World war ii

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all about ww11 and the holocaust

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  • Stop reparation payments, give all germans food and jobs, make them proud to be German again, blamed Jews for Germany’s problems
  • Reparations of 1 billion Reichmarks after Kristallnacht; Radios and telephones were removed from Jews;
  • 91 Jews killed, 26000 Jews arrested, 7500 Jewish business destroyed; 101 synagogues destroyed
  • Some historians believe that Hitler’s grandfather was Jewish. His Grandmother used to work for a rich Jewish landowner in Austria and it is believed that she had an affair whilst she worked as his house keeper. He later helped his son get a job as a civil servant. Some Psychologist but this down as being one of the possible reasons why Hitler hated Jews. However, it is interesting to note that the Jewish doctor who helped his mother whilst she was dying of cancer was dropped off at the Swiss boarder by the SS in 1940!
  • Gypsies-were believed to be inferior, by the Nazi's.
    Freemasons-were charged by the Nazis as being supporters of the Jewish Conspiracy to rule the world
    Jehovah Witness members refused to join Hitler’s army and salute him.
    Homosexuals were some of the first to be arrested after Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
    Forced sterilizations-a person was diagnosed with feeblemindness, Operation T4-the killing of patients in hospitals and institutions. Operation 14f13-psychiatrists were sent to camps, and ordered to weed out those too week to work. Unfit to be part of the master race.
  • SLIDE 25 - PEOPLE LOADING ON TO TRAINS
     
    Trains used to transport the Jews to the camps.
    Boxcars built to hold 8 horses or 40 people were used to transport no fewer than 100 people, often as many as 200 people, were jammed into a boxcar
    Crowded conditions – You could not sit down; no food, no water, no lights and no bathrooms. The people who were crushed to death were left on board with the living until the boxcar reached the camp.
    The only fresh air came from a small vent at one end of the boxcar or a small window at the other end.
    The train rides could last days.
    Thousands died - because the people coming from the ghettos were already malnourished or diseased and could not survive the transport.
  • Forgotten Voice: Jan Hartman, pg. 162
  • Crematoriums were large furnaces used to kill victims; not only was it used for dead bodies but alive ones also. They would be burnt into ashes and this was an ongoing process to kill non-Aryans.
    There were a total of 5 crematoriums which operated in Auschwitz-Birkenau and in a 24-hour-period, about 800-1,500 bodies were burnt.
  • Julry, gold teath,silver fillings
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_experimentation
  • The photograph above shows the reconstructed entrance to one of the 4 standing cells (Stehzellen) in the basement of Block II, where prisoners were sent for extreme punishment. These cells were 3 feet square and had no light coming in at all, nor any heating or cooling system. Prisoners had to crawl into the cell through a tiny door, as shown in the photo above. There was just enough room for four slender men to stand without touching each other. There was no room to lie down, but if the prisoners cooperated, one prisoner could sit down while the other three crowded closer together. The floors of these cells were covered with excrement left by the occupants. Prisoners who were being punished were put into these cells at night, and in the morning taken out to perform a full 10-hour day of work. This punishment was usually given to prisoners who had tried to sabatoge the work done in the factories at Auschwitz. Prisoners who escaped and were caught were put into these cells and left to die.
  • At the far end of a long, narrow courtyard between Block 10 and Block 11 at the Auschwitz I camp is a brick wall which connects the two buildings. In front of this brick wall, the Nazis placed another removable wall, constructed out of logs and covered with cork painted black; the ends of the wall were angled slightly toward the center. The purpose of the black wall was to protect the beautiful brick wall behind it from bullet holes.
    If you want to walk where millions of people have trod, including the famous and the infamous, this is the place. Into this courtyard have walked most of the world leaders of the Twentieth Century, carrying a wreath of flowers to place in front of the black wall where the victims of the ruthless Nazis were shot over half a century ago.
    It was in front of this black wall that political prisoners, mostly Poles, who had been convicted by the Gestapo Summary Court, were executed. These prisoners were brought to the Auschwitz I camp, but were not registered as inmates; they were housed in dormitory rooms on the first and second floors of Block 11 while they awaited trial in a courtroom set up in the building. After they were convicted, the prisoners were taken to a small washroom in the building where they were ordered to strip naked, after which they were marched to the wall in groups of three and executed with one shot to the neck at close range. Some of the prisoners, who were sent here, were Czech resistance fighters from the Gestapo prison at the Small Fortress in Theresienstadt.
    The picture above shows some artwork done by a survivor of the camp, after he was liberated. He has depicted an execution scene at the black wall with a uniformed SS man shooting three prisoners while other SS officers look on. Two camp inmates carry the bodies from the wall and add them to the pile in the foreground; it was the Jews who were assigned to do this work. To the left in the picture is an object made out of logs which was not at the wall when I was there. This is the portable gallows which was used to hang political prisoners in the camp
  • Forgotten Voices: John Fink, pg. 246
  • How did they manage to get together all these Jews to kills them?
    How did they kill them when they had them?
    To begin with there were concentration camps.
  • World war ii

    1. 1. The Road to World War II
    2. 2. January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler
    3. 3. History • Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889 in a small town called Braunau Am Inn, Austria. • Young Adolf attended church regularly, sang in the local choir and spent hours playing “cowboys and Indians”. He grew up with a bad name at school and left before completing his high school terms, because he wanted to be an artist. • During his lifetime, Hitler was very secretive about his background. He never give his father’s real occupation. He said he was a postal official. He didn’t like his relatives to come near him or visit. •Hitler’s mom died of cancer when he was nineteen. Hitler loved his mother so much. Her Jewish doctor said,” I have never witnessed a closer attachment.” Hitler carried a picture of her down to his last days in the bunker.
    4. 4. How did WWI Influence Hitler?  He served in German Army: wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery.  His First success in his life   Blamed Germany’s defeat on Jews and Communists.
    5. 5. The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power: 1928-1933    1928 - Hitler’s Nazi Party was a small, insignificant party- had little success in elections By 1933 however Hitler was the chancellor of Germany. The Nazi’s had risen from obscurity to power, total power.
    6. 6. What Did The Nazi Stand For in 1920s? ABOLISH VERSAILLES TREATY REARM GERMANY GREATER GERMANY DESTROY COMMUNISM STRONG CENTRAL GOVT REMOVE JEWS LEBENSRAUM DESTROY WEIMAR REPUBLIC
    7. 7. Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years.
    8. 8. What did Hitler offer to the German people? •Promises Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness Wealthy Industrialist An end unemployment •Blamed Others for Germany’s Problems Jews November Criminals Weimar Republic •Excellent Speaker
    9. 9. How does Hitler become Chancellor?  “Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private army  Used speeches and propaganda to gain countrys support  Nazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature):  1930 = 18% of vote  1932 = 37% of vote  Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933
    10. 10. What actions did Hitler take The Leader?  Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories  Stopped reparations payments  Economy improved  New Jobs - military sector  Decreased unemployment  Began planning for expansion of the Third Reich
    11. 11.    Hitler’s Destruction of Jews • Adolf Hitler, murderer of millions, or known as master of destruction and organized insanity. Hitler was seized by an obsession with the Jews all his life. The Nazi Führer had always been straightforward about his plans - his dream of a racially "pure" empire would tolerate no Jews. He announced at many occasions the "annihilation of the Jews" living in the territory under his control. • In Hitler's mind, murdering millions of Jews could only be accomplished under the confusion of war, from the beginning he was planning a war. • The European Jews were the primary victims of Adolf Hitler. In 1933 nine million Jews lived in the 21 countries of Europe that would be occupied by Germany during the war. By 1945 two out of every three European Jews had been killed. What was “MasterJewish Problem? the Race” – Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the blond hair, blue eyes. Blamed Germany’s problems on the Jewish Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans.
    12. 12. PROGRESSION OF DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS JEWS    The NAZI party and Adolf Hitler seized power in 1933. they slowly began their program against the Jews of Germany In 1933 there were 566,000 Jews living in Germany. Each new year in Germany led to harsher policies directed towards the Jews.
    13. 13. Stripping of Rights Nuremberg Laws (1935) stated that all German JEWS were :  stripped of German citizenship  fired from jobs & businesses boycotted  banned from schools & universities  marriages between Jews and Aryans forbidden  forced to carry ID cards  Passports stamped with a “J”  forced to wear the arm band of the Yellow “Star of David”  Jewish synagogues destroyed  forced to pay reparations and a special income tax
    14. 14. Boycott of Jewish Businesses 1933 - Germany Sets up idea that Jews are not Germans and isolates them  SA pickets, wearing boycott signs, block the entrance to a Jewish-owned shop. The signs read: "Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!"
    15. 15. SS Deathshead division is created to guard camps Heinreich Himmler is appointed Chief of the German Police Olympic games in Berlin, Jews treated better for two days German troops marched into the Rhineland The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was ‘demilitarised’ after the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was not allowed to have troops in the region. Hitler’s actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty.
    16. 16. 1937     Jews are not allowed to teach Germans not allowed to be accountants or dentists “Eternal Jew” exhibit opened in Germany this promoted stereo-types of Jews and warned Germans 1938   League of Nations considers helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but no country will take them Jews are not allowed to practice medicine
    17. 17. March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria. However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people.
    18. 18. Kristallnacht Night of Broken GlassNovember 9-10, 1938. • on the “Night of Broken Glass” Jewish shops and synagogues are damaged, destroyed and looted • 26,000 Jews are arrested, 91 die • further economic and political persecution of Jews would follow • it marks the ominous beginning of the Holocaust
    19. 19. Did you know? Kristallnacht was not just  This picture is typical of the smashed windows of Jewish businesses on Kristallnacht. staged without planning, but served a specific purpose in Nazi policy toward the Jews. The SA was under strict orders to confiscate any firearms owned by Jews when ransacking Jewish homes and businesses. This would prevent any significant armed resistance to Nazi policies in the future.
    20. 20. November 1938. Jews arrested during Kristallnacht line up for roll call at the Buchenwald concentration camp
    21. 21.  The German reaction to Kristallnacht In response to the events of Kristallnacht the Jews were fined 25 million marks to repair the property damaged during the night and an additional 1 billion marks  This succeeded in removing a significant amount of the wealth that the German Jews had managed to hold on to through the rising prejudice against them  Other countries were aware of these policies, however did not wish to interfere as that was considered inappropriate involvement in the operation of another nation  The Jews of Germany began to flee if they could by every means available, however this was hampered by the German annexation of Czechoslovakia , Austria and Poland which meant that many of the Jews that escaped the Germans following the Nuremberg laws and Kristallnacht soon found themselves again under Nazi control
    22. 22. March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis. However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin.
    23. 23. August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘nonaggression pact’. They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon. This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
    24. 24. Stalin Hitler The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies. When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia. Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia
    25. 25. September 1939: Germany invaded Poland But, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France. German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
    26. 26. May 1940: Germany turned west and invaded France and the Netherlands In May 1940, Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands. British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France. Captured British troops, May 1940
    27. 27. By June 1940, France had surrendered to the Germans Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe. Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion.
    28. 28. September 1940-May 1941: the Blitz For the following nine months, the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on British towns and cities. This was known as the BLITZ and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission.
    29. 29. Operation Barbarossa, June 1941 But in May, 1941, Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launch an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and ignored the promises he had made. This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War.
    30. 30. 1940   German Jews are deported to Poland Total of 600,000 Jews 1941     Nazis invade the Soviet Union Jewish population of 3 million Hitler issues infamous “Commissar Order” SS Einsatzgruppen follow advance of German Army
    31. 31. The Ghettos    First used in Poland when Nazi’s invaded in 1939 Areas where Jews were forced to live in certain cities. Comparable to prisons  Everyone was put to work for the Nazis  Many people died from the labor, conditions, and disease. 356 ghettos in Poland, the Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary were established by the Nazi’s between the years 1935 and 1940.   Warsaw, the largest ghetto, existed of about half a million people, and Lódz, the second largest ghetto, had 160,000 people. On the other hand, the smallest ghetto only held 3,000 hostages.
    32. 32. The Nazi’s Point of View      The Nazi’s considered the Jews to be natural carriers of all diseases, especially Typhus. These excuses gave them the right to move the Jews away from the Polish population and into Jewish neighborhoods. The Jews were thankful that they were going to be safe. Little did they know they were headed to an experience of a life time. Through all this torture there was still room for a smile…    Most of the larger cities closed the ghettos in with either stone or brick wall, wooden fences, or even barbed wire. For once the victims stepped into the ghetto or death camp, there was no leaving. Otherwise if someone tried to escape there was a death penalty. The Warsaw ghetto had a wall ten feet high topped with barbed wire at the top.
    33. 33. Warsaw Ghetto Facts         The Warsaw ghetto was the largest ghetto with about half a million people held there. Warsaw was established on October 2, 1940. Jews were forced to work in a metal shop under terrible conditions along with other tiring jobs. Only 300 calories of food were offered daily by carrying your ration card. (see next slide) The food and water was unsanitary. While overcrowding, rampant diseases, and starvation were also many troubles. To help families with money, children were found selling books on the streets. Only 113,000 poles were evacuated from this area in order to create The Warsaw Ghetto.
    34. 34.  WARSAW GHETTO
    35. 35.         Located in impoverished part of the city. Dilapidated housing with no electricity or water. 30% of the population squeezed in 2.4% of the city’s area. Population density: 9.2 people per room. 128,000 people per square kilometer. Warsaw and Lodz housed 1/3 of the Polish Jews under Nazi control. Lack of food a major problem. Malnutrition and disease rampant. “The situation in the Jewish quarter is catastrophic. The corpses of those who have died of starvation lie in the streets. The death rate, 80% from malnutrition, has tripled since February. The only thing that is issued to the Jews is 1.5 lbs of bread per week…” Oberfeldkommandant, May 1941
    36. 36.   A tram at the entrance to the Warsaw Ghetto Why did the Nazis create ghettoes?  To thwart the black market…  To thwart Jewish “subversion”…  To stop the spread of diseas.
    37. 37.  A German guard checking Jews’ papers
    38. 38. The Warsaw Uprising   On April 19, the first night of Passover, Nazi soldiers arrived in the ghetto to deport more Jews. They were greeted with pistol shots and hand grenades.
    39. 39. A man carries away the bodies of dead Jews in the Ghetto of Warsaw in 1943, where people died of hunger in the streets.
    40. 40. What tactics did the Nazis use to get the Jews to leave the Ghettos? Deception The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets. They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans. New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends. Tactics Starvation The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day . Terror A Human being needs 2400 calories a day to maintain their weight The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance Hungry people are easier to control
    41. 41. FINAL SOLUTION  Final Solution- the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
    42. 42. Phase 1 = Shooting    Jews were rounded up and told they were to be relocated They were taken to the woods and were shot one by one their bodies were buried in mass graves
    43. 43. Phase 2 = Gas Vans   Again, Jews were rounded up and told they were to be relocated in vans The vans were equipped so that the van’s exhaust was piped back into the van 700,000 Jews killed in Vans
    44. 44. Phase 3 = The Camps      Nazi leaders decided to drastically speed up the Final Solution there were two different types of camps: CONCENTRATION CAMPS EXTERMINATION CAMPS Jews from all over occupied Europe were to be brought here.
    45. 45. What is Hitler’s Master Race  Aryan or master Race, Blonde Hair, Blue Eyes, this race is superior and must be preserved. All other races were deemed inferior.
    46. 46. Why did the Germans persecute these groups: Jews   Hitler needed a to blame problems in Europe on somebody. So he chose the JewsAnti Semitism- (hatred of the Jews)-had existed in Europe for some time-Hitler blamed Jews for failures.
    47. 47. Wannsee Conference Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’ The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’ On arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’ How was the Final Solution going to be organized? The remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die whilst the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettoes The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labor.
    48. 48. How did the Nazi decide who was Jewish?    At the Wannsee conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish. However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German. In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat.
    49. 49. Why did Germans persecute these groups: Gypsies,Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witness & Homosexuals Why did Germans persecute these groups: Mentally Deficient/ill & Physically disabled?
    50. 50. CONCENTRATION      100 of these in Nazi-occupied Europe prisoners used for forced labor communists, homosexuals, criminals, socialdemocrats, hande capt and the elerdly. prisoners usually lasted less than 1/2 year. Befor there deamded un fit to work and are kiled First camp was opened in 1933, right after Nazis came to power
    51. 51. What happened to new arrivals? All new arrivals went through a process known as ‘selection.’ Mothers, children, the old & sick were sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers. Descised as showers. The able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’ At Auschwitz the trains pulled into a mock up of a normal station. Deception & Selection At Auschwitz the new arrivals were calmed down by a Jewish orchestra playing classical music. The Jews were helped off the cattle trucks by Jews who were specially selected to help the Nazis At some death camps the Nazis would play records of classical music to help calm down the new arrivals.
    52. 52. What Were the Conditions Like? • In the beginning, most of the work done in labor camps was pointless. As the German economy began to experience labor shortages, the Nazis started exploiting these slave laborers for the production of goods like iron or coal • skilled people could get jobs based on there skills • Nearly all of the work was manual and labor intensive • Hours were long, usually 12 or more • Workers weren't adequately fed and had little to no tools or protective equipment/clothes • Jobs were hazardous and dangerous (accidents, dust inhalation, ect.) • Generally, inmates preferred factory jobs over building/digging jobs • "A daily ration was: a piece of black bread, about as thick as your thumb; some margarine about the size of three sticks of chewing gum; and a small cup of something that was supposed to be soup". •
    53. 53. Prisoners arriving at the camps…
    54. 54.  If you were chosen for work, you were forced through a humiliating process. All clothing and personal belongings were taken from the prisoners, and their hair was shaved off. They were given a striped uniform and a pair or shoes that were most likely the wrong size. When the prisoners were registered, they were given a number, which was tattooed on their arm. Auschwitz was the only camp to use this method of identification. They began tattooing the number onto the left forearm in 1943.
    55. 55.  Each morning prisoners had to stand for roll call (Appell.) They could stand for hours in extreme heat or cold, if someone was missing. They had to stand for roll call again in the evening, after returning from work.
    56. 56.  After roll call, prisoners were put to work. Usually it was hard labor that took place outside in harsh conditions. Some prisoners did work inside factories, though the work was still difficult. While working, Nazi guards kept a close eye on the prisoners. Prisoners work on a hospital for the SS.
    57. 57. Life in a Concentration Camp   A prisoner in Dachau is forced to stand without moving for endless hours as a punishment. He is wearing a triangle patch identification on his chest. A chart of prisoner triangle identification markings used in Nazi concentration camps which allowed the guards to easily see which type of prisoner any individual was.
    58. 58. Destruction Through Work This photo was taken by the Nazis to show just how you could quite literally work the fat of the Jews by feeding them 200 calories a day Same group of Jews 6 weeks later
    59. 59. What did they do with babys?  They were killed upon arrival.  When they arrived with their mothers at the camps, they were gassed with their mothers. Before the death camps got gas chambers, they were shot with their mothers.   Sometimes the ss would grab them by there leg and rip them in half then throw then on the fire.  Other times they were thrown alive onto the fire.  Children born in the camp were  generally killed on the spot with the mother.
    60. 60. The innocent children….
    61. 61. When the Killing Started  The genocide (killing) of the Jews did not officially start until after the Wannsee Conference, where the plans for the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" were decided. The meeting was led by Reinhard von Heydrich.  The Wannee Conference: On January, 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler's second in command of the SS, began the Wannsee Conference in Berlin with 15 top Nazi bureaucrats to organize the Final Solution in which the Nazis would attempt to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe, an estimated 11 million persons.  The exact date of Hitler's order to exterminate the Jews is unknown, but on July 31, 1941, the order was given to begin the process. Train to the Death Camps
    62. 62. What were death camps? Death camps were constructed with only one purpose: to mass murder Jews and other “ unwanted” people . Death camps worked effectively and efficiently at minimal physical and psychological cost to the Germans -it could kill tens of thousands of prisoners each month “Another possible solution to the [Jewish] question has now taken the place of emigration, i.e., evacuation to the east.… Practical experience is already being collected which is of the greatest importance in the relation to the future final solution of the Jewish question.” (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: "Holocaust") [All understood “ evacuation to the east” meant deportation to killing centers]
    63. 63. Three types of Death Camps    Aktion Reinhardt extermination camps: Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, where prisoners were promptly killed upon arrival. Initially, the camps used carbon monoxide gas chambers; at first, the corpses were buried, but then incinerated atop pyres. Later, gas chambers and crematoria were built in Treblinka and Belzec; Zyklon-B was used in Belzec. Concentration–extermination camps where some prisoners were selected for slave labor, instead of immediate death; they were kept alive as camp inmates, available to work wherever the Nazis required. These camps — including Auschwitz, Majdanek, and Jasenovac — later were retrofitted with Zyklon-B gas chambers and crematoria, remaining operational until war's end in 1945. Minor extermination camps such as Sajmiste in Serbia, Maly Trostenets in the USSR, Janowska, in Poland, and Gornija Rijeka, initially operated as prisons and transit camps, then as extermination camps late in the war, using portable gas-chambers and gas vans.
    64. 64. What wer e t he killing met hods in deat h camps?  Gas Chambers  Gas Trucks  Crematoriums  Mass Killings Starvation Executions Inhuman living conditions Disease and epidemic Torture GAS USED TO KILL the VERMIN.
    65. 65. Death Squads    Open, public killings of Jews Mainly occurred once Germany invaded the USSR. Coordinated between SS (German Secret Police) and the local populations  Estimated at least 2.2 million people were killed this way
    66. 66. Gas Chambers The Jews were herded into the gas chambers, then the camp personnel closed the doors, and either exhaust gas or poison gas in the form of Zyklon A or B was led into the gas chamber. Auschwitz-Birkenau was the largest killing center and an estimated 1 to 2 million were killed.  The first gassing experiments involved 250 Polish and 600 Soviet POWs and they started as early as September 1941. Majdenak began the gassings in October 1942 and functioned the same way as AuschwitzBirkenau. Here is what the inside of a gas chamber looks like where they killed Jews in mass numbers
    67. 67. Cr emat or iums
    68. 68. Dead bodies waiting to be processed
    69. 69. Processing the bodies   Specially selected Jews known as the sonderkommando were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed. The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium.
    70. 70. Survivors in Mauthausen open one of the crematoria ovens for American troops who are inspecting the camp.
    71. 71. Germans killed a huge number of people at the same time by shooting at them. Mass killings were quite often throughout Holocaust. Mass Killings 1.5 million Jews were shot in the most brutal way by Nazis. In Majdanek, on November 3, 1943 and November 4, between 17,000 and 18,000 Jews were killed in one day as part of a mass shooting. This was known as "harvest feast “ Jews were forced to dig their own graves and they would eventually be shot to fall into their grave.
    72. 72. First you removed your valuables
    73. 73. Then you removed your shoes and clothes
    74. 74. Then they removed your hair
    75. 75. Finally  Prisoners were sent to gas chambers disguised as showers  Zyklon B gas used to gas people in 3 – 15 minutes  Up to 8,000 people were gassed per day at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest death camp with 4 operating gas chambers  Gold fillings from victims teeth were melted down to make gold bars  Prisoners moved dead bodies to massive crematoriums
    76. 76. 6 Extermination Camps anek Majd Belzic So bib or Electrified Barbed Wire Fence  Ch el m no Auschwitz-Birkenau Treblinka
    77. 77. AUSCHWITZ
    78. 78. Auschwitz WORK WILL SET YOU FREE
    79. 79.          Started its mass killings operations in January 1940 and continued until 1943. 2 million Jews were killed a Auschwitz back in it’s day. The Auschwitz concentration camp complex consisted of three main camps, all of which where designed to kill mass amounts of Jews at once... The SS authorities established three main camps: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (also called Auschwitz-Birkenau) and Auschwitz III (also called Auschwitz-Monowitz) in October 1942 . In November 1943, the SS decreed that Auschwitz-Birkenau and Auschwitz-Monowitz would become independent concentration camps. In November 1944, Auschwitz II was reunified with Auschwitz I. had 4 gas chambers/crematories by 1943 mass killings with Zyklon B gas recorded 12,000 kills in one day
    80. 80. Auschwitz I had a gas chamber crematorium. SS engineers constructed an improvised gas chamber in the basement of the prison Block 11. Later a three larger, permanent gas chamber was constructed as part of the original crematorium in a separate building outside the prisoner compound. At Auschwitz I, SS physicians carried out medical experiments in the hospital, Barrack (Block) 10. The physicians was SS Captain Dr. Josef Mengele. Between the crematorium and the medical-experiments barrack stood the "Black Wall," where SS guards executed thousands of prisoners.
    81. 81. Nazi Medical Experiments  The Nazi doctors were infamous for performing cruel medical experiments on innocent people in the name of science, when in fact many of these experiments were not beneficial to the medical field at all. Many twisted the Hippocratic Oath to make it seem like what they were doing was not immoral. However, some of these experiments did lead to new medical discoveries. But did these discoveries justify the horrible treatment of innocent people?
    82. 82. •Josef was born in the Bavarian village in Gunzburg Germany. •Josef’s father, Karl, ran a plant that made and manufactured farming equipment. •Josef’s mother Walburga, had a terrible temper and was prone to physically disciplining her three sons and even the workers in her husband’s factory. •Walburga had complete control over the household and ruled it with an iron fist •Had two brothers, Karl and Alois. •Josef was the eldest of the three. •In 1926 he was diagnosed with osteomyelitis. •In 1935 he received PhD from the University of Munich. •In May of 1938 Mengele was admitted into the SS. •July of 1939 married Irene Schoenbein. • May 30, 1943 he arrived at Auschwitz
    83. 83. •In grade school, Josef was never at the top of his class, but he did well and was ambitious. •Josef’s father wanted him to inherit the factory, but Josef wanted to go to school to become a doctor. •In 1930 Josef graduated form Gunzburg High School and passes the preliminary test that allowed him to enter college. •Josef was then accepted into the University of Munich where he majored in philosophy and medicine. •While studying at Munich, Mengele heard his first Hitler speech and was then affiliated with the Nazi party. •Josef saw Hitler’s movement as a chance for him to advance his career and gain the fame and respect he believed he deserved and had earned. After joining the “Steel Helmets”, Mengele then began to study anthropology and paleontology as well as medicine. Josef attended lectures of Dr. Ernst Rudin who believed in the theory of “unworthy life” which, simply put, was that some lives were not worth living and undeserved. It was at these lectures that Mengele decided he wanted to help with the purification of the German race.
    84. 84. Mengele believed that twins held the secrets to things like genetics and heredity. Concentration camps seemed like a great place for him to find these twin “specimens”.At selection twins where constantly searched for. •Mengele was a constant presence at selection,even when it wasn’t his day. No twins could be missed coming off the trains. •Twins weren’t the only people Mengele took an interest in. He also had his men look for dwarfs, giants and people with other odd genetic disorders •If twins were found they were immediately moved while everyone else was sent to their deaths.(if the twins were real young the mother would sometimes accompany them) (Out of the 3 thousand twins found only about 200 survived)
    85. 85. •When the twins were found, they were taken away from their parents. •After the twins had been taken from their parents, they were taken to the showers. •Since they were "Mengele's children," they were treated differently than other prisoners. Besides the obvious, suffering through medical experiments •The twins were often allowed to keep their hair and allowed to keep their own clothes. •The twins were then tattooed. They were given a number from a special sequence •They were then taken to the twin's barracks where they were required to fill out a form. •Each morning, life for the twins began at six o'clock. The twins were required to report for roll call in front of their barracks no matter what the weather. After roll call, they ate a small breakfast. Then each morning, Mengele would appear for an inspection. •Conditions for the twins were one of the best in Auschwitz, until the trucks came to take them to the experiments. •It was estimated that approximately ten cubic centimeters of blood was drawn daily. Besides having blood drawn, the twins were to undergo various medical experiments. Mengele kept his exact reasoning for his experiments a secret. Many of the twins that he experimented on weren't sure for what purpose the experiments were for nor what exactly what was being injected or done to
    86. 86. • • • • • Freezing / Hypothermia Genetics Infectious Diseases Interrogation and Torture Killing / Genocide • • • • • High Altitude Pharmacological Sterilization Surgery Traumatic Injuries - Live dissection of a one year old
    87. 87. Twin Experimentation      1,500 sets of twins collected at Birkenau to develop a theory of heredity and relation between disease, racial types, and racial interbreeding He wanted to discover the genetic key to creating an “Aryan” One twin was a control and the other one was experimented on They were called “Mengele’s Children” Wanted to find a way so that all Aryan women could assuredly give birth to twins who were sure to be blonde and blue-eyed
    88. 88. Life of Twins Cont.        Twins had blood drawn everyday Blood transfusions of blood from 1 twin to another Tried to fabricate blue eyes with chemicals Injected Typhus and Tuberculosis After one twin dies, the other was killed to examine and compare Performed surgeries without anesthesia including organ removal, castration, and amputations Autopsies were considered the final experiment
    89. 89. Sterilization       Conducted at Auschwitz and Ravensbruck by Dr. Carl Clamber. Tried to develop a method of sterilization for mass amounts of people with little time or effort. Some were injected with solutions of iodine and silver nitrate. (Caused side effects including various types of cancers.) Other methods included castration, injections, or invasive surgeries with no anesthesia. Radiation became the fastest, most effective way to sterilize. People were brought into rooms and asked to fill out forms which only took a few minutes. In this time, the people were sterilized. Severe radiation burns occurred. They did this to develop and efficient way to keep the non-Aryan race from reproducing.
    90. 90. Infectious Disease Experiments Diseases like Typhus, Jaundice and Malaria were injected into healthy prisoners. Doctors would then try to find a cure that could help German soldiers who were infected with these diseases.
    91. 91. Freezing Experiments       Tried to simulate the conditions the military was facing on the eastern front Dr. Sigmund Rasher conducted the experiments at Birkenau, Dachau, and Auschwitz Put the victims in ice baths, or put them outside naked in sub zero temperatures First, they measured how long it took to freeze the victims to death Second, they tested ways of resuscitating the victims These included extremely hot sun lamps, injecting boiling water into their organs, and giving them warm baths
    92. 92. Sea Water Experiments Many German soldiers did not have access to fresh water while they were on the field. To solve this issue thet wanted to find a way to make sea water drinkable. Victims of these experiments were deprived of food and only given chemically processed water. As a result, victims experienced intense pain and internal damage.
    93. 93. High Altitude Experiments High altitude experiments were done to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes. Victims were placed in lowpressure chambers that could mimic conditions of altitudes up to 66 000 ft. Eventually, the lack of oxygen in these chambers would cause the victims brain and lungs to swell, resulting in death.
    94. 94. Battle Wound Imitations Doctors wanted to find the best possible treatment for soldiers suffering from battle wounds. Victims were inflicted with wounds so deep that the bone was showing. From there, doctors inserted shrapnel into the wound and let infection take place. Pieces of glass, shards of wood, dirt and bacteria were rubbed into the wound to further aggravate it and better simulate a real battle wound. Doctors would experiment with different ‘solutions’ which often only made things worse by causing intense pain and even death.
    95. 95. Testing of Drugs     Infected victims with malaria, then tested multiple drugs to find an immunization or treatment Most patients died either from the disease or from complications from the drugs Sulfonamide was tested as a cure for tetanus Tested at Dachau Concentration Camp Poison Researchers at Buchenwald concentration camp developed a method of individual execution by injecting Russian prisoners with phenol and cyanide. Experimenters also tested various poisons on the human body by secreting noxious chemicals in prisoners' food or shooting inmates with poison bullets. Victims who did not die during these experiments were killed to allow the experimenters to perform autopsies
    96. 96. Transplantation     Tested at Ravensbruck concentration camp Experiments done of the transplantation of nerves, bones, and muscle No anesthesia was used Also experimented with nerve, bone, and muscle regeneration
    97. 97.  Mengele sent hundreds of thousands of Jews to the gas chambers.   Men, women, children, babies. One account shows the details of a gruesome act performed by Mengele.  A mother didn’t want to separate from her daughter so he sent the whole group he was sent to the gas chambers.
    98. 98. After Auschwitz The SS abandoned the Auschwitz camp on January 27, 1945, and Mengele transferred to Gross Rosen camp in Lower Silesia, again working as camp physician.  The unit hurried west to avoid being captured by the Soviets and were taken as prisoners of war by the Americans.  Mengele, initially registered under his own name, was released in June 1945 with papers giving his name as "Fritz Hollmann". 
    99. 99.   After he ran from Germany to South America he lived for 35 years under many different aliases. He eventually died in 1979.  He had a stroke while swimming in the ocean.
    100. 100.     During the second World War, Nazi human experimentation occurred in Germany. At war's conclusion, 23 Nazi doctors and scientists were tried for the murder of concentration camp inmates who were used as research subjects. Of the 23 professionals tried at Nuremberg, 15 were convicted. Seven of them were condemned to death by hanging and eight received prison sentences from 10 years to life. Nuremberg Trial
    101. 101.      AUSCHWITZ I    Auschwitz I, the main camp, was the first camp established near Oswiecim. It’s Construction began in May 1940 in an abandoned Polish army artillery barracks. During the first year of the camp’s existence, the SS and police cleared a zone of approximately 40 square kilometers (15.44 square miles) as a “development zone” reserved for the gas chambers. The first prisoners at Auschwitz included German prisoners transferred from  othe concentration camps in Germany. Auschwitz I was constructed to serve three purposes: 1) to incarcerate real and perceived enemies of the Nazi regime and the German occupation authorities in Poland for an indefinite period of time; 2) to have forced laborers for deployment. 3) to serve as a site to physically eliminate small, targeted groups of the population whose death was determined by the SS and police.
    102. 102.    AUSCHWITZ II    Construction of Auschwitz II also known as Auschwitz-Birkenau, began in October 1941. Of the three camps, Auschwitz-Birkenau camp had the largest total prisoner population. It was divided into more than a dozen sections separated by electrified barbed-wire fences      The camp included sections for women and men Auschwitz-Birkenau also contained the facilities for a killing center. It played a central role in the German plan to kill the Jews of Europe. During the summer and autumn of 1941, Zyklon B gas was introduced into the German concentration camp system as a means for murder. The "success" of these experiments led to the adoption of Zyklon B for all the gas chambers at the Auschwitz complex. Four large crematorium buildings were constructed between March and June 1943. Each had three components: a disrobing area, a large gas chamber, and crematorium ovens. The SS continued gassing operations at Auschwitz-Birkenau until November 1944.
    103. 103. AUSCHWITZ III Auschwitz III, also called Buna or Monowitz, was established in October 1942 to house prisoners. From May 1941 until October 1942, the SS had transported prisoners from Auschwitz I to the “Buna Detachment,” at first on foot and later by rail. Auschwitz III also had a so-called Labor Education Camp for nonJewish prisoners who were perceived to have violated Germanimposed labor discipline.
    104. 104. AUSCHWITZ SUBCAMPS Between 1942 and 1945, Auschwitz established 39 subcamps. Some of them were established within the officially designated “development” zone, including Budy, Rajsko, Tschechowitz, Harmense, and Babitz. Others, such as Blechhammer, Gleiwitz, Althammer, Fürstengrube, Laurahuette, and Eintrachthuette. In general the subcamps produced or processed agricultural. Auschwitz inmates were employed on huge farms, including the experimental agricultural station at Rajsko. They were also forced to work in coal mines, in stone quarries, in fisheries, and especially in armaments industries such as the SS-owned German Equipment Works (established in 1941). Periodically, prisoners underwent selection. If the SS judged them too weak or sick to continue working, they were transported to AuschwitzBirkenau and then killed. Prisoners selected for forced labor were registered and tattooed with identification numbers on their left arms in Auschwitz I. They were then assigned to forced labor at the main camp or elsewhere in the complex, including the subcamps.
    105. 105. DEPORTATIONS TO AUSCHWITZ Trains arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau frequently with transports of Jews from virtually every country in Europe. These transports arrived from 1942 to the end of summer 1944. The breakdown of deportations from individual countries, given in approximate figures, is: Hungary: 426,000 Poland: 300,000 France: 69,000 Netherlands: 60,000 Greece: 55,000 Bohemia and Moravia: 46,000 Slovakia: 27,000 Belgium: 25,000 Yugoslavia: 10,000 Italy: 7,500 Norway: 690 other (including concentration camps): 34,000.
    106. 106. the role of Auschwitz-Birkenau as an instrument in the German plan to murder the Jews of Europe achieved its highest effectiveness. Between late April and early July 1944, approximately 440,000 Hungarian Jews were deported, around 426,000 of them to Auschwitz. The SS sent approximately 320,000 of them directly to the gas chambers in Auschwitz-Birkenau and deployed approximately 110,000 at forced labor in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. The SS authorities transferred many of these Hungarian Jewish forced laborers within weeks of their arrival in Auschwitz to other concentration camps in Germany and Austria. In total, approximately 1.1 million Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
    107. 107. SS and police authorities deported approximately 200,000 other victims to Auschwitz, including: 140,000-150,000non-Jewish Poles 23,000 Roma and Sinti (Gypsies) 15,000Soviet prisoners of war 25,000 others (Soviet civilians, Lithuanians, Czechs, French, Yugoslavs, Germans, Austrians, and Italians). New arrivals at Auschwitz-Birkenau underwent selection. The SS staff determined the majority to be unfit for forced labor and sent them immediately to the gas chambers, which were disguised as shower installations to mislead the victims. The belongings of those gassed were confiscated and sold for profits. At least 1,960,000 Jews were killed in Auschwitz.
    108. 108. Other victims included approximately: 74,000 Poles 21,000 Roma (Gypsies) 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war 10,000-15,000 members of other nationalities (Soviet civilians, Czechs, Yugoslavs, French, Germans, and Austrians). “On October 7, 1944, several hundred prisoners assigned to Crematorium IV at Auschwitz-Birkenau rebelled after learning that they were going to be killed. During the uprising, the prisoners killed three guards and blew up the crematorium and adjacent gas chamber. The prisoners used explosives smuggled into the camp by Jewish women who had been assigned to forced labor in a nearby armaments factory. The Germans crushed the revolt and killed almost all of the prisoners involved in the rebellion”. Gassing operations continued, however, until November 1944, at which time the SS, on orders from Himmler, disabled the gas chambers that still functioned. The SS destroyed the remaining gassing installations as Soviet forces approached in January 1945.
    109. 109. THE LIBERATION OF AUSCHWITZ In mid-January 1945, as Soviet forces approached the Auschwitz concentration camp complex, the SS began evacuating Auschwitz and all its subcamps. SS units forced 60,000 prisoners to march from the Auschwitz camp system. Thousands had been killed in the camps in the days before these death marches began. Tens of thousands of prisoners, mostly Jews, were forced to march either northwest for 30 miles to Gliwice. SS guards shot anyone who fell behind or could not continue. Prisoners also suffered from the cold weather, starvation, and exposure on these marches. At least 3,000 prisoners died on route to Gliwice alone; possibly as many as 15,000 prisoners died during the evacuation marches from Auschwitz and the subcamps.
    110. 110. Upon arrival in Gliwice and Wodzislaw, the prisoners were put on unheated freight trains and transported to concentration camps in Germany. The rail journey lasted for days. Without food, water, shelter, or blankets, many prisoners died on the way. In late January 1945, SS forced 4,000 prisoners to evacuate Blechhammer, a subcamp of Auschwitz-Monowitz, on foot. The SS murdered about 800 prisoners during the march to the GrossRosen concentration camp. SS officials also killed as many as 200 prisoners left behind in Blechhammer as a result of illness or successful attempts to hide. On January 27, 1945, the Soviet army entered Auschwitz, Birkenau, and Monowitz and liberated around 7,000 prisoners, most of whom were ill and dying. It is estimated that the SS and police deported at a minimum 1.3 million people to Auschwitz complex between 1940 and 1945.
    111. 111. those who were 'selected' (chosen) as fit for work were used as slave laborers. The rest were gassed as soon as practical. Kids under 15 (sometimes 14), visibly pregnant women and the elderly were gassed as unfit for work. This was standard procedure. Those considered fit for work were registered and tattooed with a number and then sent to forced labour sections of the camp, where they had to do heavy manual labour on grossly insufficient food. Most women, children, and elderly people were told they were going to the "showers" to be cleansed of lice, but, they were gassed and cremated as soon as possible. Healthy adult men and women healthy were worked until they were unable to do any more back breaking slave labor, then they were gassed and cremated, and replaced by new slave labor. A small number of Jews were used for "medical experiments".
    112. 112. Children who were transported to Auschwitz      From all occupied areas, children were deported to Auschwitz since 1942. Small kids were ususally killed immediately because they were too young to work. Mothers who held their babies in their arms were gassed together with the children. A child made a mother look like "unable to work". If the mother was seen as "able to work" she would be sent to the camp. Families could only stay together in the gypsy camp Boys, which survived the selection, were first assigned to work as masons at the building of the crematories. It was prohibited to drink water in the camp because of its contamination. Nevertheless, the thirsty children drank it and thus, were exposed to all diseases raging in the camp.
    113. 113. All trees at Auschwitz were planted after WWII Roll Call each morning…. sometimes the prisoners would have to stand for hours while the SS got an accurate count at the sentry station.
    114. 114. Entrance to 3’ X 3’ X 5’ special cell blocks. Nazis would cram four prisoners into one cell at a single time No way to sit or lay down. Would stand for 10 hours, then go out and work in the fields all day.
    115. 115. Blok Smierci: Camp Court and SS Torture Headquarters
    116. 116. The Black Wall: Execution Firing Squad outside of Blok Smierci
    117. 117. •The photo is of the entrance into the crematorium at the Auschwitz I concentration camp complex. • This building had been a former Polish Army bunker that the Germans converted into a crematorium. •The inside of the building was destroyed by the Nazis before they evacuated the camp as the Soviet Army was closing in.  
    118. 118. •The photo is of the hanging gallows at the Auschwitz 1 Concentration camp complex. The SS conducted public hangings on these gallows that the prisoners were forced to watch. • These hangings were used as an act of intimidation. •The largest mass hanging on these gallows occurred on July 19, 1943 when 12 Polish men were hung at the same time. They were accused of helping 3 prisoners escape and for maintaining contact with the outside world. 
    119. 119. SOBIBOR
    120. 120. The Camp Location:  Near the Sobibor village  Deeply forested and swampy area  High fence and wires  Hidden completely from view Camp Areas:  Administration (offices and barracks)  Reception (belongings)  Killing (gas chamber) Percentage of Jews deported to Sobibor
    121. 121. SOBIBOR      •   Sobibor was the second death camp constructed. In March 1942 a new railroad spur was built, which ended at an earthen ramp, the ramp was opposite the station building.   The camp was in the form of a 400 x 600m rectangle, surrounded by a 3m high double barbed-wire fence, partially interwoven with pine branches to prevent observation from the outside. Along the fence and in the corners of the camp were wooden garde towers. Each of the four camp areas was individually fenced in. Unlike the death camp at Belzec, the SS men lived inside the camp area. The three gas chambers were inside a brick building - individual chambers were square shaped, 4 x 4m and had a capacity of 160 – 180 persons. Each gas chamber was entered through a small door. Outside the building was an annex in which a motor produced the deadly carbon monoxide gas, water pipes conducted the gas to the gas chambers.
    122. 122. • • • MAY 1942 300 JEWS AND SOVIET try to excape ONLY 50 LIVE GAS CHAMBERS SHUT DOWN AFTER ESCAPE How the extermination process operated: “Before the Jews undressed they were told that they would be sent to work. But before this they would have to take baths. To prevent the spread of diseases. After undressing, the Jews were taken through the ‘tube,’ by an SS man. After the Jews had entered the gas chambers, the Ukrainians closed the doors, the motor was switched on. In thirty minits they were ded. After the gassing, the doors were opened and the corpses were removed by a group of Jewish slave workers.” The slave workers who had to carry out these duties in the extermination process were selected from the transports. During the first phase of the killing operations in Sobibor, from the 5 May until the end of July 1942.
    123. 123. CHELMNO
    124. 124. CHELMNO he village of Chelmno (Ger.: Kulmhof) is located about west central Poland. SS and police authorities established the Chelmno killing center in order to annihilate the Jewish population of the Wartheland. It was the first stationary facility where poison gas was used for mass murder of Jews. The SS and police began killing operations at Chelmno on December 8, 1941.
    125. 125. Gas Trucks Any victims found to be still alive as the corpses were being unloaded were shot by SS and police officials on duty at the forest camp. These were vehicles packed with Jews, handicaps, Gypsies etc. and they were gassed with carbon monoxide which resulted in suffocation. Gas trucks were particularly used at Chelmno extermination camp. There were 3 gas trucks used in Chelmno, Poland. Once the victims suffocated, the driver would take them to the forest camp (Waldlager) where the corpses were buried in the graves.This procedure happened on a daily basis from December 8, 1941 to the spring of 1943. 
    126. 126. DEPORTATIONS TO CHELMNO The SS and police conducted killing operations in Chelmno from December 8, 1941, until March 1943 and then again for a brief period in June-July 1944 in the forest camp. From early December 1941 until mid-January 1942, the SS and police deported Jews by truck from nearby towns and villages. Other victims murdered at the Chelmno killing center included: 5,000 Gypsies) In March 1943, the ss shot the last Jewish forced laborers. And destroyed the gas chamber In June 1944, however, the Germans renewed deportations to Chelmno to facilitate. The SS returned to the forest camp and supervised résumé the killing operations.
    127. 127. Then they killed the Jews either by asphyxiation in a gas van or by shooting. From mid-July 1944, the SS and police deported the remaining inhabitants Auschwitz-ll. Seven Jews are known to have escaped from Chelmno; all worked in the burial detachment. The killing center was demolished in January 1945.
    128. 128. MAJDANEK
    129. 129. MAJDANEK  Established in 1941 as a POW camp  started its part in the Final Solution in 1942  Jews, Poles and Soviet POW’s sent here •Initially there were two gas chambers using Zyklon-B poison gas housed in a wooden building; later there were replaced by gas chambers in a brick building. •The killing operations began in April 1942 and ended in July 1944. •The estimated number of deaths is 360,000, including Jews, Soviet POWs and Poles. •The original camp was constructed by Jewish POWs.. •It contaned 144 barracks sub divided into five sections •An estimated 130,000 Jews were deported to Majdanek during 194243 as part of the 'Final Solution'. •As with Auschwitz, but unlike the other major killing centers of Sobibor, Belzec, Treblinka, and Chelmno, Majdanek was also a slave labor and prisoner camp.
    130. 130. The Liberation of Majdanek The Majdanek extermination camp was liberated by Soviet troops on July 23, 1944; it was the first of many Nazi concentration camps to be liberated by the Allies. Shortly after Majdanek was liberated, a documentary film was made by the Russians to show horrors that realy went on in the camp. When Majdanek was liberated, it was also the first time that anyone from the Allied countries had actually seen a gas chamber.
    131. 131. BELZEC
    132. 132.       BELZEC The Belzec death camp was located in the southeastern part of the Lublin District, near Belzec. In early 1940, the Germans set up a number of labor camps in the Belzec district, housing workers building the "Otto-Line", a series of building on the border with the Soviet Union. These Jewish labor camps were disbanded in October 1940. It was rebuilt in connection with Aktion Reinhard, specifically for the murder of Jews. Reinhard, In November 1941, SS and police authorities in Lublin District began construction of a killing center. The facility was finished in the late winter of 1942. Belzec began operations on March 17, 1942. The killing center was only 1,620 feet from the Belzec railway station. The Germans divided Belzec into two sections a reception area and a separate area, in which the SS and police could carry out the mass murder hidden from view of victims waiting in the reception area. A narrow enclosed path called the "tube" connected the two sections of the killing center.
    133. 133. •Gassing operations at Belzec began in mid-March 1942. •Trains of 40 to 60 freight cars, with 80 to 100 people crowded into each car, arrived at the Belzec railway station. Twenty freight cars at a time were detached and brought from the station into the camp. •The Jews were forced to undress and run through the "tube," which led directly into gas chambers deceptively labeled as showers. Once the chamber doors were sealed, auxiliary police guards started an engine located outside the building housing the gas chambers. Carbon monoxide was funneled into the gas chambers, killing all those inside. The process was then repeated with deportees in the next 20 freight cars. DISMANTLEMENT OF BELZEC By late spring 1943, Jewish forced laborers cremated the bodies and demolished the canp During June 1943, the job was completed and the Jewish forced laborers were either shot in Belzec or deported to the Sobibor killing center to be gassed. After the Belzec camp was dismantled, the Germans ploughed over the site, built a manor house and planted trees and crops to disguise the area as a farm.
    134. 134. Treblinka
    135. 135. TREBLINKA EXTERMINATION CAMP Treblinka was split into two camps: Treblinka I was a labor camp, and Treblinka II was the extermination camp. While Treblinka I housed the 700 Jews performing the manual labor (which consisted of the work concerning the killing process and tending to the German and Ukrainian staff) Treblinka II housed three gas chambers, until it expanded and three more were constructed. (see picture bottom left) The camp was initially supervised by SS Obersturmfuhrer Imfried Eberl until SS Obersturmfuhrer Franz Stangl replaced him in August 1942 and was run by Germans, Urkranians, and Jewish prisoners. Since its construction in 1942, Jews were brought from all over the Generalgouvernment to Treblinka. The first Jews in Treblinka began with the evacuation of the Warsaw ghetto (see picture bottom right).
    136. 136. Treblinka  The first railway of victims arrived at the Treblinka camp on June 22, 1942, and from that time there was a constant stream of fresh arrivals.  In front of the entrance to the gas-chambers there were usually several people standing by with dogs, who drove the victims in. The victims were driven into the gas-chambers with their hands up, so that as many might be squeezed in as possible, and small children were piled on top.  The actual gassing in the chambers lasted about 15 minutes. After the state of the victims had been observed through a special small window, the doors on the outside of the building were opened, and the corpses, being so closely packed inside, fell out of their own weight on to the ground. Instantly the workers removed them, and prepared the place for the next batch. 10 GAS CHAMBERS LOCATED EAST OF WARSAW BODIES WERE BURNED IN OPEN PITS   
    137. 137. Destruction of Treblinka Human remains          Treblinka survivors Gas chamber remains 1945 photo by Russian and Polish investigators after destruction Mass graves that had been covered up. Photo taken 1945
    138. 138. Death Marches  As the war was coming to a close, it became clear to the Germans that they would lose to the Allies. With Allied troops moving in from the West and the Soviet troops from the East, the Germans tried to move the Holocaust survivors from the concentration camps to the center of Germany.
    139. 139. Death Marches At first, evacuations were carried out by train or boat. But as the Allies reached the borders of Germany, more and more prisoners were evacuated on foot.    Prisoners had no supplies. Many froze to death overnight when they were forced to stop in open fields. Exhaustion and diseases such as typhus killed many others. Most prisoners were frostbitten. Any prisoner who could not keep pace with the march or lagged behind was shot, as was anyone caught trying to escape. Of the 66,000 prisoners evacuated from Auschwitz, 15,000 died on the march to Germany. Prisoners were marched almost to the last day of the war. During the last two months before Germany surrendered, 250,000 prisoners were moved.
    140. 140. Percentage of Jews killed in each country ot AT 6,0 l of a ws 0 Je 0, 00 0
    141. 141. Holocaust Death Toll          Jews: 5.9 Million Soviet POW’s: 2 - 3 Million Ethnic Poles: 1.8 - 2 Million Romani: 220,000 - 1,500,000 Disabled: 200,000 - 250,000 Freemasons: 80,000 Slovenes: 20,000 - 25,000 Homosexuals: 5,000 - 15,000 Jehovah's Witnesses: 2,500 - 5,000
    142. 142.    As the Allies advanced towards Berlin, one by one they discovered the horrors left by the Nazis. First the Soviets at Chelmo, then the Americans at Dachau and many more... “Our troops found sights, sounds, and stenches horrible beyond belief, cruelties so enormous as to be incomprehensible to the normal mind.“ - Colonel William Quinn
    143. 143.  General Eisenhower and officers look over the discovered remains of Nazi extermination.

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