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Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
Chapter 01 v2
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Chapter 01 v2

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  • 1. Presentation Pro Magruder’s American Government CHAPTER 1 Principles of Government © 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • 2. CHAPTER 1 Principles of Government SECTION 1 Government and the State SECTION 2 Forms of Government SECTION 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1
  • 3. SECTION 1 Government and the State • How is government defined? • What are the basic powers that every government holds? • What are the four defining characteristics of the state? • How have we attempted to explain the origin of the state? • What is the purpose of government in the United States and other countries? Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 1
  • 4. Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 5. What Is Government? Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1 Section 1
  • 6. OUR FIRST PUBLIC POLICY: ―When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 7. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are ……….. •Life •Liberty •And the Pursuit of Happiness‖ Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 8. Thomas Jefferson • Author of the Declaration of Independence • Author of the Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom • Father of the University of Virginia Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 9. JOHN LOCKE • English Philosopher • Second Treatise Civil Government – p. 11 • Natural rights - Life - Liberty - Property Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 10. GOVERNMENT: WHY DO WE NEED IT? ―Necessary Evil‖ Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 11. The State The state can be defined as having these four characteristics: Population Territory A state must have people, A state must be comprised the number of which does of land—territory with known not directly relate to its and recognized boundaries. existence. Sovereignty Government Every state is sovereign. It Every state has a has supreme and absolute government — that is, it is power within its own politically organized. territory and decides its own foreign and domestic policies. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 1
  • 12. Origins of the State The Force Theory • The force theory states that one person or a small group took control of an area and forced all within it to submit to that person’s or group’s rule. The Evolutionary Theory • The evolutionary theory argues that the state evolved naturally out of the early family. The Divine Right Theory • The theory of divine right holds that God created the state and that God gives those of royal birth a ―divine right‖ to rule. The Social Contract Theory • The social contract theory argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 1
  • 13. The Purpose of Government The main purposes of government are described in the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States: ―We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.‖ Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 1
  • 14. To boldly go where no man has gone before…….. Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 15. Section 1 Review 1. A government is (a) the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. (b) a collection of people. (c) always democratic. (d) the organization representing farms and industries. 2. A state has the following four characteristics: (a) population, territory, sovereignty, and government. (b) sovereignty, a perfect union, welfare, and territory. (c) people, places, force, and divine right. (d) justice, defense, liberty, and domestic tranquility. Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 1
  • 16. SECTION 2 Forms of Government • How can we classify governments? • How are systems of government defined in terms of who can participate? • How is power distributed within a state? • How are governments defined by the relationship between the legislative and executive branches? Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 17. Classifying Governments Governments can be classified by three different standards: (1) Who can participate in the governing process. (2) The geographic distribution of the governmental power within the state. (3) The relationship between the legislative (lawmaking) and the executive (law-executing) branches of the government. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 18. Classification by Who Can Participate Democracy Dictatorship • In a democracy, supreme • A dictatorship exists where political authority rests with those who rule cannot be the people. held responsible to the will of the people. • A direct democracy exists where the will of the people is • An autocracy is a translated into law directly by government in which a the people themselves. single person holds unlimited political power. • In an indirect democracy, a small group of persons, • An oligarchy is a chosen by the people to act government in which the as their representatives, power to rule is held by a expresses the popular will. small, usually self-appointed elite. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 19. Classification by Geographic Distribution of Power Unitary Government Confederate Government • A unitary government has • A confederation is an all powers held by a single, alliance of independent central agency. states. Federal Government • A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. • An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of power on a geographic basis. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 20. Classification by the Relationship Between Legislative and Executive Branches Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 21. Forms of Government Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 22. Section 2 Review 1. In a democracy, (a) independent states form an alliance. (b) supreme political authority rests with the people. (c) those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. (d) the rule by a few, select individuals regulates the will of the people. 2. The United States government has the following characteristics: (a) confederate, parliamentary, and dictatorship. (b) unitary, presidential, and democracy. (c) federal, presidential, and democracy. (d) unitary, parliamentary, and dictatorship. Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 2
  • 23. SECTION 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy • What are the foundations of democracy? • What are the connections between democracy and the free enterprise system? • How has the Internet affected democracy? Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 3
  • 24. Foundations The American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions: (1) A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person; (2) A respect for the equality of all persons; (3) A faith in majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights; (4) An acceptance of the necessity of compromise; and (5) An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 3
  • 25. Democracy and the Free Enterprise System • The free enterprise system is an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods; investments that are determined by private decision rather than by state control; and determined in a free market. • Decisions in a free enterprise system are determined by the law of supply and demand. • An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion is called a mixed economy. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 3
  • 26. Democracy and the Internet • Democracy demands that the people be widely informed about their government. • Theoretically, the Internet makes knowledgeable participation in democratic process easier than ever before. • However, all data on the World Wide Web is not necessarily true, and the long-term effects of the Internet on democracy has yet to be determined. Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 3
  • 27. Section 3 Review 1. All of the following are basic notions found in the American concept of democracy EXCEPT (a) a recognition of of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person. (b) a respect for the equality of all persons. (c) the rule of government by a single individual. (d) an acceptance of the necessity of compromise. 2. In a free enterprise system, the means of capital are owned (a) by private and corporate entities. (b) by government agencies. (c) by only the agricultural sector. (d) equally by the collective citizenry. Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! Go To Section: 1 2 3 Chapter 1, Section 3
  • 28. Was Democracy their intent? Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 29. “Democracy” and “Republic” • Often use synonymously • Many of the Framers believed that democracy was the ―worst of all political evils‖ • Guaranteed to each state a ―republican form of government‖ • Both considered sovereignty to rest with the people Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 30. “Democracy” as they saw it • Government ruled by many • Equality of all citizens • In its simplest (pure) form it works best in small regions • Sovereignty must be exerted by the whole people – this has happened rarely (if ever) • Chaos (mob rule) • Has no limits when in the hands of the people • Requires more participation and voting Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 31. “Republic” as they saw it • Government ran by few • An ―Empire of Laws, not of Men‖ – John Adams (a government in which men of all classes and interests are subject to the laws) • Not founded on the equality of all citizens, because people are not equal • The property of the public is securely protected by law (all men, not merely those of the majority) • A purpose rather than form of government • Works best on a large scale • System of representation – the people choose whom the please to govern them (Alexander Hamilton) • Some restrictions in place for voting (land ownership, age) Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 32. James Madison ― … in a democracy, the people meet and exercise the government in person; in a republic they assemble and administer it by their representatives and agents. A democracy will be confined to a small spot. A republic may be extended over a large region.‖ Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 33. Madisonian Government - 1787 • Voters – white men, 21 and older • President – chosen by Electoral College • Judges immune from public vote • Senators chosen by the state legislatures • House of Representatives chosen by the people Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 34. Madisonian Government - 2008 •Voting – ALL citizens 18 and older •Both houses of Congress chosen by the people •Rule of Law above the Rule of Man •Federal Judges still appointed,not elected •President still chosen by the Electoral College, much more powerful than in the days of Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison Go To Section: 1 2 3
  • 35. Presidential Election - 2000 •Gore •Bush •Popular Vote: Gore – 50,996,582; Bush – 50,456,062 •Electoral Vote: Gore – 266; Bush - 271 Go To Section: 1 2 3

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