http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/soccog/soclrn.htmlhttp://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence/chapter4/appendix4bsec2.htmlFrom the report Surgeon General: Put on the homepage...
Compare effect sizes....In statistics, an effect size is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables in a statistical population, or a sample-based estimate of that quantity. An effect size calculated from data is a descriptive statistic that conveys the estimated magnitude of a relationship without making any statement about whether the apparent relationship in the data reflects a true relationship in the population. In that way, effect sizes complement inferential statistics such as p-values. Among other uses, effect size measures play an important role in meta-analysis studies that summarize findings from a specific area of research, and in statistical power analysesReporting effect sizes is considered good practice when presenting empirical research findings in many fields. Effect sizes are particularly prominent in social and medical research. Relative and absolute measures of effect size convey different information, and can be used complementarilyEffect Size: This is a statistical term that refers to the size of a relationship between two variable. Sometimes effect size is known as treatment effect because it is often used when dealing with therapeutic intervantions (ie., this treatment is shown to be more effective than another at treating a specific disorder)." Effect sizes are critical to result interpretation and synthesis across studies. Although statistical significance testing has historically dominated the determination of result importance, modern views emphasize the role of effect sizes and confidence intervals
Observational learning is a powerful means of social learning. It principally occurs through the cognitive processing of information displayed by models. The information can be conveyed verbally, textually, and auditorially, and through actions either by live or symbolic models such as television, movies, and the Internet. Regardless of the medium used to present the modeled activities, the same psychological processes underlie observational learning. These include attention and memory processes directed to establish a conceptual representation of the modeled activity. This representation guides the enactment of observationally learned patterns of conduct. Whether the learned patterns will be performed or not depends on incentive structures and observers' actual and perceived competence to enact the modeled performances. Unlike learning by doing, observational learning does not require enactment of the modeling activities during learning. The complexity of the learning, however, is restricted by the cognitive competence and enactment skills of the learner.Read more: Observational Learning - Cognitive, Enactment, Modeled, Social, Representation, and Activitieshttp://social.jrank.org/pages/451/Observational-Learning.html#ixzz0wMPyjytE
Social learning TheoryExtended behavioural explanationsRecognised the contribution of Mental /psychological factorsExplanation of human behaviour in terms of:CognitiveEnvironmentalBehavioural influences
Cognitive: How I think about something influences my behaviour: which influences the environment in which I operate
Self ObservationKeep tabs on ourselvesJudgmentCompare what we see with a standardSelf-ResponseDid well: RewardDid poorly: PunishingCompensation: delusions of grandeurInactivity: apathy, boredom, depressionEscape: drugs, alcohol, fantasies, suicideOutcome: Self ConceptMeet the standards;lots of rewardsGood self concept
A persons' judgmentof his/her abilities to perform an activity, and the effect this perception has on the on-going and future conduct of the activity.
From drooling dogs & pecking pigeons to complexhuman behaviour Adequacy of behaviourist perspectives to explain: Reading? Problem solving? Friendliness? Aggression? Social Cognitive Theory: Social, Cognitive AND Behavioural factors play important roles in learning.
Looking Back......BehaviourismEmphasis on experimental methods Focus on variables we can: Observe Measure Manipulate ( Drooling dogs, & pecking pigeons) CC: Respondent: Pavlov Autonomic; involuntary, reflexive Contiguous learning: stimulus : response OC: Operant: Watson/Thorndike/Skinner ABC Environmental experiences and behaviour Neglects: Influence of social and cognitive factors
Social and Cognitive factors in learning?Social Factors? Cognitive Factors? Students observing their Students’ expectations for parents’ achievement success behaviour What social factors have been What cognitive factors have important in your learning? been important in your learning?
Moving ForwardsAlbert BanduraWhen students learn, they cognitively “represent” or “transform” experiencesObservational Learning: Cognitive processing Of information Displayed by models http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJNNtsJmZb4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=688uHz6QYkQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmzDLzqQ-A0
Allegra, 4, plays dress-up, Malibu, California.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnGmjrdN-gU
Lily, aged 6 "Britney’s a role model. She’s fashionable, and she has movements that I like. Britney, Christina Aguilera, Destiny’s Child: They’re role models ’cause they like action and movement so much". Lily, then 5, shops at Rachel Londons Garden, where Britney Spears has some of her clothes designed. Los Angeles, Californiahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jppUkWGKgls
Albert BanduraSocial Learning Theory Social Learning in children how children learn through observation Can learn new behaviour Can facilitate learner’s response repertoire Can inhibit or dis-inhibit responses
Bobo Doll Study (1965) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZXOp5PopIA
Video Games and Violence? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WB6vTkvi9to http://ithp.org/articles/violentvideogames.html http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2003/10/ander son.aspx http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnew s/9183385/Violent-video-games-are-fuelling-rise-in- aggressive-behaviour.html
Observational Learning/ Modelling PROCESS of Learning In Social Settings Acquiring skills, strategies and beliefs by observing others Involves imitation But not limited to it Not an exact copy: But a general “form” applied http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fp8G7IZ29MY&feature=fvw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5URas0d1B7g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcIDIPh1HGY the functioning of OC in a social context Behaviour changes without first being rewarded for approximations to the behaviour (shaped)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjpBa_4tXmM
Four Fundamentals of the(Observational, Social Cognitive) LearningProcess:To Learn: Attention = pay attention first : attend to the model Retention Remember what you have paid attention to: code in memory Imagery and language Store what we have seen as mental images/verbal descriptions (Re)Production Translate images into behaviour Have to have the ability to reproduce (Reinforcement and) Motivation Only perform when motivated Past reinforcement Promised reinforcement (incentives) Vicarious reinforcement (seeing others)
Comparison :OC & OL OC: views reinforcement is a direct cause of learning (ABC) OL: views reinforcement as motivation, not learning learning occurs: form a representation of the behaviour in memory, & reproduce it
Modelling the process of observing then imitating Direct: simple imitation Symbolic: books; TV; films Synthesized: copying portions of behaviour for different purposes Abstract: inferring a system of rules
Determinants Reinforcements and punishments: received by both model and observer Both appropriate and inappropriate behaviour can be modelled Pro-social models have pro-social effects Consistency is vital regardless
To Whom do we Pay Attention?Perceived Similarity Similar models more effective than different Several models Same-sex Peers
Alison, 17 years old"Close to a hundred percent of my close friends have been on some kind ofprescription drug for depression or ADD or something like that. Dexedrine, Adderall,Paxil, Wellbutrin, Depakote, Neurontin, Effexor, Prozac".Joyce, 15, Elysia, 14, and Alison, then 14, at their friends sixteenth birthday party, Arlington, Virginia.
To Whom Do we Pay Attention?Perceived Competence Interaction with perceptions of similarity to impact a model’s effectiveness More competent is likely to be imitated than less competent
Competence? Olympians Football players Soap Stars Who in the Class????
(Re)production &Motivation :Acquisition and PerformanceWe may all know more than we show While learning may have occurred, it may not be demonstrated (Re/Produced) until the situation is right (Motivated) May acquire new skill/behaviour: but may not perform it until motivated
Bandura Believes:Traditional behavioural views are accurate, but incompleteSocial Learning Theory Extended behavioural explanations Recognised mental/psychological factorsSocial COGNITIVE Theory Links: the functioning of OC; in a social setting; with the role of cognition in processing information
Social Cognitive Theory Emphasises internal processes: thoughts are always influencing actions and actions are always influencing thoughts (Bandura, 1986) Children: Think about what they do; about what we want them to do those thoughts affect what they actually do.
Reciprocal DeterminismHuman behaviour can be explainedin terms of the reciprocal influences of Person/Cognitive Environmental Cognitive Behavioural factors Behaviour EnvironmentalInternal and External factors are important Interact and influence others Interaction of forces = reciprocal determinism
3 key aspects That contribute to the interactive processes in his ideas about human behaviour and cognitive functioning:1 Observation: Vicarious Conditioning2 Language: Symbolic Processes3 Self talk: Self regulation
Vicarious Conditioning Observation of the consequences of actions influences the motivation to enact the behaviour Others are rewarded or punished we modify our behaviour as if we had received the consequences
Teaching and the Classroom?All aspects of the classroom have an impact on learning:Internal (cognitive and personal); observation and modelling; vicarious learning.Social Cognitive Theory can be used for: Teaching new behaviours/attitudes Encouraging existing behaviours Changing inhibitions Directing Attention Arousing Emotions
Cognitive Behaviour ApproachesConfucius:“If you give a man a fish...you feed him for a day...If you teach a man to fish, you feed him for a lifetime...”Cognitive Behaviour Approaches: Emphasise getting students to Monitor Manage Regulate their own behaviour
Self-Regulation (Model from Santrock, 2008, p 251) Self Evaluation and Monitoring Monitoring Goal Setting outcomes and and Strategic refining Planning strategies Putting a plan into Action and Monitoring it
Self-Efficacy“The belief in one’s capabilities to organise and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations” (Bandura, 1986)Bandura & Schunk (1981) and Schunk (1984) self- efficacy judgments are thought to affect achievement by influencing an individuals choice of activities, task avoidance, effort expenditure, and goal persistence.
Sef-Efficacy Henk and Melnick (1995) four basic factors to predict how students estimate their capabilities as a reader: performance past success, amount of effort, need for assistance, patterns of progress, task difficulty, task persistence, and belief in the effectiveness of instruction, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states.
SummaryStrengths Bandura extended behavioural theories: Internal (cognitive & personal) External (environmental or contextual) factors influence learning Learner makes an active contribution to behaviour change Focus on the role of observation and imitation heightened awareness of the impact of such media as TV, video, e-games Vicarious learning can have both positive and negative impacts on behaviour
SummaryLimitations The conditions under which vicarious learning occurs have been questioned: Why do children imitate the behaviours of some and not others? How can you be sure that desirable behaviours modelled have impact, whilst undesirable behaviours are ignored and forgotten?