Chris Morton (Inventor/Environmental Technologist) Presents All materials and concepts herein are Intellectual Property of...
<ul><li>Ferro-fluids are simply a suspension of magnetic iron oxide (magnetite/Fe 2 0 4 ) in oil </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-f...
<ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me5Zzm2TXh4 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I5Ti6PeGdNQ </li></ul>
<ul><li>They absorb a large amount of the suns energy and convert it to heat, they are not only limited to short wavelengt...
<ul><li>Suns energy is absorbed by the black ferro-fluid and is converted to heat </li></ul><ul><li>The ferro-fluid is cha...
<ul><li>Solar Heat Collection Panel (with possible solar energy concentrator) </li></ul><ul><li>Thermally/Electrically ins...
<ul><li>www.makenet.co.za/concept/halfbakery/magneticsolarpanel/msp.htm </li></ul>
 
Property Photovoltaic Cell Magnetic Solar Panel Expensive Yes No Requires High Technology Manufacturing Facility Yes No Ma...
<ul><li>Ferro-fluid possess good thermal properties, which can cause a good convection effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-flu...
<ul><li>Ferro-fluids are made from a colloidal suspension of Iron Oxide in Oil using additives such as Iron Chloride and O...
<ul><li>Main disadvantages are weight, periodic service intervals, theft of copper, bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </l...
Property Water Ferrofluid Glass Steel Cable Unit Density 1000  925 (approx) 240O 7700 Kg/m 3 Thermal Conductivity 0.58 1.0...
<ul><li>The maximum efficiency of a MSP can be reached when the viscosity/magnetism/rate of flow and temperature are in th...
<ul><li>Can make use of local glass recycling initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Oxide readily available and easily purifi...
<ul><li>Not suitable for solar powered vehicles or small solar powered electronics such as calculators due to weight and b...
<ul><li>Glass can easily be extruded or moulded </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-Fluids can employ sonication to achieve correct co...
<ul><li>Difficult to work out at this point </li></ul><ul><li>Further research needs to done for MSP development. </li></u...
<ul><li>Research Budget for building a working prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Workshop/Vehicles and Tools  </li></u...
<ul><li>What potential do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about Patents and In...
<ul><li>Chris Morton, Born Nelspruit 26 November 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Software Engineer (6 years experience) <...
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Ferro Fluid Based Solar Energy

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This was a presentation i presented to an interested party who supports renewable energy technology. After a technical review we decided that this technology was not feasible, however it led to the invention of the Thermo-Electric solar panel which I am currently working on...(and it works!)

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Ferro Fluid Based Solar Energy

  1. 1. Chris Morton (Inventor/Environmental Technologist) Presents All materials and concepts herein are Intellectual Property of Chris Morton A Production – Copyright 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Ferro-fluids are simply a suspension of magnetic iron oxide (magnetite/Fe 2 0 4 ) in oil </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-fluids are not magnetic by themselves, the iron oxide particles must be aligned by an external magnetic polarisation </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-fluids have 3 important and useful properties when it comes to harnessing solar energy: they can be magnetised, they are variably viscous, they are black </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-fluids are not expensive to manufacture in bulk </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me5Zzm2TXh4 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I5Ti6PeGdNQ </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>They absorb a large amount of the suns energy and convert it to heat, they are not only limited to short wavelengths of light (blue spectrum, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays) that photovoltaic cells are limited to. </li></ul><ul><li>They are relatively non toxic, can be disposed of/recycled easily and can be manufactured as a biodegradable material </li></ul><ul><li>They are easily manufactured in bulk, and do not require expensive specialised equipment </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Suns energy is absorbed by the black ferro-fluid and is converted to heat </li></ul><ul><li>The ferro-fluid is channelled in a similar way to a solar water heater and is convected </li></ul><ul><li>The convecting ferro-fluids are magnetised (iron particles magnetism is aligned) by an external magnet (permanent magnet or electro-magnet) </li></ul><ul><li>The magnetised ferro-fluid is passed over copper wires and causes electromagnetic induction </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Solar Heat Collection Panel (with possible solar energy concentrator) </li></ul><ul><li>Thermally/Electrically insulated plastic or glass piping and connections </li></ul><ul><li>Radiator </li></ul><ul><li>Inductance Coil </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Magnets </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement but not essential – Hydrogen Fuel Cells for storing excess power, Neodymium Permanent Magnets/Electromagnets for more efficient output </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>www.makenet.co.za/concept/halfbakery/magneticsolarpanel/msp.htm </li></ul>
  8. 9. Property Photovoltaic Cell Magnetic Solar Panel Expensive Yes No Requires High Technology Manufacturing Facility Yes No Maximum Theoretical Efficiency 40% (normally 19%-20%) Research Needs to be conducted. I estimate upto 70% Uses Toxic Raw Materials Yes No Can Withstand Hail (3cm) Yes, dependant on design Yes, dependant on design Easily Recycled No Yes Can be Manufactured in Curved Shapes Yes with difficulty Yes Can be assembled on site No Yes Can be used as windows/skylights No Yes Maximum Service Duration 25 years Needs periodic maintenance, indefinite Can be sold in kit form Yes Yes Maximum Voltage Depends on Number of Cells in Series Depends on Inductor Coils
  9. 10. <ul><li>Ferro-fluid possess good thermal properties, which can cause a good convection effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-fluid can absorb close to 100% of energy from solar light as heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Main losses will be due to internal friction of ferro-fluids on pipe walls, inductor coil and internal resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-fluids are thixotropic which means they do not need valves to change rate of flow, as magnetic fields can be applied instead, using this its possible to achieve ideal rate of flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated theoretical efficiency of greater than 70% can be achieved. Research needs to be conducted </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Ferro-fluids are made from a colloidal suspension of Iron Oxide in Oil using additives such as Iron Chloride and Oleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is usually mineral oil, but can possibly be vegetable oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass can be obtained via recycling glass </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Induction Coils are expensive but cheaper than photovoltaic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Production costs are significantly cheaper because of simple technology </li></ul><ul><li>In my opinion they will be significantly cheaper overall (I estimate at least ½ of cost of photovoltaic with similar output) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Main disadvantages are weight, periodic service intervals, theft of copper, bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be manufactured according to contours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for skylights, roof tiles and windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not pose end of life environmental hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and Strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has indefinite service life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More resistance to weather (Hail) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce more power that photovoltaic's on cold days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low capitalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be extended to include high tech components such as fuel cells, neodymium magnets, solar concentrators and solar trackers for maximum efficiency installations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetically more pleasing (glass can be colored and beautified) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Property Water Ferrofluid Glass Steel Cable Unit Density 1000  925 (approx) 240O 7700 Kg/m 3 Thermal Conductivity 0.58 1.09 (approx) 1.05 43 W/mK Heat Capacity 1 0.5 (approx) 0.84 0.46 kJ/kg K State Liquid Liquid with special properties: Thixofluid (Thixotropic) Highly Viscous Fluid. Can be considered solid Solid None STP Approximate % Light Sun Spectrum Absorbed 20% 80% depending on composition 10-95% 65% Joules Viscosity 0.001 0.3 (approx) >12 N/A Log 10 Pa.s Composition Description H 2 0 Fe 2 0 4 10-30% Oil 60– 90% Other 5-10% Si0 2 >90% Other <10% Fe >85% Other >15% None. Dependant on composition Relevant Properties For Comparison Can be magnetised, Low Hazard, Variable Viscosity, Non Toxic, Shows Very good thermal properties and light absorption characteristics, can be manufacture cheaply in bulk, Dense VALUES DEPEND ON COMPOSITION Non Hazardous, Can be Pigmented, Can be obtained from recycling, Translucent, Ductile, Good Thermal Conductivity. Inexpensive, Flexible, Dense High Tensile Strength, Inexpensive in Bulk, Non Hazardous, Flexible, Dense
  13. 14. <ul><li>The maximum efficiency of a MSP can be reached when the viscosity/magnetism/rate of flow and temperature are in the right balance. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve the right balance of the factors above various designs will need to be tried according to the wattage required. </li></ul><ul><li>The correct design of the inductor/radiator of the system will determine the overall efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>The design must balance cooling and rate of flow requirements of ferro-fluid to achieve the highest rate of flow, strongest magnetism which is important to achieve a suitable electrical output. </li></ul><ul><li>The Solar Heat collector can be made very absorbent of heat by means of using pigments in the glass and non reflective surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The internal surface area of the pipes containing the ferro-fluids must be correctly balanced according to the viscosity and heat capacity of the ferro-fluid as to minimise internal losses due to friction with the pipe internals (which will slow the rate of flow) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Thixotropic ‘valves’ can be used regulate the flow to optimise performance in various conditions (hot sunny day vs cold cloudy day). </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Magnets need to be distributed evenly throughout the inductor mechanism to maintain good magnetic properties of the ferro-fluid. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Can make use of local glass recycling initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Oxide readily available and easily purified </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Chloride, Oleic Acid and Glycerine are not a toxic hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral and vegetable oil ferro-fluid substrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers an eco-friendly and cost effective alternative to photovoltaic alternatives with competitive power output. </li></ul><ul><li>Components can easily be recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing energy is possibly lower than photovoltaic manufacturing energy costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be disposed of in land fills and will not severely effect ground water due to low toxicity components (no heavy metals) </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Not suitable for solar powered vehicles or small solar powered electronics such as calculators due to weight and bulk. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for roof/wall tiles, curved surfaces, standalone units. </li></ul><ul><li>Will provide a competitive alternative for photovoltaic cell arrays </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for renewable energy may mean suitable demand and economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Long service life means that MSP installations will be a good option for existing or new buildings. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Glass can easily be extruded or moulded </li></ul><ul><li>Ferro-Fluids can employ sonication to achieve correct colloidal dispersion of Iron Oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Wire can be easily wound into inductor coils </li></ul><ul><li>Thermally insulated piping can be made with ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Radiators could be a simple aluminium extrusion with appropriate air cooling heat fins </li></ul><ul><li>Moving parts are not necessary in the design reducing number of components </li></ul><ul><li>Soft Iron Permanent magnets are easily manufactured </li></ul><ul><li>Flow control can be regulated by electromagnets </li></ul><ul><li>Defective materials and components can possibly be recovered back into the production facilities easier than defective photovoltaic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Production would be best if out sourced to specialist manufacturers and assembled or packed in kit form for the retail market. </li></ul><ul><li>Employment opportunities for semi-skilled labourers would be generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits would be realised in a short time frame than photovoltaic adoption on a wide scale. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Difficult to work out at this point </li></ul><ul><li>Further research needs to done for MSP development. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the following in terms of MSP and Photovoltaic manufacturing costs: </li></ul><ul><li>If the efficiency is greater than 40% (the highest the most expensive photovoltaic can achieve) and the materials are less expensive it is not unreasonable to expect this technology to be as low as 80% cheaper than existing photovoltaic equivalents. With the current cheapest per wattage rate of R25 p/W to the end user this could translate into R5 p/W for equivalent MSP Wattage output. </li></ul>Consider MSP Photovoltaic Glass as a part of the solar absorption Cheap, Recycled Glass is perfect, Expensive, Silicon is and needs to doped. Ferro-fluid as a Conductive Mechanism Can be Cheap, Oil and Iron are both plentiful. Expensive, High Tech Circuitry Copper as an inductor Expensive, but not only option Expensive, Batteries and Circuits Aluminium Radiator to provide convection Cheap, can be made from recycled metals
  18. 19. <ul><li>Research Budget for building a working prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Workshop/Vehicles and Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Access to/budget for human resources when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers/Inventors Living Expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Onsite Residence </li></ul><ul><li>Expense Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Software (Computer Aided Design) and office equipment </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>What potential do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you see? </li></ul><ul><li>What about Patents and Intellectual Property? </li></ul><ul><li>Time estimate for a prototype? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it commercially viable? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the human and physical resources available in South Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>Would this qualify to be funded by African Conservation Trust? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this worth investing in? </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Chris Morton, Born Nelspruit 26 November 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Software Engineer (6 years experience) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Years of Tertiary Level Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Work Experience includes aluminium joinery, electroplating, construction, manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Self Employed/Environmental Technologist/Inventor/Amateur Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>More Ideas at www.halfbakery.com/user/codrakon </li></ul><ul><li>Original Concept at www.halfbakery.com/idea/Magnetic_20Solar_20Panel </li></ul><ul><li>CV – Download from www.makenet.co.za/CV.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Contact [email_address] or +27 (0)76 858 7777 </li></ul>

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