MERSEA PhD Research Proposal

1,304 views
1,224 views

Published on

Could our depleted marine environment be restored? What would be involved? Could the problems with persistent oceanic debris cause problems for eons? Are the massive oceanic garbage patches a blessing in disguise as we run low on oil? Is it possible to construct a vessel made in part from this pollution, an enormous vessel that is suitable for marine aquaculture in the deep sea? Its all here folks! :)

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,304
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

MERSEA PhD Research Proposal

  1. 1. PhD ProposalMODELLING OF MEGA STRUCTURE AQUACULTURE VESSEL FOR MARINE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AT SEA
  2. 2. AUTHOR: CHRIS MORTONAUTHORED FOR: O. O. SULAIMAN, PHD, CENG, CMARENG LECTURER OF MARITIMETECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH FELLOW AT UMTFACILITATED BY: UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANUCONTACT: EMAIL: CHRISM@MAKENET.CO.ZA , PHONE +27768587777DATE: 12 SEPTEMBER 2011 Revision 2
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 5 2. Problem/Issues involved ........................................................................................................................... 5 3. Anticipated Issues ...................................................................................................................................... 7 4. Justification ................................................................................................................................................ 7 5. Objectives of Research .............................................................................................................................. 8 5.1 The Engineering of a MERSEA Vessel........................................................................................................ 8 5.2 the Marine Ecosystem Survey Tool Software System .............................................................................. 9 6. Research Results/Outcome ..................................................................................................................... 10 6.1 Anticipated Findings ............................................................................................................................... 10 6.2 Phased and Incremental MARINE AQUACULTURE for the Purposes of Marine ecosystem Restoration 11 7. Methodology ........................................................................................................................................... 11 7.1 Database Design Considerations ............................................................................................................ 12 7.2 Data capture ........................................................................................................................................... 12 7.3 Algorithmic Extraction of Extrapolation of data for use in a marine aquaculture strategy aboard the MERSEA vessel .............................................................................................................................................. 12 8. Research Schedule of Proposed Activities ............................................................................................... 13 9. information on the MERSEA VESSEL........................................................................................................ 15 9.1 Description of MERSEA Vessel ................................................................................................................ 15 9.2 Components of a MERSEA Vessel ........................................................................................................... 16 9.3 Engineering Challenges of The MERSEA Vessel ...................................................................................... 21 9.4 Construction of a MERSEA Vessel ........................................................................................................... 22 9.5 Maintenance of a MERSEA Vessel .......................................................................................................... 23 9.6 Onboard Resources of a MERSEA Vessel ................................................................................................ 24 10. MERSEA Community ........................................................................................................................... 27 10.1 Constitution, Laws and Justice .............................................................................................................. 28 10.2 Economy ............................................................................................................................................... 28 10.3 Population Control ................................................................................................................................ 28
  4. 4. 10.4 Education .............................................................................................................................................. 29 10.5 Health, Disease and Death.................................................................................................................... 29 10.6 Defense ................................................................................................................................................. 2911. Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 3012. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 3113. Contact ................................................................................................................................................ 31
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe research will investigate the modeling of a mega structure aquaculture vessel for marine eco-systemrestoration at sea for the purposes of re-establishment of renewable food resources for human exploitation.The project will research the restoration of biodiversity of a marine environment by using an incrementalecosystem restoration approach that considers the limitations of an existing food web and the species withinthat food web to sustain an exploitable marine food resource for humans. This research aims to show that itmay be possible to devise a long term and incremental aquaculture strategy that can be used to increasebiodiversity and biodensity of marine organisms, and that with a vessel such as MERSEA, that a commerciallyviable aquaculture facility could be used to sustain a renewable food resource.The engineering considerations of MERSEA will be described in detail, including structuralengineering/construction challenges. The proposed aquaculture (mariculture) hardware on board will bedescribed including the different installations for different aspects of mariculture, including some marineaquaculture simulation software to help estimate the species selection based on existing factors within amarine ecosystem. Also to be investigated is the proposed benefits of a mobile deep sea aquaculture vessel,and how such a vessel can relocate in oceans around the world, and how such a vessel can be used for aglobally effective marine ecosystem restoration/sustainable food supply strategy.The Marine Ecosystem Survey Tool (MEST Software Project) will be a definitive result of the researchconducted in this proposal. The MEST Software Project will be an open source software that can be used forfurther development by others in the field of restorative aquaculture, and the algorithms demonstrated in thesoftware will show the mathematical relationships within species populations, in relationship to the maximumcarrying capacity of a particular ecosystem as related to changing environmental conditions. Such softwaremay have other applications for different types of ecosystem restoration, which may apply to restoring nonmarine ecosystems. The theoretical basis for MEST will potentially be applicable to many other scenarios, notlimited just to the MERSEA project. The trademarks of pHp and MySQLThe MEST platform will take advantage of open source technologies such as pHp and MySQL, and run oninexpensive operating systems such as Linux with an Apache webserver installed. Since one of the aims of thisproject is to allow accessible technology for marine restoration, the MEST system will be available to a limitedextent for public perusal of the activities of the MERSEA program as it takes place, via a publically accessiblewebsite, whereby the public may observe the results of an ongoing marine restoration project. 2. PROBLEM/ISSUES INVOLVEDState the problem(s) and/or issue(s) involved, the scientific background of the problems (by citing relevantstudies) and the urgency and the need to research them.The problematic scenario of depleted marine resources poses a great threat to the future of humansustainability on the planet, since for many thousands of years man has relied upon marine resources for foodand recreation. With most of the large shoals of fish extinct, if left to natures own devices, large shoals of fish
  6. 6. could take many hundreds of years to re-establish themselves, provided that man does not continue to exploitrecovering population of fish.Since the fishing the oceans has become increasingly non selective, biodiversity of species is also affected. Theproblem of lessening biodiversity is very problematic from a conservationist’s point of view, since biodiversityis nature’s way of ensuring survival of particular genetically similar species when environmental conditions(climatic/oceanic currents/natural disasters). Biodiversity ensures that the food web is maintained in abalanced way, where natural predation and succession is part of the design of a marine eco-system. Diagram indicating long term rate of decline
  7. 7. Diagram indicating reduction in species diversity of a species list over a period of 30 years Results of a study entitled DEPLETED MARINE RESOURCES: AN APPROACH TO QUANTIFICATION BASED ON THE FAO CAPTURE DATABASE by Luca Garibaldi and John F. Caddy 3. ANTICIPATED ISSUESAn anticipated issue is that since the various different marine environments are different, and that differentspecies will be required in certain areas of the world, the marine ecosystem restoration requirements specificto the location of a restoration project will be different. Since a generic restoration strategy will not always besuitable for a particular environment and the species list of organisms will also need to be adapted. If thespecies list is not adapted, species endemic to a particular area may be threatened to due to the introductionof various ‘foreign’ species. Thusly special care must be taken when applying a generic restoration plan to aspecific marine environment location, in order to ensure the survival of species of organisms endemic to aparticular area of the global ocean. Additionally migratory species of organisms may need specialconsiderations in line with the seasonal requirements for the particular species. The environmentalrequirements of juvenile fish will also need to be considered, since many species of organisms require coastalhabitats in order to propagate successfully. The phased and incremental aquaculture techniques of theMERSEA Vessel will endeavor to meet such requirements of certain migratory species and juvenile fish bysimulating the correct requirements of these organisms when possible. 4. JUSTIFICATIONGive reasons why this research will Help the advancement of science and technology in marine industry.The MERSEA project will investigate some of the effects of lessening biodensity (how many organisms pervolume of ocean) and the effects of lessening biodiversity. For example, in places where overfishing hasdepleted all food resources, particular predator species (such as sharks and marine reptiles/mammals) has alsobeen effected, and as a consequence have also been locally (or globally) extinct. By analysis of an existingmarine ecosystem, to establish population estimates and biodiversity estimates, one could use the research inthis proposal to form a ‘baseline’ starting point to be used to model a marine ecosystem restoration strategy,with the aid of computer simulation (MEST System –see research schedule).The primary aim of the MERSEA research is to establish an open water aquaculture system that can be used torepopulate the ocean, which if left to natures own devices may take many thousands of years. In particular theaims of this research project are to model the following: The engineering of a mega structure vessel, including some investigation and development of new materials and technologies for the building and maintenance of marine craft. The investigation and formulation of a phased and incremental marine ecosystem restoration strategy, using survey data from a currently damaged part of the ocean to formulate algorithms that will calculate how much the ecology of a particular ocean section can support, in terms of biodensity and biodiversity. The objective is to establish a system that can act as a guideline for aquaculture activities in deep sea. The development of a computer software that can be used to record actual survey data and calculate what organisms, and how many organisms aquaculture activities need to produce, in order to restore a self sustaining population of food fish species for exploitation by man once the marine ecosystem has been restored. Additionally the software must be able to estimate the time span of a marine ecosystem restoration activity, in order to make such activities accountable and economically feasible.
  8. 8. The advancement of science and technology as related to GPEM may result in new research avenues as regards to an economically viable mechanism to cleaning up consequences of human activities such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, resulting in possible transformation of plastic pollution into useful commodities such as hydrocarbon fuels, carbon fuel and recycled plastic resources.The importance of this proposal is paramount to securing a sustainable future for humankind in relation to arenewable food source from the sea, the reduction of persistent plastic deposits in the oceanic environmentand restoring s harmonic balance of humankind’s relationship with our planet. In the future, our time ofhistory might not be favorably regarded by our successors on planet Earth if no attempt is made to rectifysome of the problems humankind has caused over the last century. 5. OBJECTIVES OF RESEAR CHThe objective of the research for the MERSEA project is simply to investigate the feasibility of the proposedscheme.5.1 THE ENGINEERING OF A MERSEA VESSELThe objectives of the research will include information about whether the proposed MERSEA Vessel is actuallypossible to build, considering limitations of strength of materials and other factors. The objective of this part ofthe research will be to revise the existing proposed design to fit into engineering constraints of such a massivevessel, in order to provide a realistic design that will not sink or collapse upon itself under normal operatingconditions.The objectives of the research include investigating some of the engineering feasibility of a MERSEA structure,including but not limited to: Structural Engineering Considerations Construction Considerations Buoyancy Considerations Design Considerations Operation ConsiderationsThe research will investigate the possibility of the partial construction of a MERSEA vessel upon a proposedbuilding platform designed to recycle large deposits of oceanic plastic pollution. The Giant Plastic EatingMachine (or GPEM) is a conceptual design for a enormous vehicle that recovers oceanic plastic waste depositsfor the purposes of recycling the pollution into the possible by products of hydrocarbon raw materials,commercially viable recycled plastic and chemically pure elemental carbon, similar to coal. The research willinvestigate the feasibility of partial construction of a MERSEA vessel on a GPEM platform as a possibly costeffective construction strategy that will also have significant benefits to the marine environment.
  9. 9. A proposed outline of a design for a GPEM showing a constructed MERSEA Vessel on the platform5.2 THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM SURVEY TOOL SOFTWARE SYSTEMThe objectives of the MEST system include primarily the provision of aquaculture guidelines to be used byaquaculture technicians to implement the most effective accelerated marine ecosystem restoration strategyfor a particular set of circumstances as relating to the baseline established in the initial survey of a particularmarine ecosystem. The main objective is to provide a distributed computing platform whereby aquaculturetechnicians may enter data, to be stored in a centralized database, which can be analyzed, and algorithmicallymanipulated to provide data for the aquaculture technicians about the effectiveness of aquaculture initiativesbeing undertaken. The system will provide the basis for species lists to be bred, in accordance with the objectsof the generic phased and incremental marine restorative aquaculture initiatives as outlined in this document.MERSEA will aim firstly to look at a certain section of ocean to establish a ‘baseline’ starting point ofbiodiversity and biodensity. The objective of this will be to establish the current state of the oceanic section, inorder to create a marine ecosystem restoration strategy that suits the conditions of that ocean section withthe aim of re-establishing large shoals of fish over time. The research will help develop a generic strategicformula, that can be applied to different sections of the global ocean. The generic strategy will be adjusted tothe conditions of particular section of ocean, whether in the tropics or the poles, together with survey dataadded to the MEST software solution, to provide information that the population of MERSEA can userepopulate any part of the global ocean.Additionally The MERSEA project also aims to use information gathered from aquaculture experiments to helpdesign and formulate algorithms to be used in MEST software. The MEST software will be an open sourcesolution for marine ecosystem restoration, thusly will be a good basis for further work in computer aidecosystem (marine and terrestrial) restoration projects.The objectives of the Marine Ecosystem Survey Tool (MEST) Software System include but are not limited to:
  10. 10. The design of a database that can will be suitable for the collecting and analysis of data recorded by marine organism surveys The development of an algorithm to be used for the calculation of qualitative and quantitative ‘species lists’ that can be applied to the marine aquaculture activities upon a MERSEA Vessel The development of a recursive algorithmic extrapolation of data over a predefined timeline, for the purposes of estimating the maximum carrying capacity of an existing baseline, in order to establish the key milestones of a long term marine ecosystem strategy The development of a reporting mechanism whereby a user may manipulate variables such as species lists and numbers of organisms in those species lists to simulate what the outcome of an intended marine aquaculture activity, in order to estimate the outcome of a specific aquaculture activity. 6. RESEARCH RESULTS/OUTCOMEGive the exact outcome(s) you expect to achieve from your study/research (such as publications,scientific papers, research breakthroughs, solution to some scientific problems, etc.).The results of the research will show that MERSEA is or is not a feasible option to restore marine ecology.Additionally the research results of MERSEA may contribute positively to the advancement of maritimeengineering projects, including the production of at least 3 new materials that can be used in the constructionof marine going craft.I expect as a result of the research into the MERSEA concept to result in scientific papers worthy of publicationconcerning the following possible breakthroughs: Marine Aquaculture technology concerning the rebalancing of marine species, in accordance to the environmental conditions of a certain area of ocean using computer aided calculations. Marine agriculture technology concerning growing coastally adapted food crops at sea, for the provision of food on MERSEA for the population of humans as well as the nutritional needs of organisms grown on board. Materials science breakthroughs concerning materials that are suitable for the construction and maintenance of marine craft. Such materials may include, but are not limited to, Hydroactive Fibrous Foam Polymer (HFFP) as a material to lessen the chance of vessels sinking, FiberCast composite hull material that is suitably strong and corrosion resistant for the partial construction of hulls.Additional and further studies may result as a result of this PhD study, namely: proposed advantages study proposed timescale to achieve a certain level of bio-diversity and bio density that can sustain a renewable food supply for humans proposed study of economic consequences proposed study of environmental impact proposed study into long term sustainability proposed study into the feasibility of construction of GPEM6.1 ANTICIPATED FINDINGSThe outcome of the research will show that a phased and incremental marine aquaculture ecosystemrestoration strategy can or cannot be applied to assist the repopulation of the oceans. The aquacultureapproach established by this research for MERSEA will allow a basis for further research into restorative
  11. 11. aquaculture. The findings may show that this kind of open water/deep sea aqua culture may not have to benecessarily facilitated on a MERSEA Vessel, and that the research conducted in this PhD may indicate thatcertain aquaculture may be possible using smaller and more numerous vessels to achieve the requiredrestorative functions.6.2 PHASED AND INCREMENTAL MARINE AQUACULTURE FOR THE PURPOSES OFMARINE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATIONUpon successful conclusion of this PhD study the guidelines for a phased and incremental marine aquaculturestrategy for the purposes of repopulating the ocean with large shoals of fish will be established. Some organisms found in the rock pools of the North Coast, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 7. METHODOLOGYThe research methodology will initially involve the collection of data from a deep sea marine ecological survey,this data will be used to simulate deep sea conditions in a controlled environment, upon which scientificexperimentation may take place. The scientific experimentation will attempt to analyze which indictors aremost relevant for the re-establishment of a marine ecosystem, and various methodologies will be used tostudy the ways that the baseline can be manipulated in order to create the correct environmental and food
  12. 12. web requirements to incrementally increase biodiversity of species and establish the maximum carryingcapacity of certain ecological conditions.The methodology will take into account several factors, including and not limited to: Quantitative and qualitative collection and analysis of data pertaining to biodiversity, biodensity, water analysis Geographic survey of the relief map of sea floor Meteorological survey of seasonal climatic variation and oceanic currentsTo aid the study into this topic data will be collected using established technology to gauge various factors atplay in the simulated environment. This data will be recorded and patterns and relationships betweenpopulations of certain organisms analyzed to be used to formulate a generic marine ecology restorationstrategy to be programmed into MEST software.As so far as methodology for testing the strength of materials and corrosion resistance of new materials to beused in the construction of MERSEA, destructive testing will be used to establish the limitations of such newmaterials. Additionally the testing of new technology for the provision of food, water and energy on theMERSEA vessel will be tested at sea on the survey vessel, to establish the small scale viability of suchtechnologies. To establish the dynamics of the design of the MERSEA vessel part of the research may include thbuilding a 1/500 scale model (10 meters wide) which will bear similar density and buoyancy properties of afull size vessel. To establish whether proposed design will float indefinitely engineering tools can be used tosimulate this vessel on computer.7.1 DATABASE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSThe database design of MEST project must take into account the quantitative and qualitative data acquiredfrom marine survey inputs. The database design will reflect the chronological recording of data, a that can bereported on for the purposes of showing the effectiveness of a certain restorative marine aquaculture project.Additionally the database design considerations must factor in the possibility for a centralized global system ofnumerous MERSEA Vessels, possibly allowing for a global mapping of restorative marine aquaculture efforts.The database design will conform to second normal form structures where applicable. Each table in thedatabase will include primary key structures or composite key structures according to the requiredfunctionality. The database will serve as the architectural foundation for the development of MEST, meetingthe requirements for a scalable solution that can easily be transferred into a supercomputing environment.7.2 DATA CAPTUREThe data capture of the MEST system will rely on the manual input of data by aquaculture technicians, asrecorded by the equipment they use. Additionally certain meteorological data will be automatically entered inthe system, as provided by established meteorological and climatic authorities. To allow for the most efficientand complete manual data entered into the MEST software, the fields required for the input of data will inmost instances be minimal. Where possible, automatic data capture will be accommodated for by interfacingwith certain compatible equipment and have a capability of importing data sources such as xml, csv or nonMySQL databases such as MS SQL Server and Oracle.7.3 ALGORITHMIC EXTRACTION OF EXTRAPOLATION OF DATA FOR USE IN A MARINEAQUACULTURE STRATEGY ABOARD THE MERSEA VESSEL
  13. 13. The MEST system will include an as yet to be defined mathematic algorithm to analyze and extract data fromthe input data to provide the best guidelines for aquaculture technicians to implement the most effectivestrategic restorative aquaculture efforts, in terms of species diversity and volume of certain organisms to bebred. The algorithm will demonstrate with mathematics the relationships of various organisms in the foodweb of a particular ecosystem, to basically determine the maximum carrying capacity of an ecosystem in termsof species diversification and population numbers of those species. By using the algorithm it may be possibleto extrapolate certain scenarios pertaining to marine ecology, to determine a timeline that can be used topredict when a certain marine ecosystem will be ready for reuse as a renewable resource of food for humans.Similarly the algorithm may also be able to predict the effects of overfishing on the restored ecosystem toprovide a guideline for the fishing industry to determine what the maximum quota for fishing vessels shouldbe, to prevent a repeated scenario of exhausted marine resources. 8. RESEARCH SCHEDULE OF PROPOSED ACTIVITIESThe chronological indictors below are estimates and may be subject to changeExact dates, time allocations and order need to be revised using Microsoft Project Software which I currentlydo not have a copy of. Upon revising these data in Microsoft Project , I will be able to apply my knowledgeabout Accelerated Project Management Techniques to produce the best possible project plan, includingcontingency allowances. In many of these data the actual times overlap with each other, however it is notpractical to represent this relationship with Microsoft Word.Task Sub task Time AllocatedDetailed engineering research into the design and construction of the MERSEA vesselMERSEA computer aided design Refine and Complete Initial Design to at least 90 days 20% structural layer completion Aquaculture equipment and Installations 90 days Onboard food, Energy and Water Provision 90 days installations.Investigate structural engineering Write detailed descriptive dialogs detailing the 30 days above topics Produce a cost estimate of MERSEA Vessel 30 daysConstruct at least one working Condenser Unit 60 daysprototype or sample of new hardware Thermo-Electric-Converteror materials on a MERSEA Vessel from Food Growing Hardwarethe list specified here Hydroactive Fibrous Foam Polymer (HFFP) Fibrecast Panel Material thConstruction of a 1/500 scale model Refine a scaled model drawing that can serve as Up to 700 days a practical vessel (10 Meters Diameter) Obtain quotations for necessary tools and materials Commission outsourced construction work to reputable persons or companiesInvestigative Research into phased and incremental marine ecosystem restoration using Aquaculture aboardthe MERSEA VesselObtain necessary data for modeling an Obtain oceanic survey data from a specific 30 Daysincremental and phased ecosystem locationrestoration strategy specific to a Construct a food web 30 dayscertain marine location Research certain ecological niches 30 daysResearch and propose a mechanism Investigate the maximum load that the survey 30 daysthat can be used to repopulate the site can supportarea Create mathematical algorithms and equations 60 days
  14. 14. that show the relationship of species within the marine food web Setup and execute a scientific experiment to Up to 400 days demonstrate that the proposed phased and incremental marine ecosystem restoration will work on a small scale in a suitably sized marine aquariumDevelopment of a software system (Marine Ecosystem Survey Tool (MEST) ) for the collection, analysis,extrapolation and reporting of data obtained from ecological surveys of a local deep sea marine environmentDatabase and user interface Design Schema and write Generic Data Access 30 days Layer for software Design User Interface and write front end 30 days functionality for softwareBusiness layer Formulate algorithms representing the 90 days mathematical relationships in a food web specific to data gathered from scientific experimentation Create a reporting tool that allows a user to 60 days manipulate variables and calculate possible outcomes of certain strategiesTesting and Simulation Use the MEST tool to assess the accuracy of the 90 days algorithmic extrapolations of the business layer on a short term and small scale marine aquarium setupReview, Revision and Publication Check all references and conform to UMT 7 days policies Spell check and proofread 7 days Typeset and Bind Dissertation into a hardcover 7 days publication
  15. 15. 9. INFORMATION ON THE MERSEA VESSEL A descriptive diagram of an exploded view of the proposed design of a MERSEA Vessel9.1 DESCRIPTION OF MERSEA VESSELMERSEA is a transport vessel for marine aquaculture systems, with the primary goal to re-establish large shoalsof marine fish. Additionally MERSEA is a survival vessel for a human population of up to 2500 for 500 years.Effectively MERSEA is self governing and would be regarded as a nation in reality. In order to sustain apopulation of 2500 MERSEA is partially self sufficient. freshwater, food and energy are all provisioned for fromon board resources.
  16. 16. The method behind MERSEA is primarily the incremental restoration of depleted marine resource overtime.The vessel includes various hatcheries for marine organisms, including but not limited to fish, crustaceans andmollusks.9.2 COMPONENTS OF A MERSEA VESSELMERSEA consists of 7 main parts, together they are assembled to make a massive vessel with an approximate 2sunlight exposed surface area of 20km .9.2.1 CENTRAL TOWER • Accommodates the freshwater storage and processing from condensation and desalination • Accommodates the centralized light distribution collector, where light is focused onto from mirrors on component surface of the climate control containment. • Accommodates communication and control facilities • Accommodates a lightning conductor to prevent damage to the rest of the vessel. Special technology enables the harnessing of thermal energy directly into electricity, based on work from the Thermo Electric Converter • Accommodates an air filtration mechanism to moderate salinity and humidity of sea air, also serves to prevent airborne biological and particulate matter contaminations within the life dome Isometric wireframe of basic outline of Central Tower9.2.2 CLIMATE CONTROL CONTAINMENT • Allows for minor regulation of the ambient temperature, salinity and humidity of sea air • Several different biomes are accommodated below the installation. These biomes include coastal tolerant food crops to feed the population of MERSEA and provide the necessary food provisions for some of the aquaculture activities.
  17. 17. • Each biome will have slightly different conditions in order to sustain a good biodiversity of fauna and flora aboard MERSEA Isometric wireframe of basic structure of Climate Control Containment9.2.3 LIFE DOME • The accommodation area for the majority of the human population of MERSEA. • The Life Dome is climatically controlled to achieve the most comfortable environment for humans, namely a temperate like climate • Several floors of open plan living units will occupy the higher levels of the Life Dome. The units consist of sound proof walls and floors. Each unit accommodates a family of 4, each designed with privacy in mind, including a small garden. • Animals such as birds, dogs, cats and freshwater fish will allow humans to continue a relationship with domesticated animals
  18. 18. Isometric wireframe of basic structure of Life Dome9.2.4 GREENLAYER • Consists of many different biomes in order to facilitate the cultivation of coastal food crops and accommodate various species of birds, mammals, insects, amphibians, reptiles and freshwater fish. • Accommodates sporting facilities such as an 18 hole golf course, swimming pools and athletics facilities. • Accommodates the harvesting and processing of crops grown in the Greenlayer • Accommodates emergency life vessels in case of the MERSEA vessel sinking • Transport in the Greenlayer is accommodated by a self propelled (human) rail system and bicycle tracks • Mirrors on the ceiling of the Greenlayer (Climate Control Containment) reflect light and communication signals to the central tower • A small landing strip and helicopter pad are accommodated on the ceiling of the Greenlayer Isometric wireframe of basic structure of Greenlayer9.2.5 FLOATATION RAFT • Provides the necessary buoyancy for MERSEA to float, and in the event of a sinking vessel, consists in part, of a special polymer (in hermetically sealed casings) that reacts with sea water if the seal is broken to form strong and fibrous foam to provide additional buoyancy. • The floatation raft accommodates ‘Sea City’ which is the central point of the activities on MERSEA, including a hospital, an educational institute and a theater, amongst other necessary facilities • Large areas of Sea City are storage areas for the products of TEC Solar installations, where gas and liquid reservoirs hold unreacted products of the Thermo Electric Converter technology, that can be likened to energy storage from within a conventional lead acid battery.
  19. 19. • The floatation raft is not part of the hull or lower hull, in the unfortunate event of a sinking vessel, the Hull and Lower Hull are released to sink, allowing the majority of the population of MERSEA to survive for a few months on the Floatation Raft • The Floatation raft is approximately 5 km in diameterIsometric wireframe of basic structure of Floatation Raft Isometric Render of proposed ‘EarthShip’ Amphibious Emergency Life Vessel as an integral part of the Floatation Raft 9.2.6 HULL • Pressurized typical to submarines, and is attached to the Floatation Raft, but is not part of the Floatation Raft. • Accommodates the majority of the aquaculture facilities, including tanks, filtration, feeding hoppers, spawning tanks and areas in the vessel where certain work relevant to aquaculture takes place. • The hull houses amongst other things a super computer and a molding workshop to replace worn/broken pieces of MERSEA. The hull is made primarily from a polycarbonate composite material (made from recycled plastic, including a steel cable weave, and solid steel panels) that is rigid and completely corrosion resistant. • The hull provides the surface on which marine organisms can live and propagate. • Accommodates submarine bays for short distance submarine vessels • Accommodates utilities access between the supermarine and submarine components, including waste, food, electricity, sea water, hydrocarbons, lifts, stairwells and slides. • Contains submarine life vessels in case of a sinking vessel. • Accommodates living quarters for the population of MERSEA currently engaged in aquaculture projects.
  20. 20. Isometric wireframe of basic structure of Hull9.2.7 LOWER HULL • Houses the Main Engine Room, Methane Digester, Hydrocarbon Fuel Synthesizer, Submarine Bays, Prisons and Morgue. • The lower hull provides essential buoyancy and stability for the massive structure, and houses the structural core upon which the rest of MERSEA is built. • Contains main catchment area for oceanic thermal convention generators, and Osmotic Power generators using the products of the desalination works in the supermarine components • Accommodates submarine life vessels, accessible to prisoners upon a sinking vessel • Deep Sea Artificial Reef infrastructure allows larger deep sea animals to live and propagate • Contains storage facilities for fuel and salt • Contains sand ballast storage facilities and anchors Wireframe of basic structure of Lower Hull
  21. 21. A wireframe side view of the proposed design for a MERSEA Vessel9.3 ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF THE MERSEA VESSELThe engineering challenges of a vessel such as MERSEA may include the following: The weight and size of the vessel may present challenges with strength of materials and buoyancy The construction of such a massive vessel will take several years and will be largely located at sea, since this vessel cannot be built on land. This presents a series of challenges concerning construction techniques and equipment. Corrosion of parts on board the MERSEA vessel will also be problematic, however since a large percentage of the vessel is not constructed from steel or aluminium, the challenge of corrosion is reduced. Additionally, extensive use of hard chrome electroplating is used with steel components. Since this vessel is designed to have a usable seaworthiness of 500 years, considerations concerning replacement parts will need to be addressed, and is done so using an on board moulding workshop
  22. 22. for replacement parts and panels that will periodically need to be repaired or recycled, reformed and refitted.9.4 CONSTRUCTION OF A MERSEA VESSELThe construction of a MERSEA Vessel presents many difficult engineering challenges, due to its size andcomplexity. The structural integrity of such a vessel would need to be able to withstand large pressuredifferences of the different depths of each submarine component. The components would need to be smalland light enough to be assembled in a practical manner. Much of the construction work of a MERSEA Vesselwould use a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FSPO) approach and be conducted on a proposedplatform called GPEM (Giant Plastic Eating Machine). GPEM would include many of the facilities necessary tomanufacture the components of a MERSEA Vessel. The raw material for these components of a MERSEA Vesselwould come from the cleanup and recycling of waste plastic oceanic deposits, such as those found in the GreatPacific Garbage Patch.COMPONENT MANUFACTURE ON LANDMany of the components such as engines, computers, aquaculture equipment and glass panels would bemanufactured on land and shipped to the GPEM platform for the construction of MERSEA. Additionally most ofthe structural components would be in part manufactured on land, then shipped to and assembled on theFSPO platform of GPEM. Many installations including but not limited to Oceanic Agriculture Equipment,Emergency Life Vessels, Living Units and Utilities Accommodations (Gas, Water, Electricity, and Fiber OpticCabling) would also be manufactured on land, since in most cases that would be the most cost effective way.COMPONENT MANUFACTURE ON GPEMA large proportion of MERSEA components would be manufactured on a GPEM platform, in most cases makinguse of GPEM’s plastic recycling and reforming equipment. Components such as Paneling, Flooring, Piping andother components that would comprise of a large percentage of plastic would be mass produced on GPEM.Such components would be assembled on GPEM into the MERSEA construction.ASSEMBLY ON GPEMThe assembly of MERSEA on GPEM would largely take place on the assembly platform. The Assembly Platformof GPEM would form an integral part of a MERSEA Vessel, and once the assembly of MERSEA is complete, theAssembly Platform of a GPEM would no longer exist as part of a GPEM Vessel. As part of the GPEM, cranes andother heavy machinery would be used. The assembly of a MERSEA vessel on GPEM could be likened to apotter’s wheel, where the incomplete MERSEA structure is rotated around a central axis, and the contractionwould take place in a radial fashion.
  23. 23. A proposed base design for a Giant Plastic Eating Machine (GPEM)9.5 MAINTENANCE OF A MERSEA VESSELThe Maintenance of a MERSEA Vessel would need to be self servicing, since a MERSEA vessel would not beable to be serviced near land or in a typical ship yard. To accommodate this MERSEA incorporates an onboardmolding workshop to allow for the repair and replacement of various parts if needed.9.5.1 MOLDING WORKSHOPThe molding workshop contains all necessary equipment and molds to repair or replace certain selectcomponents of MERSEA. Since some of MERSEA components consist of recyclable thermoplastics, it isconceivable that should one of the MERSEA parts fail, that it can be remelted and remolded. Additionally sincemuch of MERSEA is constructed from steel cable weave as a constituent component of the proposedcomposite material called FiberCast, the steel cable weave can be rewoven from virgin material if needs be.9.5.2 SUBMARINE MAINTENANCEMost of the MERSEA vessel by weight will be submerged, and hence these components are also the mostdifficult to repair without compromising a MERSEA vessels floatation ability. To facilitate this, when asubmarine panel needs to be replaced, the structural section is sealed and filled with water. Upon filling thesection with water a specialist submariner maintenance team would remove the damaged part. Once thedamaged part is repaired in the molding workshop, then the submariner maintenance team would refit thepanel and depressurize the structural section with air.9.5.3 RECYCLABLE COMPONENTSA list of recyclable components could include, but is not limited to:
  24. 24. Sectional Panels, Flooring, Ceilings, Components from the Greenlayer and other components from thesupermarine sections.Recyclable components will consist of Thermoplastic, steel, natural fibers (such as hemp, sisal and flax), steelcables and glass.9.6 ONBOARD RESOURCES OF A MERSEA VESSELSince a MERSEA Vessel is isolated from land and will be in deep seas, at least 100kms adrift, fuel and foodresources would be impractical to renew on a regular basis. Therefore MERSEA is designed to accommodatealmost completely self sufficient energy, food and freshwater resources. The difficulties here may mean thatthe operation of a MERSEA Vessel would need to be very frugal and all wastes would need to be utilised in afashion to increase the chances of the self sustainable ideal of a MERSEA Vessel. Regarding this. MERSEAaccommodates various forms of energy harvesting and storage.9.6.1 ENERGYThe requirements of electrical energy for MERSEA will be conducted using a 12V distribution.Energy on a MERSEA Vessel will be provided for largely from the oceanic environment, including the following:9.6.1.1 SOLARThe primary source of daily power for the operations of MERSEA will be from solar sources.9.6.1.1.1 SOLAR VOLTAIC (PHOTOVOLTAIC)Solar Voltaic installations of PV panels or Dye Synthesis (new and established PV technology) to providenecessary electrical power when needed. The energy from the installations will be stored as hydrogen for usein hydrogen fuel cells, for use on demand.9.6.1.1.2 SOLAR THERMALSolar Thermal technology will be used to heat fresh water for the bathing purposes of the occupants ofMERSEA. Additionally a proposed Thermo Electric Converter technology will be used to supplement electricitydemands of a MERSEA Vessel. The products of the Thermo Electric Converter would be stored in reservoirs intheir unreacted state for use on demand. Solar Thermal power will also provide the power required tocondense water from the atmosphere for the provision of freshwater.
  25. 25. Proposed Prototype Design for a Thermo Electric Converter Reactor Unit9.6.1.1.3 SOLAR LIGHTThe lighting demands for submarine components of MERSEA will be largely supplied by Solar Light energydistributed by mirrors, prisms and fibre optic cables. The surface of the Climate Control Containment includesmirrors which focus light to the Central Tower, from which it is then distributed using mirrors, prisms and fibreoptics to the lower decks of MERSEA.9.6.1.2 OCEANIC THERMAL AND TIDALThe MERSEA Vessel could conceivably accommodate oceanic thermal and tidal power generation installations,however would be subject to a feasibility study of this power source. The electricity generated from aninstallation would be stored in as hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells, to facilitate power on demand.9.6.1.3 OSMOTIC POWERThe viability of convection caused from the re dissolving of salt into sea water would need to be investigatedto ascertain that is may possibly be an additional power source. The salt that the proposed Osmotic PowerGenerator would be products of the desalination works that provide the population of MERSEA withfreshwater.9.6.1.4 METHANE AND HYDROCARBONSAll biological waste products from the activities of aquaculture, the proposed Oceanic Agriculture and Humanswould be collected and digested by microorganisms to produce methane gas. It is conceivable that by usingthe huge pressures of up to 2kms deep, that this methane could be synthesized into other hydrocarbons suchas butane, propane and octane. These fuels would be the primary source of fuel for the engines andpropulsion systems. Butane could be used to provide the necessary fuel for gas burners for cooking or heatingrequirements (of living quarters or aquaculture tanks)
  26. 26. 9.6.1.5 WINDThe use of wind turbines and other existing wind generator technology would contribute to the electricalenergy requirements of MERSEA. Like other electrical storage, the energy from wind will be stored ashydrogen for use in a hydrogen fuel cell array to provide power on demand. Additionally it is conceivable thatwind can be used by means of sails to provide additional propulsion for a MERSEA Vessel.9.6.1.6 NO NUCLEAR POWERI insist that since this is my PhD proposal, that no Nuclear power sources can be entertained in a MERSEAVessel, for reasons of safety and sustainability.9.6.2 FRESHWATERIt is important that a consistent and good quality water supply will sufficiently meet the requirements ofhumans and other non marine-aquatic species (animals found in the Greenlayer primarily) aboard a MERSEAVessel. To meet these requirements two proposed sources of fresh water are entertained. These include:9.6.2.1 CONDENSATIONVery effective solar thermal powered condensation and refrigeration will be used to condense humid sea air toprovide a reliable and clean fresh water supply for the occupants of MERSEA. This technology is based uponthe technology devised for WaterGlobe, which is beyond the scope of this document.9.6.2.2 DESALINATIONDesalination of water will be powered from exhaust gases of the engine room and the application of variousosmosis techniques to desalinate sea water. The salt from the process will be stored and used for osmoticpower generators, should feasibility studies indicate that Osmotic Power Generators could produce aneconomical source of power.9.6.2.3 WATER STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTIONWater storage will be accommodated by a large container. A network of reticulated piping and pumps willdistribute water to all parts of the vessels occupied by humans.9.6.2.4 ARTIFICIAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS FOR FRESHWATER FISH AND AMPHIBIANSThe Greenlayer includes some facilities for freshwater aquatic life, including amphibians, fish, crustaceans andinsects. These installations will also collect and filter precipitation from rain. The flow of these installations willaccumulate in a central fresh water dam, which will supplement the water storage facilities.9.6.3 FOODFood provisions onboard a MERSEA vessel must be completely self sufficient since as a MERSEA Vessel will beisolated from a landmass imports cannot be economically accommodated. In this regard the crop selection ofspecies needs to be coastal tolerant, and may only consist of open pollinated varieties of plants. The collectionof seed from the food crops is important to maintain a sustainable food source.
  27. 27. 9.6.3.1 BIOMESTo accommodate a wide variety of species of plants and animals aboard a MERSEA Vessel, the Climate ControlContainment has climatically controlled divisions I refer to as Biomes. Each biome will have slightly differentconditions and may also be ‘seasonally adjusted’, meaning that in one Biome it could be a coastal winter, andin other Biome could be a coastal spring, simultaneously. This is to ensure a collective maximum production offood throughout the year. Additionally monoculture is not observed and a Polyculture is preferred.9.6.3.2 COASTAL TOLERANT FOOD CROPSA yet to be defined list of coastal tolerant food crops will be proposed as part of this PhD dissertation. The listwill include viable open pollinated species that can be sustainably cultivated within a MERSEA Biome. Fruittrees such as avocado pears, litchis, mangos, papaya, peacan nuts and macadamia nuts will be grown withinthese biomes.9.6.3.3 FOOD PROVISIONS FOR AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIESSuitable legume and grain crops will be grown to provide a source of balanced nutrition specifically foraquaculture activities aboard a MERSEA Vessel. The importance of high protein crops must be consideredagainst the nutritional requirements of certain species lists that will be cultivated on a MERSEA Vessel.9.6.3.4 FOOD PROVISIONS FOR HUMANS AND OTHER OCCUPANTSFood provisions for humans including fast growing leafy vegetables and legumes are important to provide asufficient quantity of food for the human population of a MERSEA Vessel. Additionally fruits such as grapes andberries will be grown to provide long term sustainable food provision that is rich in Vitamin C to ensure theprevention of Scurvy and other diseases associated with malnutrition.The population of MERSEA will be allowed to eat meat (from fish) twice a week, and for the other 5 days of theweek will be vegetarian. Therefore the correct selection of an appropriate species list of fast growing openpollinated food crops will be very important.To provide food for animals on the MERSEA Vessel a proper quantitative and qualitative balance of animalspecies needs to be considered to maintain a sustainable ecology within the Greenlayer. 10. MERSEA COMMUNITYSince the MERSEA Vessel is designed to serve as a long term marine ecosystem restoration vessel and will notbe able to come close to a land mass since its height will restrict it from approaching a land mass, the vesselwill be self governing. For the limited population of 2500 at anytime the political system most suited for thegovernance aboard MERSEA will suit an autocratic democracy.The MERSEA vessel can thusly be regarded as an independent nation, and thusly I propose that the Republic ofMERSEA would be a suitable title for this new nation.
  28. 28. Flag of Republic of MERSEA10.1 CONSTITUTION, LAWS AND JUSTICEThe constitution of MERSEA will be similar to other developed countries where a few laws will be in place tomaintain peace and order. Some of the laws may include: Absolute ban on alcoholic beverages Absolute ban on tobacco use Vegetarian diets will be enforced for 5 days a week An elected council of 3 judges will pass down any sentencingThe onboard prison on MERSEA will facilitate the just punishment of transgressors of the laws of MERSEA.Prisoners will serve time as sentenced by the justice council. Under no circumstances will executions be carriedout, however the penalty for murder will be life imprisonment, with no option for parole.10.2 ECONOMYThe on board economy of MERSEA will not consist of any monetary exchanges. The economy of MERSEA is acashless barter/trade economy. The entire population of MERSEA will have an equal economic status, similarto the ideal represented in communism. MERSEA society is hierarchical, by means of rank, similar to existingranks in naval vessels.10.3 POPULATION CONTROLTo maintain a consistent population of 2500 for which the MERSEA vessel has been designed for, ReproductionLicenses are bidded for and issued by the Justice Council. Upon the death of a crew member, including aprisoner, a Reproduction License becomes available for a couple to reproduce and parent offspring. In the caseof twins or more, a proviso is made whereby the population may exceed the stipulated maximum, however areproduction license will not be issued upon the next death of a crew member.To prevent inbreeding of a human population over a long term, special provisions are made to allow theintroduction of new genes into the gene pool at various intervals, subject to further research.As far population demographics are maintained, the initial human population of MERSEA will be under 2500,and allowances of 50 reproduction licenses are available. The age and sex demographic will remain relativelystable during the period of 500 years.To prevent unlicensed births of new people upon MERSEA, provisions are made to prevent pregnancies usingnon destructive contraception in male and female genitals.
  29. 29. The race distribution of the initial population of MERSEA will include all races of humans, to ensure a geneticbiodiversity of the population. The cryogenically stored ovum and sperm are also equally genetically diverse.10.4 EDUCATIONTo ensure a sustainable population of MERSEA and the skills required maintaining aquaculture operations andon board education system is compulsory for all people under the age of 15. Upon reaching the age of 15 agraduate with basic education may choose to pursue a chosen career option as governed by the onboardeducational authority. Careers are not limited to aquaculture, although every member of the crew will berequired to participate in aquaculture activities for at least 5 years of their lives, as community service, similarto compulsory military service in some countries.10.5 HEALTH, DISEASE AND DEATHTo maintain the health of the population of MERSEA, all inhabitants are required to participate in exercise,healthy eating and adequate rest for the prevention of avoidable diseases such as cancer, diabetes and heartdisease. As for people who are rendered disabled by accident or from birth, a certain provision is made to helpthe small population of people with such afflictions to lead a positive life and contribute to life on boardMERSEA. To control communicable diseases people are encouraged to isolate themselves in their livingquarters when illness strikes. A small hospital and aged care facility is included in the design of MERSEA. Uponthe natural or accidental death of a crew member, the body is prepared in the morgue and a funeral will takeplace, upon which a plaque of remembrance will be issued, and the body will be released into the ocean.10.6 DEFENSETo avoid attacks from pirates or people who may wish to come on board uninvited a special defensemechanism is planned to deploy a reusable net (NETEM Defense System) to capture a vessel or personsattempting to compromise MERSEA national security. The persons are taken aboard and held captive until aland mass is close, upon which an aircraft is used to remove the intruders from the vessel.
  30. 30. Sunrise on the North Coast of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa 11. BIBLIOGRAPHYftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/j3957e/j3957e00.pdfhttp://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/W3244E/w3244e07.htmhttp://reliefweb.int/node/174408http://www.grid.unep.ch/product/publication/download/ew_overfishing.en.pdfhttp://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/06future/olres.htmhttp://www.nndb.com/people/250/000085992/http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0173-9565&site=1http://marinebio.org/oceans/marine-ecology.asphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_biologyhttp://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_biodiversityhttp://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/marine-species-diversity
  31. 31. 12. CONCLUSIONIn conclusion I would like to offer this proposal as a investigation into the modeling of MERSEA for thepurposes of examining the feasibility of such a vessel as an option to restore our depleted marine resources.The importance of the research proposed in this paper is necessary for the continued prosperity of our oceansand the continued sustainable exploitation of marine resources for food and recreation. The PhD dissertationwill be concluded within 2- 3 years of commencing of the research into MERSEA, where upon a conclusion willbe reached demonstrating the feasibility of such a vessel.For the good of humankind and the re-establishment of oceanic wealth I would like to enter into furtherdiscussion concerning a partnership with UMT to begin my research at the soonest convenience. Brindle Bass 13. CONTACT Chris Morton Professional Inventor Website : www.makenet.co.za Email: chrism@makenet.co.za Phone: 0768587777 Address: 1 Argyle Gardens 25 New Scotland Road Pietermaritzburg 3201 The content contained in this document is the original work of Chris Morton and remains the intellectual property of the author.
  32. 32. Copyright MakeNET

×