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Riranic

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  • 1. Introduction  The makers of the Titanic were White Star Lines.They needed too make new ships in order to compete with other ships.They needed to build them bigger, faster, and better.Early in 1907, Lord Pirrie of Harland and Wolff, and J. Bruce Ismay discussed plans for 2 giant ocean ships.On July 29, 1908, the plans were told to a party of distinguished guests at Harland & Wolff. On December 16, 1908,they set a date to begin building, then three months later, on March 31, 1909, the making of the Titanic began. The completed Titanic cost about $7,500,000,it took 3 years to be done. The ship weighed 46,328 Registered Tons. Each ton equal 100 cubic feet. Each funnel, these were the things that were on the top of the ship, were large enough to drive two trains through. There were nine decks and it was as high as an eleven story building. There were 3 propellers,2 big engines and 1 liter one, and it had 20 lifeboats. Its total horsepower was 46,000.Its max speed was 24-25 knots or 27 miles per hour, which was a lot in those days and for a ship of that size. The max number of people that could be on the ship was 3,547 .there were only 2,228 aboard.
  • 2. The white star line
  • 3.  The White Star Line was founded in September 1869 as the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company.  By 1875, White Star Line ships, such as the Britannic and Germanic, could attain speeds of more than 16 knots, thus reducing the trip to seven and a half days. The first major ship improvement occurred in 1889 when White Star introduced its first twin-screw steamers, Teutonic and Majestic. This new design housed a new "screw" type mechanics that allowed the ships to travel at rates of 20 knots.  In 1907 Bruce Ismay dined with Lord Pirrie at the Devonshire House in Mayfair, London. After dinner, Pirrie introduced the idea of three massive transatlantic liners, which would far exceed any other vessel afloat in size, speed, and opulence. Bruce Ismay listened impatiently as Lord Pirrie drew up rough plans for the three liners, each one larger than the last. They planned on naming the vessels the Olympic, Titanic, and Gigantic to reflect their impressive size and class.
  • 4. Thomas Andrews was the shipbuilder in charge of the plans for the ocean liner Titanic. He designed the titanic to have enough lifeboats for everyone aboard but there was a big objection in the case of the new-type davits (what the lifeboats hang on.) He designed them so that an extra row of boats could be put in alongside the existing ones, but it was 'over-ruled' by all the other managing directors. They said that it would tack up too much deck space. He was a managing director, of the design department. That desined the Titanic. He had worked his way up, through all the departments, and knew every line of work that was used in building a ship. He also was Lord Pirie's Nephew. Tragically, he was the one who was called upon to give an estimate of how long 'Titanic' would have before she sank.. He was lost in the disaster having spent the precious time left persuading, or trying to persuade people to get into the boats. He wouldn't be saved and refused to board a lifeboat. Thomas Anders
  • 5. J Bruce Ismay  J. Bruce Ismay at the time of the disaster was chairman and managing director of the White Star Line.  He held to blame for the loss of the Titanic by the American press  Although not part of the crew, he may have played a significant role in the Titanic disaster. It is believed that Ismay may have influenced Captain Smith to ignore the ice warnings and steam ahead at full speed. Many are convinced that if Ismay had not been aboard, Captain Smith would have been more cautious and taken the ice warnings more seriously .  Ismay left the Titanic on collapsible boat C and has been extensively criticized for this. The general feeling was that he should have gone down with the ship. He stated that he only boarded the lifeboat because there were no other passengers waiting to get on board. However, witnesses have reported seeing Ismay push and shove others out of the way to get on that lifeboat.
  • 6. Harland and wolf  Between 1900 and 1930, Harland and Wolff was Belfast's biggest employer by a long way. Thousands of people worked in the ship yards.  The Harland and Wolff shipyard was founded in 1862. It was founded by Edward James Harland and Gustav Wilhelm Wolff. At its height, Harland and Wolff and the ship yard in Belfast became one of the biggest ship builders in the world. Harland and Wolff own the world's largest dry dock, which is in Belfast.  Harland Wolff constructed over 70 ships for the White Star Line. The Titanic was the best known.  At the time, Harland and Wolff had a workforce of 15,000 and 3,000 were employed in the construction of the Titanic.  Thomas Andrews became the general manager and head of the draughting company in 1907. On the 29th July 1908 the design of the Titanic was approved by Bruce Ismay. In march 1909 the construction of the Titanic began.
  • 7. Some Interesting Facts about the Titanic • The ship was loaded with only enough lifeboats to hold half of the Titanic passengers. • Among the property reported as lost on the Titanic was over 3,000 bags of mail and a car. • Each first class passenger paid $4,350.00 for a parlor suite ticket. • The ship contained a heated swimming pool, a first for any sailing vessel. • The ship was still so brand new when passengers boarded it on April 10, 1912, the paint was still wet in some spots. • It cost $7,500,000 to build the Titanic. • • It took three years to fully construct the Titanic and 3 million rivets Many of the passengers were not originally suppose to be traveling on the Titanic. Due to a strike, coal was in short supply. This shortage threatened Titanic's maiden voyage and forced the White Star Line to cancel travel on the Oceanic and Adriatic and transfer their passengers and coal stocks to the Titanic.
  • 8. •There were 13 couples on board celebrating their Honeymoons. •Captain Smith was planning to retire after Titanic's maiden voyage •. Coal consumption per day: 825 tons. •Titanic's whistles could be heard from a distance of 11 miles. •The Titanic carried 900 tons of baggage and freight. •The Titanic used 14,000 gallons of drinking water every 24 hours.
  • 9. The construction of TITANIC
  • 10.      Length over all,882 feet 6 in Breath over all, 92 feet 6 in Breadth over boat deck, 94 feet Height from bottom of keel to top of caption house, 105 feet 7 in Height of funnel above casting, 72 feet  The rudder was 78 feet high, weighed about 101 tons and was cast in 6 separate pieces.  Titanic's 3 anchors had a combined weight of 31 tons.      Number of decks, 11 Number of watertight bulkheads, 15 Cure 860 Number of passengers 2,500 Approximate cost 7,500,000
  • 11. •14,000 workers were used to construct it. •The Titanic cost $7.5 million to build. Building the Titanic today (1997) would cost $400 million. The Largest ship in the world (in 1912). Construction Begins  Construction of the Titanic began in 1909. Harland and Wolff had to make alterations to their shipyard (larger piers and gantries) to accommodate the giant liners, the Titanic. It took three years to build the titanic Watertight Compartments Titanic was constructed with sixteen watertight compartments. Each compartment had doors that were designed to close automatically if the water level rose above a certain height. The doors could also be electronically closed from the bridge. Titanic was able to stay afloat if any two compartments or the first four became flooded. Shortly after Titanic hit the iceberg it was revealed that the first six compartments were
  • 12. Workmen stand next to the screws of the RMS Titanic at a shipyard in
  • 13. Boilers There were twenty-four double ended boilers and five single ended boilers which were housed in six boiler rooms. The double ended boilers were 20 feet long, had a diameter of 15 feet 9 inches and contained six coal burning furnaces. The single ended boilers were 11 feet 9 inches long with the same diameter and three furnaces. Smoke and waste gasses were expelled through three funnels. The total horsepower of the engines was 51,000
  • 14. A photograph the Titanic's coal bunkers filled with workers. This image was taken prior to the Titanic's maiden voyage.
  • 15. Funnels Titania's four funnels were constructed away from the site and were then transported to the shipyard for putting on the Titanic. Only three of the funnels were used to expel smoke and waste gasses. The fourth was added to make the ship look more powerful. Propellers Titanic had three propellers which were powered by steam. The rotation of the propellers powered the ship through the sea.
  • 16. One propeller shaft of Titanic
  • 17. Workers leave the Harland & Wolff Shipyard in Belfast, where the Titanic was built. The ship is visible in the background of this 1911 photograph.
  • 18. How the enjoins worked STEP #1: The Bridge On the bridge of the TITANIC there were three telegraphs. Telegraphs are devices with phrases on them such as; ALL AHEAD FULL, AHEAD EASY, ALL STOP, FULL ASTERN, etc. They were used to tell the enjoin room what speed you wanted. So let's say that we wanted the ship to travel at full speed (24knots). We would move the handle on the telegraph until the arrow pointed at ALL AHEAD FULL. STEP #2: The Boiler Room The boiler room would then shovel a certain amount of coal into the furnaces and change the pressure of the boilers. The furnaces heat the water making it into steam, then the steam travels to the engine room.
  • 19. STEP #3: The Reciprocating Engines The engine room is where those four cylinder triple expansion reciprocating engines come into play. The steam is pressurized some more, and then enters the first cylinder of one of the two reciprocating engines. The first cylinder of four is the one with the highest pressure and is called the high pressure cylinder. It is here where the steam is put to work. By passing through the cylinder, the steam must push a piston out of the way. When it does this it loses some of it's pressure, and enters the second intermediate pressure cylinder. The same thing that happened in the high pressure cylinder happens in the intermediate pressure cylinder except with a bit less force. After the intermediate pressure cylinder, the steam enters the first of the two low pressure cylinders. As you may have guessed, the same thing happens here except with even less force. Then the steam enters the second low pressure cylinder, does the same thing. When the steam pushed the piston out of the way, the piston forced a vertical shaft downwards. This shaft was connected to a giant crank, which was connected to a horizontal shaft, which was connected to the propeller. Since the crank was connected to the horizontal shaft, instead of just being pushed down and through the ship, it turned the horizontal shaft. The vertical shaft would swing back and forth in order to let the crank turn. The horizontal shaft was connected to the propeller, so it turned the propeller as it turned. The waste steam used by both reciprocating engines would then travel to the low pressure turbine.
  • 20. STEP #4: The Low Pressure Turbine There was only one turbine on the TITANIC, unlike the two reciprocating engines, and the turbine worked in a much different manner as well. As far as I know, she worked kind of like a paddle wheel. There was a paddle-wheel-type-thing inside of a casing, and the steam would travel through the casing pushing the paddle-wheel-type-thing out of the way and turning it. The turbine was connected to a shaft that was connected to the centre propeller. When the turbine turned, the centre propeller turned with it. Unlike the wing propellers, the centre propeller couldn't turn backwards because the turbine worked only in one direction, unlike the reciprocating engines. STEP #5: The Condenser After the steam passed through the turbine it was sent to the condensers, which would condense the steam back into water for the boilers.
  • 21. Main Generator in Engine Room
  • 22. Lifeboats which carried survivors from the RMS Titanic are uploaded to the RMS Carpathia in the hours after the disaster.
  • 23. Wireless radio room There were two operators in the wireless room. They slept in bunk beds in part of the room. They used a machine and sent messages in morse code. They received messages that there were icebergs about. The rich passengers sent messages to their friends and family using the wireless.
  • 24. Mail Room RMS stands for Royal Mail Ship, indicating that the Titanic was contracted to carry mail. The Titanic had a Post Office and Mail Room deep in the ship on decks F and G. The five postal workers were tasked with sorting much of the mail which had been brought on board the ship, 3,364 bags in total, as well as dealing with any letters which were posted on the ship by passengers and crew.
  • 25. The Titanic departs Belfast on April 2, 1912 for its first sea trial. Eight days later it began its maiden and final voyage.
  • 26. Titanic back then
  • 27. These are pictures of the Titanic on it’s voyage to the open sea. This ship was known to be the largest ship in the world . The person who was responsible for the building of the Titanic was Bruce Ismay. The Titanic was built to be an unsinkable ship although it wasn’t, as we shall see.
  • 28. Titanic kitchen The bridge The Titania's bridge contained all the usual equipment for a ship of that day. The main items of interest were three polished ships telegraphs which showed direction, speed and sent orders to the engine room.
  • 29. Her Pantry
  • 30. The Titanic ship voyage began heading out to sea. The ship’s builders had spared no expense in assuring that the Titanic would not only be the safest ship on the waters, but also the largest ship equipped with only 20 lifeboats. The deck space for the first class passengers would not be taken up by bulky lifeboats.
  • 31. Supplies on the Titanic The chef aboard had made a list of things which he wanted for the maiden voyage, it included among other things: 35,000 fresh eggs and 40 tons of potatoes. Some other things he wanted were 12,000 dinner plates, 40,000 towels of different sorts, 45,000 table napkins, 1,000 oyster forks and 15,000 champagne glasses! The dockers at Southampton were very experienced and fast so they put everything together in less than a week.
  • 32. Food and Beverage Provisions Bacon and ham: 7,500 lbs Cereals: 10,000 lbs Coffee: 2,200 lbs Condensed milk: 600 gals Flour: 200 barrels Fresh asparagus: 800 bundles Fresh butter: 6,000 lbs Fresh cream: 1,200 qts Fresh eggs: 40,000 Fresh fish: 11,000 lbs Fresh green peas: 2,250 lbs Fresh meat: 75,000 lbs Fresh milk: 1,500 gals Grapefruit: 50 boxes Grapes: 1,000 lbs Ice Cream: 1,750 qts Jams and marmalades: 1,120 lbs Lemons: 50 boxes (16,000) Lettuce: 7,000 heads Onions: 3,500 lbs Oranges: 180 boxes (36,000) Potatoes: 40 tons Poultry and game: 25,000 lbs Rice,dried beans, etc: 10,000 lbs Salt and dried fish: 4000 lbs Sausages: 2,500 lbs Sugar: 10,000 lbs Sweetbreads: 1,000 Tea: 800 lbs Tomatoes: 2.75 tons Beer and stout: 20,000 bottles Mineral waters: 15,000 bottles Spirits: 850 bottles Wines: 1,500 bottles
  • 33. Tableware, Glassware and Cutlery Asparagus tongs: 400 Beef tea cups: 3,000 Beef tea dishes: 3,000 Breakfast cups: 4,500 Breakfast plates: 2,500 Breakfast saucers: 4,500 Butter dishes: 400 Butter knives: 400 Celery glasses: 300 Champagne glasses: 1,500 Claret jugs: 300 Cocktail glasses: 1,500 Coffee cups: 1,500 Coffee pots: 1,200 Coffee saucers: 1,500 Cream jugs: 1,000 Crystal dishes: 1,500 Cut glass tumblers: 8,000 Dessert plates: 2,000 Dessert spoons: 3,000 Dinner forks: 8,000 Dinner plates: 12,000 Dinner spoons: 5,000 Egg spoons: 2,000 Entrée dishes: 400 Finger bowls: 1,000 Fish forks: 1,500 Fish knives: 1,500 Flower vases: 500 Fruit dishes: 400 Fruit forks: 1,500 Fruit knives: 1,500 Grape scissors: 100 Ice cream plates: 5,500 Liquor glasses: 1,200 Meat dishes: 400 Mustard spoons: 1,500 Nut crackers: 300 Oyster forks: 1,000 Pie dishes: 1,200 Pudding dishes: 1,200 Salad bowls: 500 Salt shakers: 2,000 Salt spoons: 1,500 Soufflé dishes: 1,500 Soup plates: 4,500 Sugar basins: 400 Sugar tongs: 400 Table & dessert knives: 8,000 Tea cups: 3,000 Tea pots: 1,200 Tea saucers: 3,000 Teaspoons: 6,000 Toast racks: 400 Vegetable dishes: 400 Water bottles: 2,500 Wine glasses: 2,000
  • 34. Aprons: 4,000 Bath towels: 7,500 Bed covers: 3,600 Blankets: 7,500 Cook's cloths: 3,500 Counterpanes: 3,000 Linen Double sheets: 3,000 Eiderdown quilts: 800 Fine towels: 25,000 Glass cloths: 2,000 Lavatory towels: 8,000 Pantry towels: 6,500 Pillow slips: 15,000 Roller Towels: 3,500 Single sheets: 15,000 Table cloths: 6,000 Table napkins: 45,000 Miscellaneous items: 40,000  Around the time of the Titanic launch there was a shortage of coal so they hade to cansel ships and transfor there passengers over to the Titanic. So that they could the coal from the other ships on the Titanic madin voige.
  • 35. Boarding the Titanic •The boarding for first class passengers is quite a different process than for those destined for steerage. •Wealthy people enjoyed lavish accommodations, fine food, recreation, and breathtaking views of the ocean. •Second class and steerages passengers were boarded below decks, often in cramped quarters. Many were immigrants hoping to begin a new life in America.
  • 36. On board the Titanic……. •There were over 2000 people aboard the Titanic, some very rich and some quite poor. •If you travelled on RMS Titanic, you could stay in either first, second or third class. •First class passengers were very wealthy and stayed at the top of the boat. •Second class passengers had some money and stayed in the middle of the boat. •Third class passengers were poor and stayed at the bottom of the Titanic.
  • 37. Titanic first class was the superror class What they paid for their passage depended on the size of suite or cabin in which they travelled. Some chose to book suites which contained private dining and living areas as well as bedrooms for themselves and their maids . Prices range from about £260 to £60= about 50,000 in todays money Second Class on the Titanic In second class were those who had achieved success and money through work such as , miners, clerks and teacher’s. Fares ranged from £13 to £79.= 690 in todays money Third Class on the Titanic Third class tended to be families emigrating to the United States from Sweden, Ireland and England. In many cases they had sold all they had to afford the passage on Titanic and to allow them a little savings to get started in America. Within third class there were different standards of accommodation. The average price for a ticket was around £7 although many were travelling on family tickets costing from £25 to £40 = 450 in todays money
  • 38. What passengers did for fun  Enjoy an 11 cores meal in main dining room, chef Parisian, Parisian and the café Verandah  They could dance in the ball room  Read a book in the library  Ride the elevators  Exercise in the gymnasium  Swim in the heated pool,  There was marvelous entertainment provided to the first class passengers.  Tack a stroll on deck with friends  Enjoy a light meal in the smoke room  Or talk with friends in the reception room  For the Second Class passengers there was a library, a smoking room, a dining room, and an elevator.  For the Third Class passengers there was a smoking room, dining saloons, and a general room.
  • 39.  Life abord the titanic class,children was for life on the Titanic Whether traveling in first, second or third a thrilling experience for children of all ages.  First class was by far the most luxurious and priveliged class on board the Titanic, and the few children who sailed the seas in such comfort were lucky indeed.  In first class, the possibilities were just endless. The stately decks was the perfect places for first and second class children to roam about.  Deck Quoites, a game in which children threw circles of ropes at a marked place on the deck,  One of the first-class verandah cafes was used as a playroom by the children,  Second class, while not quite as lavish as first, still provided many opportunities for children to enjoy themselves. •children were not allowed to go into the gym, swim in the pool, or play in the luxurious restaraunts the first class enjoyed, •The barber-shops, in which men could enjoy a daily lather and shave, also sold dolls and cute little teddies bars.
  • 40. First class Passenger Luxuries  Indoor toilets, showers, bath tubs  50 telephones  4 elevators  Heated indoor swimming pool  reception room  library  Turkish bath  reading and writing rooms  enclosed promenade decks to walk and sit on.            2 libraries 4 restaurants 2 barber shops Gymnasium Squash court Darkroom electricity wireless Marconi system. Parisian Café A La Carte Restaurant tea gardens Titanic was build of the finest materials available. It would cost about $400 million to build it today.
  • 41. The Titania's defining element of luxury and grace was the spectacular Grand Staircase. It led First Class passengers into the heart of shipboard society where the rich and richer mingled before dinner. Overhead a magnificent glass dome reflected light off oak wall paneling and elaborate railings and iron scrollwork. Wide, sweeping steps and landings provided a spectacular staging area for guests to make their evening appearances. On the top landing a large carved sculpture of two female figures titled “Honor and Glory Crowning Time,” flanked an ornate clock. A classic cherub statue, holding an electric torch, stood guard at the bottom landing. You will pass both when you walk up the staircase to the First Class stateroom.
  • 42. First class aft staircase  The Aft Grand Staircase was located between the third and fourth funnels and extended down three of here decks. It featured the same oak wood balustrades as the grand stair case staircase and also featured the same style wrought iron dome above the stairs. The only major differences were instead of having an intricately carved clock on the landing it featured a less simple version.
  • 43. The band that played on  An eight-man band led by violinist Wallace Hartley, demonstrated extreme courage by entertaining passengers as Titanic sank. Their music most likely averted panic and made the passengers feel that things were not as bad as they appeared. Some of the witnesses stated that the band played until Titanic slipped beneath the water. None of the eight musicians were employed by the White Star Line. They were simply listed as second class passengers. Because it was cheaper than axually paying them.
  • 44. The Band Members: Brailey, Theodore - Pianist Bricoux, Roger - Cellist Clarke, J. Fred C. Bass Violist Hartley, Wallace Henry Band leader Hume, John (Jock) Law First violinist Krins, George - Violist Taylor, Percy, C. - Cellist Woodward, J. W. Cellist
  • 45. The ship was fantastic. First class passengers could have everything they wanted. hop rS bo u ar B Gymnasium First Class Areas Reception Room Deck First class bathroom
  • 46. The first class passengers on the Titanic were living in the lap of luxury. Some of the richest people in the world were traveling on the Titanic for her maiden voyage. members of the upper-class that included •Politicians •Businessmen •Bankers •professional athletes industrialists and high-ranking military personnel. A first class ticket ranged anywhere from thirty pounds to 870 pounds. In today’s money you could expect to pay an average of $70,000 per first class ticket. The more expensive rooms were a parlor suite and usually had a private promenade deck.
  • 47. Dinning Room Over 500 people could dine in luxury in this immense Jacobean-style dining room, located on D-deck between the second and third funnels. Its placement there was no accident. This location gave first class diners the smoothest ride available onboard Titanic. The floor of the Dining Saloon was laid with linoleum tiles intricately patterned to resemble a Persian carpet. The small tables made for easy conversation between tablemates, an activity no doubt assisted by the superb food, fine wine and comfortable armchairs.
  • 48. In addition to taking meals in the main dining room, first-class passengers could make reservations in the deluxe café’ Parisian located aft on the Bridge Deck.” meals for all classes on Titanic Ordinarily, were included in the price of the passage diners selected from a generous, but fixed menu. However, in the café Parisian Restaurant diners could chose each course separately from a wider selection than that available in the main dining saloon. With this luxury came a price, literally. Passengers had to pay for their meals out of pocket just as in any restaurant on shore and were presented with a bill from a waiter’s pad upon which their menu selections had been written. The Café Parisian captured the style and atmosphere of a sidewalk café in Paris. White Star literature of the time described it as a tastefully decorated café’ in French trellis-work with ivy. The café’s hade large picture windows gave diners a view of the sea while dining - something that had never before been done. The First Class passengers in Café Parisian certainly enjoyed the best of food. On April 14, the menu consisted of oysters, salmon, roast duckling, sirloin of beef, peaches in Chartreuse jelly and chocolate and vanilla éclairs
  • 49. Verandah Café Area The Verandah Café had a distinctly outdoor feeling.  Enormous windows gave an uninterrupted view of the passing ocean, while sliding doors aft opened the room to sea breezes.  Wicker chairs completed the illusion of the conservatory gone to sea. The Verandahs shared a service pantry with the first-class Smoking Room just forward, providing passengers the opportunity to order light meals and drink.  During the Titania's crossing, the starboard Verandah became an informal nursery and playroom for the first-class children.
  • 50. How first class passengers denied The enormous first-class dining room was located on the (D) deck next to the Reception Room . Diners sat in armchairs at tables that sat two, four, or six and ate from fine china. The dining saloon could seat more than 500 at a time. At 6 p.m. dinner hour, it was the place to show off your new sparkling jewelry and fashionable dress you purchased in Paris. Breakfast menu (April 11, 1912): Baked apples; fresh fruit; stewed prunes; Quaker oats; boiled hominy; puffed rice; fresh herring; Finnan haddock; smoked salmon; grilled mutton kidneys and bacon; grilled ham; grilled sausage; lamb chops; vegetable stew; fried, shirred, poached and boiled eggs; plain and tomato omelets to order; sirloin steak and mutton chops to order; mashed, sauté, and jacket potatoes; cold meat; Vienna and Graham rolls; soda and sultan scones; corn bread; buckwheat cakes; black currant conserve; Norborne honey; Oxford marmalade; watercress
  • 51. •Lunch menu (April 14, 1912): Consommé fernier; cookie leekie; fillets of brill; egg a L’Argenteuil; chicken a la Maryland; corned beef; vegetables; dumplings; From the Grill: Grilled mutton chops; mashed, fried, and baked jacket potatoes; custard pudding; apple merinque; pastry; Buffet: Salmon mayonnaise; potted shrimps; Norwegian anchovies; soused herrings; plain and smoked sardines; roast beef; round or spiced beef; veal and ham pie; Virginia and Cumberland ham; Bologna sausage; brawn; galantine of chicken; corned ox tongue; lettuce; beetroot; tomatoes; Cheeses: Cheshire, Stilton, Gorgonzola, Edam, Camembert, Roquefort, St. Ivel, cheddar •Dinner menu (April 14, 1912): Various hors d’oeuvre; oysters; consommé Olga; cream of barley; salmon, mousseline sauce, cucumber; filet mignons Lili; sauté of chicken, Lyonnais; vegetable marrow farcie; lamb, mint sauce; roast duckling, apple sauce; sirloin of beef; chateau potatoes; green peas; creamed carrots; boiled rice; parmentier and boiled new potatoes; punch Romaine; roast squab and cress; cold asparagus vinaigrette; pâté de foie gras; celery; Waldorf pudding; peaches in chartreuse jelly; chocolate and vanilla éclairs; French ice cream
  • 52. Dinning Room in Use 1st Class Palm Court
  • 53. Smoking Room This room was reserved for males. It was paneled in the best mahogany with painted stained glass windows, which could be lighted from behind creating a warm atmosphere. Four large bay windows over looked the promenade deck. The furniture ranged from leather chairs to playing tables. A fireplace stood at the left wall. A revolving door was situated just right of the fireplace, which entered into the airy port side palm court.
  • 54. Writing Room & Lounge •The Writing Room and lounge was was reserved for woman and men. •The walls were decorated in rich oak paneling with intricate carved details. The floor was covered in pink carpet and the large bay windows gave an unbroken view of the sea. The furniture ranged from soft easy chairs to wighting tables. •A grand piano graced one corner of the room
  • 55. The Barber Shop was used not only for cutting hair. There were itms for sail hanging from the ceiling, or on the walls. They sold penknives, banners, dolls, hats, tobacco, ribbons with RMS Titanic embroidered on it. There was one for1st class and one for seckound class too. It also served as a sort of lounge for the maids brought by the passengers. The Barber Shops for 1st class and 2nd class were small. They had a bench on one side, and chairs on the other. The benches were used for waiting while the chairs were used for cutting hair.
  • 56. Titanic elevators Titania's first class passengers were provided with three electric lifts (elevators), complete with lift attendants and comfortable sofas. The lifts were located side by side, immediately in front of the Grand Staircase. Another lift was available for second-class passengers.
  • 57. Titania's first-class cabins and suites were spread over five decks and  located amidships where the Ship’s motion through the waves would  be least felt, and the main staircase and elevators were immediately  adjacent for convenience. The accommodations ranged from singleberth cabins to parlor suites and could be configured to accommodate  anywhere from 689 to 735 first-class passengers.   1st class cabin  
  • 58. These suites contained two bedrooms, a sitting room, and a private bath and lavatory. Every stateroom had electric light and heat. The First-Class cabins were located on Decks A - D. There were 30 state -rooms on the Bridge-Deck (A - Deck). The state rooms were decorated in different styles: Louis Seize, Empire, Adams, Italian Renaissance, Louis Quinze, Louis Quatorze, Georgian, Regency, Queen Anne, Modern Dutch and Old Dutch. The state rooms were of the highest standard and the private promenade decks were very spacious.
  • 59. Double Bedroom Suite Louis XVI Parlour Suite
  • 60.  First class parlour suite  The First Class suites were decorated in various period styles and came equipped with many modern electrical appliances, such as telephones, heaters, steward call bells, table fans and electrical blowers to provide fresh air.  Many of the first class cabins on Titanic had interconnecting doors so that occupants could walk directly from one room to another. This meant, for example, that the master and mistress of the household might occupy the first bedroom, with children in the second, and staff in the third.
  • 61. 1st Class Double Empire Cabin 1st Class Bedroom Suite B60 With Private Drawing Room
  • 62. Stateroom B-64, 1st Class  The four parlor suites (located on B - Deck) on the Titanic were the most expensive accommodation aboard. These suites contained two bedrooms, a sitting room, and a private bath and lavatory. Bruce Ismay, Managing Director of the White Star Line, occupied three of these suites Cabin B-64 on the Titanic's maiden voyage. Every stateroom had electric light and heat.
  • 63. Stateroom Private Prominade 1st Class Suite Sitting Room 1st Class Bathtub
  • 64. Turkish bath’s For a charge of four shillings, or one dollar, First Class passengers could soothe away their aches and pains at the Turkish Baths. This suite had a steam room, a hot room, a temperate room, shampooing rooms, toilets and a cooling room. There was also an ultra-modern innovation - electric beds that applied heat to the body using electric lamps.
  • 65. First class gymnasium, •Titania's gymnasium was a wonderful innovation for an ocean-going liner. It had an electric camel, an electric horse, cycling machines and a rowing machine. •Tickets, priced one shilling •The gymnasium was open for ladies between 9.00 am and noon, and for gentlemen between 2.00 pm and 6.00 pm. Children were allowed in between 1.00 pm and 3.00 pm.
  • 66. 1 Class Passengers st     Very rich and famous people Traveling for vacation or business Titanic Today = very rich, movie stars, famous athletes carried 324 1st class passengers – 201 survived
  • 67. These two passengers were in first class. The man, John Jacob Astor was the richest person on board. J.J. Astor and his wife He was sailing with his wife Madeline, her maid and their dog. He asked if he could go in a lifeboat with his wife but was told that he couldn’t. He did not survive but his wife did. The woman is ‘The unsinkable Molly Brown’ She was called this because she persuaded the crew in charge of her lifeboat to go back and look for any survivors and persuaded the ladies on board that they could row the boat! She survived the disaster and helped lots of people who had lost everything.
  • 68. Second Class Area Library Dinning Room Entrance
  • 69. 2nd Class Aft Staircase
  • 70. 2nd Class Smoking Room 2nd Class Lounge
  • 71. 2 Class Passengers nd   Middle class people on vacation Today = people like us!  Titanic carried 277 2nd class passengers – 118 survived
  • 72. How second passengers denied Second- and third-class passengers on the Titanic had their own dining saloons, where they were served breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Titanic passengers received different food options based on there class ticket, and the second- and third-class passengers had no restaurant options like chef Parisian, and the café Verandah as first-class passengers did. Parisian Second-class dining saloon In the second-class dining saloon, located on (D) deck, diners ate at larger tables, often with strangers. The saloon provided white linen tablecloths and napkins. It could hold 394 diners at a time. The diners sat in swivel chairs.
  • 73. Breakfast menu (April 11, 1912): Fruit; rolled oats; boiled hominy; fresh fish; Yarmouth bloaters; grilled ox kidneys and bacon; American dry hash au gratin; grilled sausage; mashed potatoes; grilled ham and fried eggs; fried potatoes; Vienna and Graham rolls; soda scones; buckwheat cakes; maple syrup; conserve; marmalade; tea; coffee; watercress Lunch menu (April 12, 1912): Pea soup; spaghetti au gratin; corned beef; vegetable dumplings; roast mutton; baked jacket potatoes; roast mutton; roast beef; sausage; ox tongue; pickles; salad; tapioca pudding; apple tart; fresh fruit; cheese; biscuits; coffee Dinner menu (April 14, 1912): This menu was divided into courses:First course: Consommé with tapioca Second course: Baked haddock with sharp sauce; curried chicken and rice; spring lamb with mint sauce; roast turkey with savory cranberry sauce; green peas; puree turnips; boiled rice; boiled and roast potatoes Third course (desserts): Plum pudding; wine jelly; coconut sandwich; American Ice Cream; nuts, assorted; fresh fruit; cheese; biscuit
  • 74. 2nd Class Stateroom 2nd Class Stateroom 2nd Class 2 Person State Room Marble Sinks in Washroom
  • 75. Third Class Area Smoking Room Stair Case Lavatory Dinning Room
  • 76. 3 Class Passengers rd  Mostly immigrants moving to America  Today = there is no third class  There were 706 third class passengers on board- 462 men, 165 women and 79 children.  178 third class passengers survived the disaster- 75 men, 76 women and 27 children Wash Basin in Double Cabin
  • 77. How the third class passengers dined  Third-class dining saloon  In the third-class dining saloon, located in the Middle (F) deck, diners sat at long tables that could seat 20. They hung their hats, coats, and scarves on hooks attached to the walls. The saloon was large and spare. It could seat 473, which means that two seatings were necessary to accommodate all 710 passengers in third class.  The food was hardy and wholesome. Here’s the fare served in the third-class dining saloon on April 14, 1912:  Breakfast: Oatmeal porridge and milk; vegetable stew; fried tripe and onions; bread and butter; marmalade; Swedish bread; tea; coffee  Lunch: Bouillon soup; roast beef and brown gravy; green beans, boiled; potatoes; cabin biscuits; bread; prunes and rice  Dinner: Rabbit pie; baked potatoes; bread and butter; rhubarb and ginger jam; Swedish bread; tea
  • 78. Here are some photos of the Titanic. There are very few photographs of the third class passengers from the Titanic.
  • 79. Where Did These People Live?            Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Belgium Bosnia Bulgaria Canada China Croatia Cuba            Denmark Egypt England Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy            Japan Lebanon Lithuania Mexico Netherlands Norway Peru Poland Portugal Russia Scotland            Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Syria Thailand Turkey Uruguay USA Wales
  • 80. Her decks Promenade Deck: 1st class staterooms; 1st class reading and writing rooms; 1st class lounge; 1st class smoking room; the Verandah Cafe and Palm Court. | Bridge Deck: 1st class suites; two 1st class "millionaire" suites; 1st class à la Carte restaurant; Café Parisien restaurant; 2nd class smoking room. Boat Deck: where the Bridge; radio room; officer's quarters; lifeboats; gymnasium were located
  • 81. Saloon Deck: 1st class dining room; 1st class reception room; 2nd class dining room; 1st and 2nd class galleys (kitchens) and pantries; 1st, 2nd and 3rd class rooms; crew quarters; 1st and 2nd class bakery and butcher shops; hospital. Shelter Deck: 1st class suites; 2nd class library; 3rd class social room; 3rd class smoking room; some crew accommodations; cabins for the maids and servants who accompanied many of the 1st class passengers; 1st class barber shop; Doctor's office; Police office; hatches for loading the ship.
  • 82. Lower Deck: Squash racquet court; Post Office; food freezers and coolers; cargo hold; crew quarters; some 3rd class rooms. Upper Deck: 1st and 2nd class rooms; crew quarters; 2nd class barber shop. Middle Deck: Swimming pool; Turkish bath; 2nd and 3rd class rooms; crew quarters; 3rd class dining room; 3rd class galley; 3rd class bakery.
  • 83. Titanic officers Back row from Left to Right: Herbert McElroy, Charles Lightoller, Herbert Pitman, Joseph Boxhall, Harold Lowe Front row from Left to Right: James Moody, Henry Wilde, Edward Smith, William Murdoch
  • 84. Captain - Edward J Smith Chief Officer - Henry F Wilde First Officer - William M Murdoch Second Officer - Charles Herbert Lightoller Third Officer - Herbert John Pitman Fourth Officer - Joseph Groves Boxhall Fith Officer - Harold Godfrey Sixth Officer - James P Moody Chief Purser - Herbert McElroy Captain Edward Smith was the captain of the Titanic. He, the engineers who had designed the ship, and the officers were sure that she was absolutely safe and unsinkable. He was also retiring after the titanic.
  • 85. What About the Crew?  885 crew members – 212 survived  5 postmen – none survived  8 musicians – none survived  2 radio operators – 1 survived
  • 86. The Deck Crew Titanic’s 66-person deck crew included seven ship’s officers,The medical staff and seeman Engineering Crew The Titanic’s engineering crew was comprised of more than 300 people, including engineers, boiler operators, electricians, firemen, stokers, plumbers, storekeepers, loaders, etc. Together they were responsible for maintaining the engines, generators and other ship’s equipment and keeping them operational. These were the highest-paid members of the Titanic’s crew. They had the necessary education and technical knowledge for operating, maintaining and repairing the ship’s equipment and systems. Service Personnel There were also about 500 members of service personnel aboard the Titanic, including 69 employees of the liner’s luxury restaurant. Five experienced postal clerks also served aboard the Titanic. Postal clerks of sea-going ships were considered a cut above the rest of the crew. They were well-paid and differed from other crew members in that their work had nothing to do with the running of the ship or catering to its passengers.
  • 87. The sinking of the Titanic
  • 88. Ice warnings are coming in from other ships in this area of the north Atlantic. The lookout crew in the crow’s nest have bean warned to watch out fro iceberg- but there binoculars were left behind in Southampton! At 11:40 p.m., you are awoken by string scraping noise. Putting a coat on over your pajamas, you head for the bridge. Caption smith tells you the ship has struck ice and in seriously damaged, but you don’t bereave him. By 12:15 A.M. on April 14 lifeboats, two emergence boats have left the ship. Over 1,500 people remain on aboard. Titanic stern began to rise up out of the ocean. Water is pruning through the open portholes. The ship lights are still on, and the band bravely continues to play on deck. At 12:18 the lights begin to flicker on and off. Rivets been to pop, and the deck planks snap as the ship begins to break in two. The noise is deafening. Once the bow is totally submerged, it finally rips apart from the rest of the ship and launches to the ocean floor. Just a few mints later, you turn your back as Titania's stern slides under water. The caption is last seen on the bridge giving final orders.
  • 89. Fredrick Fleet Twenty-Four year old Fredrick Fleet was the lookout who first sighted the iceberg that sank the Titanic. He left the sea in 1936. He worked for Harland and Wolff's Southampton shipyard during World War II, after which he became a night watchman for the Union Castle Line. As he moved into old age, he sold newspapers on a street corner in Southampton. On January 10, 1965, despondant over his finances and the recent loss of his wife, Fleet took his own life. He was buried at Hollybrook Cemetery, Lordshill, Southampton.
  • 90. At 11.40 p.m. on the 14th of April, everybody on board heard a terrible sound. The Titanic struck an iceberg. The water was incredibly smooth making it difficult to see icebergs ahead because of the lack of white caps at the base of the icebergs. There was no moon that night making it even more difficult to see. The Titanic fired white rockets into the night sky to notify other ships nearby. The rockets were a shock of reality to the Titania's passengers. It was a great panic on board the ship. The first lifeboat, No. 7, was lowered at 12:45 a.m. with 28 people on board. It had a capacity of 65. Most of the other lifeboats left half full: Boat No. 1 left with 12 but had a capacity of 40; No. 3 left with 32 and No. 5 with 41, both had a capacity of 65. One boat, collapsible A, was overturned in the water.
  • 91. Water came down the first class stairs. Outside, there were people letting out cries and screams. The Titanic was completely under water by 2:20 a.m., only three hours after hitting the iceberg. This disaster took place on April 15, 1912.
  • 92. The Titanic was sinking and sinking fast. An SOS was sent out to neighboring ships. The Carpathian picked up the ship’s distress call and radioed back to let the ship’s crew know they were on their way. It would be to late by the time the Carpathian arrived. When they It took 2 hours and 40 minutes for the arrived all that was left of the Titanic to sink. She took more than 1500 Titanic was the scared survivors. lives with her. The last reported position of the Titanic was Latitude 41є46' N, Longitude 50є14' W
  • 93. Icebergs are huge floating pieces of ice, and sometimes they can be as big as a ten-storey building. The main part of an iceberg is below the water and only a small part of it can be seen above. That’s why they are so dangerous.
  • 94. Final moments Of Titanic…………….. Titanic hit the starboard side with the ice berg.
  • 95. The under compartments of the bow started to flood. Due to the flooding the bow commenced to go down causing the stern to rise
  • 96. Yet the later part of the sinking was sort of faster and the golden funnels of Titanic stared to lose one by one while the stern was rising nearly 60 degrees from the ocean level
  • 97. She was out of electrical power and the stress concentration had reached the maximum @ the 2nd expansion joint of the ship which lied in between the 3rd and 4th funnels……. caused the Titanic to splint into two from the 2nd expansion joint right down to the keel of the vessel and the Stern fell back.
  • 98. The Bow submerged completely by pulling down the Stern vertically and then finally detached
  • 99. The Stern floated a couple of minutes perpendicular to the ocean level and then foundered completely leaving no trace of Titanic.
  • 100. The Bow traveled nearly 3km down the Atlantic ocean
  • 101. • There were 6 ice warnings received by Titanic on the day of the collision. They were all ignored by the wireless operator. •On the night of the collision, because the moon was not out, and the water was so still, it was very difficult to see the iceberg. •The iceberg that the Titanic struck was not a very big one. It did not even come up as high as the bridge of the ship. • An iceberg exposes only 1/10th of it's mass above water. With the other 9/10ths of it's mass below water, It makes them impossible to budge. Even with a force of a ship like the Titanic. •The Titanic was traveling 22.5 knots while cruising through iceberg. Just . 5 knot from her maximum speed capability. •The collision occurred at 11:40 P.M. on Sunday, April 14, 1912. Murdoch had ordered the engines reversed which had sealed the Titanic's doom. Like all ships, the Titanic turned more quickly.Had the Titanic proceeded ahead and turned, it is most likely that she would have avoided hitting the iceberg all together.
  • 102. The liner Carpathian arrived at the site of tragedy at 3.30 a.m. on the same day and rescued the people in the lifeboats. Only about 700 passengers of the Titanic survived.
  • 103. Survivors of the sinking of the RMS Titanic rest on the deck of the RMS Carpathia on April 15, 1912.
  • 104. 250 Passengers saved 200 150 100 50 0 first class 2nd class t hird class crue
  • 105. 41% seved lost 59%
  • 106. Wo m chil en a nd dr e n fi rst Sea search fro others Qouts from the new York times article Rule of sea fallowed ly bab rish Pro pe 250 1 up d ck e Pi rs hou er 8 aft Biggest liner plunges to the bottom at 2:20 A.M.
  • 107. The first news of the disaster The first news of the disaster to the Titanic was received by the Marconi wireless station here at 10:25 o’clock last night . The Titanic was first heard giving the distress signal ”C.Q.D” which was answered by a number of ships, including the Carpathian, the Baltic and the Olympic. The Titanic said she hade struck an iceberg and was in immediate need of assistance. At 10:55 o’clock the Titanic reported she was sinking by the head, and at 11:25 o’clock the station here established communication with the Allan liner- Virginian, from Halifax for Liverpool and notified here of the Titanic urgent need of assonants and gave her the Titanic position. The Virginian advised the Marconi station almost immediately that she was proceeding toward the scene of the disaster. At 11:36 o’clock the Titanic informed the Olympic that they were putting the women and children off in boats and instructed the Olympic to have here lifeboats ready to transfer the passengers. The Titanic during all of this time, continued to give out distress signals and to announce here position. The wireless operator seemed absolutely cool and clear- headed. The last signal heard from the Titanic was received at 12:27 A.M.”
  • 108. Fears serious loss of life “We have asked for that report from Capt.. Haddock, and we are expecting a reply at any time. The Carpathian is proceeding to New York direct. We very much fear that there has been serious loss of life, but it is impossible for us to say definitely concerning this sad part of the situation until we are able to reassure ourselves whether or not any of the Titanic passengers are aboard the Allan liners. We are hopeful that the rumors which have reached us by telegraph from hall- fax that there are passengers aboard the virginal and the Persian will prove to be true, and that these vessels will turn up with some passengers. It’s the loss of life that makes this thing so awful. We can replace money, but not the lives lost.” Location of Titanic death bead April 15 the deathbed of the 10 million steamer Titanic, and of probably many who must have been dragged down with her, is two miles, at least, blow the surface of the sea.
  • 109. The ship is long gone, hundreds of people are left struggling in the water. Number of corpse float to the surface. Bits and pieces of wreckage bobbed around them. For those stranded in the sea, there was little hope of surviving even with lifejackets. The water temperature was 20 degrees Fahrenheit and most of the life boats hade rowed away. Some of the seaman in charge of the lifeboats feared they would be engulfed in the suction created when the ship sank.
  • 110.          The Aftermath 1,503 people total died, including passengers and crew. Only 705 people survived. 962 lifeboat seats were required by law. 1,178 lifeboat seats were carried aboard. 2,208 lifeboat seats were needed. One of the first lifeboats to leave the Titanic carried only 28 people; it could have held 64 people. There were 472 lifeboat seats not used. 300 dead bodies were pulled from the sea the next morning. They were found floating in their life-jackets. Many other floating bodies were not found because they had drifted off. The temperature of the Atlantic at the time of sinking was 31 degrees. This temperature was the biggest cause of death among the population. There were many dogs aboard the Titanic. Two of the dogs survived. Charles Joughin was the only person to survive the ice cold Atlantic water...He reportedly had been drinking heavily
  • 111. Why People Died  Not enough lifeboats – Titanic had 20, more than legally required but not enough for everyone on board – Not all lifeboats were full because passengers didn’t believe Titanic would sink  Cold water – 28 degrees = hypothermia  No help nearby – Rescue ships arrived about two hours after Titanic sank
  • 112. The Impact of the Huge Tragedy The impact the tragedy had on the American and British society was huge. There were very wealthy and influential people on board and many male figures were lost leaving behind many widows and orphans.
  • 113.  Titanic Today The Titanic lies 12,600 feet Shoes (over 2.33 miles) at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.  The two pieces of the Titanic lay 1,970 feet apart from one another on the ocean floor.  Because of front section of the Titanic went down nose first, the bow is buried 60 feet below the ocean floor. Bench Dishes
  • 114. Dishes retrieved from the ocean floor stand in sand in a glass case as part of the At the right is the bell from the crow's nest.The bell was rung by seaman Fredrick Fleet to warn that an iceberg was ahead on the ill-fated voyage.
  • 115. Pipes and the captain's bathtub rest in what remains of the captain's cabin in 2003.
  • 116. The propellor of the Titanic rests on the ocean floor.
  • 117. Artifacts from the Wreck Dictionary Skylight Bottles and Glassware Perfume Ring Sink & Shaving Gear Pocket Watch Money
  • 118. Last survivor of the Titanic The last survivor of Titanic was a lady called Milvina Dean. Milvina was just nine weeks old when she was rescued from Titanic and was 97 when she died. Coincidentally she died on the 97 anniversary of Titania's launch. The last Titanic survivor was travelling to America with her mother, father and brother. They were emigrating to Kansas City where her father was going to run a tobacconist’s shop. Milvina’s father, Bertram who was just 25 years old, was lost in Titania's sinking. He had felt the impact of the iceberg and had told his wife to go up on deck with the children. After being brought to New York on Carpathian, the remaining Dean family returned to England. Her mother did not talk about the Titanic disaster until Milvina was 8 years old. Milvina lived in and around Southampton for most of her life and in her later years, she spent much of her time answering letters from Titanic fans around the world, signing autographs and receiving visitors. Milvina died aged 97 in 2009.