’Reilly Media and the Pearson repository of thousands of McGraw-Hill textbooksTechnology Group. and third-party content. Once the desired content is found, teachers can select the chapters theySafari is a subscription-based digital library, wish to include in the custom textbook, and, ifcontaining content from books, videos, short-form they like, include section dividers or add their owncontent (“Short Cuts”) such as white papers content — originally authored material, a courseor treatises and rough-cut content (“Rough syllabus or teaching notes — to the book.Cuts”) from O’Reilly Media and other publishers,including Addison-Wesley, Prentice Hall, Peachpit, Users may then define a custom cover for theJohn Wiley & Sons, Microsoft Press, Adobe Press, customized textbook, adding their name, theCisco Press, Manning Publications, Packt, SAS course name, the school name and course infor-Publishing, IBM Press, FT Press and Focal Press. mation to the cover using graphical templates. Finally, users can render the custom product in aAs an online, searchable repository of primarily number of e-book formats; or choose to create atechnical content, Safari Books Online allows print book, in color or black-and-white, and eitherusers to execute keyword searches across the contract with a local printer to print the book orfull content of thousands of books, pre-publica- arrange with McGraw-Hill to print the book usingtion manuscripts, short documents, articles and print-on-demand technology.training videos, and consume that content online.However, the innovation that Safari brought to Pearson Learning Solutionspublishing is allowing users to select components Pearson Learning Solutions, a division of Pearsonof published works — say, Chapter 4 from Book Education, is a custom publishing platform basedA, Chapter 7 from Book B, Chapter 11 from Book on the content produced by such Pearson imprintsC, etc. — arrange those components into the as Prentice-Hall, Allyn & Bacon, Longman, Addisondesired sequence, place a custom cover onto the & Wesley, Benjamin Cummings, Financial Times,customized e-book, and output that custom book Penguin, QUE and SAMS.in a number of digital formats. Pearson Learning Solutions takes a more col-In addition, Safari Books Online allows users to laborative approach to custom educationaljump to related content across several books, cognizant 20-20 insights 3
  4. 4. publishing. Educators work with a “local custom Instructors can search for content across an field editor” to define course content that coor- extensive collection of Wiley higher education dinates with course curricula and assessment course materials, and select content they wish (testing) materials. This content may come to include in a customized textbook — selecting from Pearson’s extensive textbook-content not just at the chapter level, but all the way down repository; may include content developed to individual pages of textbook content. If the by the educator; may include other custom- selected content is in XML format (and about half developed course materials of the content available through Custom Select is already created by educators in this format), users may edit the content to meet Pearson’s from other institutions; or their specific needs, and contribute their own CourseConnect may include course content content not just as separate components within specifically developed for the the textbook but mixed in with the Wiley content. program allows custom product by Pearson (Such editing may affect the price charged for educators to not just content developers. the customized content, reflecting changes in the customize course These custom learning solu- royalty payments made to textbook authors. Also, as allowing users to add content to Wiley content content, but develop tions may be output as may mean that users add material produced by entire online courses custom textbooks; as digital other educational publishers, Wiley will contact or online products; or used as designed to manage part of a complete e-learning other publishers and pay royalties to those publishers if this condition exists.) the achievement of experience through incorpo- specific outcomes. ration in an online Learning Instructors can then customize and personalize Management System (LMS). the format, choosing print or e-book, black-and- white or color printing, soft or hard cover binding Pearson’s CourseConnect program allows edu- and individualized title page and cover copy. They cators to not just customize course content, then can preview and submit the fully assembled but develop entire online book content, review an instant price quote and The ability to courses designed to manage the achievement of specific submit the order. If the instructor chooses print books, copies will arrive at the college bookstorecustomize courseware outcomes. Courses may be within a few weeks; if an e-book format is selected, takes educators modularizedintosmallertopics a Wiley digital edition of the book will be available only partially that each follow a consistent learning model, sequenc- sooner. down the road to ing instruction through an From Custom Publishing to outcome-based introduction, presentation, Outcome-Based Publishing publishing. Arguably, practice section and review. Assessment components are The aforementioned examples illustrate the value of custom publishing models for educational for courseware created to match the custom- publishing for both K-12 and higher education. customized to meet ized course content, including Administrators and educators can develop state or local school supplemental assignments for students who need additional courseware that includes only the subject matter they want or need to teach. Users can often district standards for help with a subject, revised combine publisher-produced content with their K-12 education, discussion questions, and quiz own content, or content from other publishers. the real outcome is itemsstudents achieve subject help specific to lessons that Specific formats for books, be they print books or digital versions, can be chosen to match the for the educator, not mastery. These custom instructor’s preferred pedagogical methods. And, the student. courses are designed to work as customized textbooks typically include only a with any LMS. subset of the content included in base textbook Wiley Custom Select editions, pricing for customized textbooks usually is lower than that for the base edition. A service of the Higher Education division of John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Custom Select (introduced However, the ability to customize courseware takes in 2009) is designed to allow educators to build educators only partially down the road to out- customized higher education materials that fit come-based publishing. Arguably, for courseware their specific pedagogical needs. customized to meet state or local school district cognizant 20-20 insights 4
  5. 5. standards for K-12 education, the real outcome is • Support standards that define the desiredfor the educator, not the student. outcomes of students, a characteristic critical to OBE.The ultimate driver for standards-based education,at least in the U.S., is for school districts to receive Increasingly, educational publishers are movingstate or federal funding, based on the perfor- beyond their traditional focus of creating educa-mance of students on standardized tests. Custom tional materials such as textbooks, and creatingcourseware may be developed to teach “to” these assessment tools such as software that quizzestests; and assessments to evaluate progress or tests students on concepts taught in classes.on the understanding of content on which the They are doing this by working with leadingstudents will be tested can be developed to match LMS providers, or by creating their own LMSthe customized content. But this model does platforms.not directly address the desired outcome of theultimate end user, the student: to pass the course For example, in July 2011 McGraw-Hill Educationand, ultimately, receive his or her desired degree. announced a partnership with Blackboard, an LMS vendor, to enable the delivery of content andTo enable the desired outcomes for the student, other educational tools from its Create customcustomized content and assessment materials publishing platform that plugs directly into themust be part of a LMS that can deliver, not just Blackboard Learn online LMS system. This part-content specific to the course, but assessment nership enables educators not only to customizetools to evaluate the student’s progress at every educational content, but to use that content asstep of the course. Students also need remedial the basis for an educational experience thatlearning materials to aid in developing mastery guides students toward the desired outcome ofof concepts the individual student is struggling course completion.with; and workflow-oriented tools to direct thestudent in accomplishing granular tasks that lead WileyPLUSultimately to his/her desired outcome: subject- Another leading union of educational content withmatter expertise, and the subsequent passing of online courseware that leads students not just tothe course. consume the content, but to achieve educational outcomes based on that content, is WileyPLUS.Outcomes and Learning Management Unveiled in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, theSystems WileyPLUS marketing tagline is “LeveragingAn LMS is a software application that enables Blended Learning for More Effective Coursethe administration, documentation, tracking and Management and Enhanced Student Outcomes.”reporting of educational programs, classroom WileyPLUS was developed partially in response toand online events, e-learning programs and the a U.S. Department of Education study of researchcontent and assessment tools necessary for literature4 on online learning which identifiedstudents to develop mastery of subject matter. 99 studies that objectively measured studentRyann Ellis, in a paper titled “A Field Guide to outcomes. The study focused on the followingLearning Management Systems”3 sponsored by four questions:the American Society for Training and Develop-ment, noted that to be robust an LMS must: • How does the effectiveness of online learning• Centralize and automate the administration of compare with that of face-to-face instruction? an educational course or program. • Does supplementing face-to-face instruction• Enable student self-service and self-guided with online instruction enhance learning? services for consumption of content and assessments. • What practices are associated with more effective online learning?• Assemble and deliver learning content rapidly, • What conditions influence the effectiveness of and in an “on-demand” model. online learning?• Consolidate learning initiatives through the The study’s key findings: use of a scalable, Web-based platform.• Enable the personalization of content specific • Students using online learning resources spent to the desired outcome of the student, and more time on task than those in face-to-face enable knowledge reuse. learning conditions. cognizant 20-20 insights 5
  6. 6. • It’s not simply the inclusion of more online and tagged to enable reuse at a granular level. media that exerts a positive impact on student (Currently, Custom Solutions allows content outcomes, but the ability of learners to control definition and reuse at the chapter level; future their interactions with the online resources. versions may allow content reuse at the lesson or sub-lesson level.) Users can define custom book • Prompting students to be more reflective covers for textbooks, and sequence the content and to self-assess via online resources shows in the order they choose. Custom Solutions promise for improving learning outcomes. employs proprietary software for sequencing For students, the biggest benefits of WileyPLUS and rendering content, to enable the reflowing of are that course content can be accessed multiple content into print or e-book formats. times (and often through multiple content However, the differentiating aspect of Custom formats), supporting the learning preferences Solutions is the correlation, or linking, of content of individual students. Also, textbook material to the state of local school district standards the is linked directly to problems, for easy access to content satisfies. Users may search for content course material while doing across grade level and/or subject matter, select homework or practice Custom Solutions exercises; and there is content objects to be used in their custom textbook, and then see which local standards are employs proprietary access to guided online met by the selected content. Conversely, users software for tutorials to break problems into steps, providing hints may search on the local educational standards sequencing and for students along the way. themselves, see the content that satisfies those standards, and then select the content objects rendering content, to they want to include. For instructors, WileyPLUS enable the reflowing offers a variety of course Users also can see assessment materials alignedof content into print or management tools that to the selected content, and related standards, make it easy to create and e-book formats. select those materials most appropriate to their grade assignments. Online goals, and choose where in the custom textbook gradebooks allow instruc- those assessment materials should be included. tors to trace the progress of individual students to quickly determine learning gaps. Automatic Currently, Custom Solutions requires an HMH grading makes it easy to manage even large class sales representative to work directly with local sizes. users in defining custom textbook materials. Future versions may allow local users to create For both students and instructors, however, the custom textbooks on their own. biggest benefit of WileyPLUS is that instructors can design and execute courseware that aligns Extending Content to Enable Outcomes: content and assessment tools to the achieve- ment of institutionally defined outcomes — from The Path Forward for Publishers granular outcomes such as the mastery of the While custom publishing can certainly make sub-section of a course, to the overall outcome it easier for educational publishers to deliver of the student mastering all course content and customized content that conforms to federal, passing the course itself. state or local educational standards, the path to outcome-based education is only partially HMH Custom Solutions achieved through custom publishing models. In response to the increasing demand from state And, while integrating custom content and and local school districts for custom educational assessment materials with learning management materials that conform to educational standards systems may help in leading students through established at the local level, Houghton Mifflin a workflow-driven path to mastery of subject Harcourt in 2010 unveiled its Custom Solutions matter, current LMS systems do not incorporate platform. data on student behavior, the appropriateness For content reuse, Custom Solutions follows the of the content itself to different learning styles, model already used by other custom publishing and the direct correlation of content to educa- platforms: content is stored in XML format, tional standards to truly enable outcome-based education for a broad population of students. cognizant 20-20 insights 6
  7. 7. To truly enable outcome-based education, can record data that reveals which content,custom publishing and LMS models should be assessment tools, or even entire courses, areaugmented to: most effective in leading a user to a specified outcome. Such functionality would make it1. Incorporate student demographic and much easier for educators to behavioral data. Systems that can record, or modify and improve courseware at least store and manage, data that defines As the LMS is for subsequent users. a user profile, including the student’s demo- used by more and 3. Relate content to the stan- graphic profile and a record of how the student dards and outcomes desired more students, the has interacted with courseware objects during the course of study, can make the educational by the student. Earlier, this system can record experience enabled by the LMS truly custom- paper discussed attempts by data that reveals educational publishing to link ized to the student. For example, the system content to standards defined which content, itself can learn what sorts of content the user finds most useful in learning — say, user by state and local school dis- assessment tools, A’s test scores trend low when he consumes tricts. Such functionality can or even entire satisfy the desired outcomes textual content, but he more easily grasps for K-12 administrators — in courses, are concepts when using video-based materials. In gathering data on a wider population of users the instance of the No Child most effective in over time, the system can learn what content, Left Behind Act, to continue to leading a user to a receive federal funding through assessments, and learning designs are most students passing standardized specified outcome. appropriate to different types of learners. tests. But this model makes it2. Incorporate data that ranks the effective- difficult to define standards for achieving edu- ness of learning materials. As the LMS is cational outcomes when no formal standards used by more and more students, the system body exists, or when those standards are basedLearning Management Systems Progression Publisher’s Content Library Third-Party Educator Standards Accreditation Course Materials User-Generated/ Student 1 Other Publisher’s Content Syllabus/ Custom Text Course Website Workflow Student 2 Relationship Metadata Assessments Student Content Material CRM Relationship Rankings Student 3 Map Social ScoringTo truly enable desired outcomes for students, future Learning Management Systems must incorporate CRM datadefining the student’s demographic profile and how that student has interacted with courseware. Over time, theLMS can record data defining the effectiveness of learning materials for the entire population of students takingthe course. The LMS must allow educators, or those who define measures for disciplines, to link content to the stan-dards it satisfies. Finally, social media may be used to create feedback loops, improving courseware and augmentingdemographic data used to define effective educational programs.Figure 1 cognizant 20-20 insights 7
  8. 8. on an amalgam of multiple standards for a spe- standards for those outcomes. Collaboration cific discipline. Content relationship mapping between institutions on improving the course of tools should allow instructors to incorporate study for specific disciplines suffers because of their own standards for achieving educational lack of standardization. Students find it difficult to outcomes, to link those standards to content transfer from one university to another, because and assessment tools that direct students evaluation of where a student is in achieving toward those outcomes, and even to create desired outcomes in a discipline differs from one relationships between content objects where university to another. Sharing of educational one piece of content does not satisfy the stan- content across institutions, and assessment and dard but a combination of content does. evaluation tools that weigh progress against desired outcomes, is made difficult if those insti-4. Incorporate feedback loops for student tutions disagree on the outcomes to be enabled. input. Formal evaluations by students on the effectiveness of courseware in achieving In response to these challenges in establish- specific outcomes can be enabled either ing outcome-based education, the European through survey functionality, or through Community arm of the European Union estab- such social networking tools as Facebook and lished the ICOPER5 initiative in 2008, under the Twitter. Such feedback can not only directly umbrella of the eContentplus program. ICOPER improve courseware materials, but the design has the mission to collect, and further develop, of courses and course programs; and this best practices for higher education. It does so data can be used to create course effective- by examining issues such as learning design and ness scoring that links various users and user teaching methods, authoring content to enable types together, creating “social scoring” that reuse, transferring knowledge in an outcome-ori- augments demographic data used to define ented way, and evaluating all learning activities effective educational programs. that lead to the accomplishment of outcomes in education.True OBE: The Path Forwardfor Educators The members of ICOPER see the benefits ofThere are many challenges in developing a an outcome-based approach to education toframework for education that establishes include:standards-based outcomes for learners. • Outcome orientation helps to ensureWhere government-based mandates for edu- consistency of course delivery withincational standards exist — as is now the case study programs.across the U.S. in K-12 education because of such • Outcome orientation highlights the depen-mandates as No Child Left Behind — disagree- dencies between teaching, learning andments between states (or even between local assessing.school districts) on what is to be taught, and how • Learning outcomes cascade from studythat subject matter is to be taught, invites wide program level to module and course levels,disparities between outcomes from locality to ensuring subject consistency and helping tolocality. identify overlaps.In such politically charged disciplines as biology • Outcome orientation empowers studentsand history, mandates for what is to be taught can to make more informed choices on studymean that students from different locations can programs and learning paths.finish their K-12 educations with widely different • Outcome orientation increases transparencyunderstandings of these subjects. These discrep- for different groups of stakeholders.ancies can ultimately harm individual academic • Outcome orientation provides a better linkagedisciplines, and can make it difficult for schools to between employment, vocational training andimplement new technologies for learning, causing higher education.their students to lag behind the “cutting edge.” To realize the benefits noted by ICOPER, andIn higher education, the adoption of technology other industry bodies working to enable appropri-enhanced learning (commonly referred to as ate outcomes for all students, educational insti-TEL), the digital delivery of courseware that can tutions must undergo profound changes in themost easily delivery standard-define outcomes processes used to educate and assess students,for students, is hindered by the lack of defined and the content they use to do so. Here are nine cognizant 20-20 insights 8
  9. 9. initiatives educators must undertake to create a analysis into action at the institutional andsystem of education that truly delivers outcomes faculty level, developing curricula that ensurefor learners, the most important actor in the edu- relevant learning resources, instructionalcational ecosphere. models and learning outcomes. 6. Define instructional modeling processes1. Create a methodology and reference model that instructors use to define the learning and for competence-driven education that puts the assessment activities to be used in the devel- concept of “shareable educational resource” opment of a specific course, or program of at the center of outcome-based education. courses, for a specific discipline. These models This model must support the development demonstrate and improve the alignment of an of interoperable systems and solutions; the educational program’s outcome profile with the reuse of processes, learning content and actual outcomes addressed through courses, assessment tools; and the implementation of and facilitate the sharing of best practices via a service-oriented architecture that enables instructional models. content interoperability across systems and applications. 7. Create processes for reusable learning content, through content creation and2. Create a conceptual model for outcome- management processes that promote its oriented education that represents both creation. To be truly reusable, content must dynamic phenomena — educational activity be searchable (discoverable through search — and static phenomena (i.e., educational engines), accessible (metadata must enable content). This conceptual model helps analysts indexing and content retrieval), available in standardization bodies to understand the (licensing restrictions can’t prevent content education domain; supports communication reuse), addressable (content can be accessed between developers of educational technolo- through a recognized URL), interoper- gies and domain experts; and provides input able (usable across different hardware and into the design of data models, services and software), and durable (hardware or software IT-supported processes. changes can’t make content obsolete).3. Develop user scenarios and use cases that 8. Create assessment processes that lead reflect the usage of existing standards for learners to outcomes. This is important both learning outcomes, designs and teaching to learners, who use assessment to appraise, methods in the development of outcome- qualify and certify personal achievement, based applications. and to educators, who not only define what4. Define processes for OBE for all actors: the the outcomes are but execute assessment to learner, involved in the planning of his/her certify the outcome. Assessment processes education and the development of profile and must use formative feedback to help learners personal data such as an achievement profile, become aware of gaps that exist between as well the learning itself; the learning facilita- desired goals and their current knowledge, tor, who prepares and executes learning and and guide them through actions necessary to assessment programs; and educational insti- achieve the goal. tution managers, tasked with the strategic 9. Create evaluation processes appropriate to analysis, planning and administration of the outcome-based education, to enable quality institution. assurance in educational institutions. Such5. Define learning needs and learning oppor- processes should support evaluation from an tunities. A learning needs analysis analyses instructional modeling perspective, evaluating the needs of current or prospective students, the teaching methods employed in courses and sets institutional strategy and goal and programs, to support the alignment of setting based on those needs. Planning and intended learning outcomes with teaching and management of learning opportunities turns assessment methods. strategies gained through learning needs cognizant 20-20 insights 9
  10. 10. Footnotes1 For an introduction to outcome-based education, and some of the issues this model addresses, see the article “Outcome-Based Education: Critical Issues and Answers,” written by William G. Spady for the American Association of School Administrators at http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED380910.pdf.2 http://www2.edu.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf3 http://www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/12ECDB99-3B91-403E-9B15-7E597444645D/23395/LMS_ fieldguide_20091.pdf4 “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies,” U.S. Department of Education, at http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf5 http://www.icoper.orgAbout the AuthorCharles Olson is a Senior Consulting Manager within Cognizant Business Consulting’s Information,Media and Entertainment Practice. With 30-plus years of media industry experience, the last five anda half years at Cognizant, Charles is a recognized leader in designing workflows and the supportingtaxonomic and metadata structures to move content from the analog world to the digital world. Hehas spoken at numerous industry events, including the Seybold Seminars, Nexpo, Content World andInternet World, and was a key member of the first work group developing the PRISM XML metadatastandard for magazines. Charles began his career at the Minneapolis Star Tribune, where he was systemsmanager for newsroom technology and later held the same position at The Washington Post. He hasalso worked with Time Inc., Foreign Affairs, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Simon & Schuster, John Wiley& Sons and WGBH in Boston. Charles has a BA degree from St. Olaf College. He can be reached atCharles.Olson@cognizant.com.About CognizantCognizant (NASDAQ: CTSH) is a leading provider of information technology, consulting, and business process out-sourcing services, dedicated to helping the world’s leading companies build stronger businesses. Headquartered inTeaneck, New Jersey (U.S.), Cognizant combines a passion for client satisfaction, technology innovation, deep industryand business process expertise, and a global, collaborative workforce that embodies the future of work. With over 50delivery centers worldwide and approximately 130,000 employees as of September 30, 2011, Cognizant is a member ofthe NASDAQ-100, the S&P 500, the Forbes Global 2000, and the Fortune 500 and is ranked among the top performingand fastest growing companies in the world. Visit us online at www.cognizant.com or follow us on Twitter: Cognizant. World Headquarters European Headquarters India Operations Headquarters 500 Frank W. Burr Blvd. 1 Kingdom Street #5/535, Old Mahabalipuram Road Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA Paddington Central Okkiyam Pettai, Thoraipakkam Phone: +1 201 801 0233 London W2 6BD Chennai, 600 096 India Fax: +1 201 801 0243 Phone: +44 (0) 20 7297 7600 Phone: +91 (0) 44 4209 6000 Toll Free: +1 888 937 3277 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7121 0102 Fax: +91 (0) 44 4209 6060 Email: inquiry@cognizant.com Email: infouk@cognizant.com Email: inquiryindia@cognizant.com© Copyright 2011, Cognizant. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the express written permission from Cognizant. The information contained herein issubject to change without notice. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.