Getting Started with Maya
Copyright Notice
Autodesk® Maya® 2010 Software
© 2009 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as otherwise permitted by...
Contents




Chapter 1   Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
            Introduction ....
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 29
               ...
Adding polygons to a mesh . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 105
                 Splitt...
Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Chapter 5       Subdivision Surfaces . . . . . . ...
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 239
                 Open the firs...
Smooth binding a skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 334
                   Skin weig...
Viewing a normal map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
                 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . ...
Open the scene for the lesson . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 520
                 ...
Rendering Paint Effects strokes . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 584
                  Paint E...
Using creation expressions to set    a constant    color .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 645
                      Using run...
Using the edit flag in Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
                   Communicating between Python an...
Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 776
                 Lesson 2: ...
Chapter 17   Fur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829
             Introduction . . . . . ....
Making the character wear the dress . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 897
                      Caching ...
Open the third scene for the lesson .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 970
                  R...
xviii
Overview
                                                                          1
Introduction
      Welcome to Autodes...
This section provides the following information:

           ■   About the Getting Started lessons–Information about the l...
We recommend that any new Maya user begin by completing the following:

       ■    Viewing the Essential Skills Movies th...
Apple® Mac OS® X operating system with the recommended minimum
           memory and storage requirements. Maya requires a...
Using the lesson files
       Many of the Getting Started with Maya lessons have accompanying lesson
       files that wer...
To play the Essential Skills Movies

            1 In the Essential Skills Movies window, click the buttons to play a movi...
Maya Help
Your Maya software application comes installed with Maya technical
documentation that assists you in learning th...
The navigation pane updates to display an alphabetic list at the top of
                the pane with the first index item...
To use Popup Help

➤   Move your mouse cursor over an icon or button.
    The name or description of it appears in a popup...
To use the Help Line

            ➤   Move your mouse cursor over an icon or button.
                The icon or button na...
The Maya Web site
       The Maya Web site contains a wealth of resources related to your Maya software
       and many ot...
2 Rename your existing user preferences file to a different name; for
               example, myprefs. The prefs directory...
Maya Basics
                                                                         2
Introduction




      Critical to ...
This chapter covers some of the fundamental concepts and skills for Maya in
           four lessons:

           ■   Lesso...
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Maya 2010 Getting Started

  1. 1. Getting Started with Maya
  2. 2. Copyright Notice Autodesk® Maya® 2010 Software © 2009 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as otherwise permitted by Autodesk, Inc., this publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. Certain materials included in this publication are reprinted with the permission of the copyright holder. The following are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc., and/or its subsidiaries and/or affiliates in the USA and other countries: 3DEC (design/logo), 3December, 3December.com, 3ds Max, ADI, Algor, Alias, Alias (swirl design/logo), AliasStudio, Alias|Wavefront (design/logo), ATC, AUGI, AutoCAD, AutoCAD Learning Assistance, AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD Simulator, AutoCAD SQL Extension, AutoCAD SQL Interface, Autodesk, Autodesk Envision, Autodesk Intent, Autodesk Inventor, Autodesk Map, Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk Streamline, AutoLISP, AutoSnap, AutoSketch, AutoTrack, Backburner, Backdraft, Built with ObjectARX (logo), Burn, Buzzsaw, CAiCE, Can You Imagine, Character Studio, Cinestream, Civil 3D, Cleaner, Cleaner Central, ClearScale, Colour Warper, Combustion, Communication Specification, Constructware, Content Explorer, Create>what's>Next> (design/logo), Dancing Baby (image), DesignCenter, Design Doctor, Designer's Toolkit, DesignKids, DesignProf, DesignServer, DesignStudio, Design|Studio (design/logo), Design Web Format, Discreet, DWF, DWG, DWG (logo), DWG Extreme, DWG TrueConvert, DWG TrueView, DXF, Ecotect, Exposure, Extending the Design Team, Face Robot, FBX, Fempro, Filmbox, Fire, Flame, Flint, FMDesktop, Freewheel, Frost, GDX Driver, Gmax, Green Building Studio, Heads-up Design, Heidi, HumanIK, IDEA Server, i-drop, ImageModeler, iMOUT, Incinerator, Inferno, Inventor, Inventor LT, Kaydara, Kaydara (design/logo), Kynapse, Kynogon, LandXplorer, Lustre, MatchMover, Maya, Mechanical Desktop, Moldflow, Moonbox, MotionBuilder, Movimento, MPA, MPA (design/logo), Moldflow Plastics Advisers, MPI, Moldflow Plastics Insight, MPX, MPX (design/logo), Moldflow Plastics Xpert, Mudbox, Multi-Master Editing, NavisWorks, ObjectARX, ObjectDBX, Open Reality, Opticore, Opticore Opus, Pipeplus, PolarSnap, PortfolioWall, Powered with Autodesk Technology, Productstream, ProjectPoint, ProMaterials, RasterDWG, Reactor, RealDWG, Real-time Roto, REALVIZ, Recognize, Render Queue, Retimer,Reveal, Revit, Showcase, ShowMotion, SketchBook, Smoke, Softimage, Softimage|XSI (design/logo), Sparks, SteeringWheels, Stitcher, Stone, StudioTools, Topobase, Toxik, TrustedDWG, ViewCube, Visual, Visual Construction, Visual Drainage, Visual Landscape, Visual Survey, Visual Toolbox, Visual LISP, Voice Reality, Volo, Vtour, Wire, Wiretap, WiretapCentral, XSI, and XSI (design/logo). mental ray is a registered trademark of mental images GmbH licensed for use by Autodesk, Inc. Python is a registered trademark of Python Software Foundation. Adobe, Illustrator and Photoshop are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. The Ravix logo is a trademark of Electric Rain, Inc. All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective holders. Disclaimer THIS PUBLICATION AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS MADE AVAILABLE BY AUTODESK, INC. "AS IS." AUTODESK, INC. DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE REGARDING THESE MATERIALS.
  3. 3. Contents Chapter 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 About the Getting Started lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Before you begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Installing Maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Conventions used in the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using the lesson files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Using the Maya Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Additional learning resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Restoring default user settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Chapter 2 Maya Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Preparing for the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Lesson 1: The Maya user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Starting Maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Maya interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Copying and setting the Maya project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Saving your work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Exiting Maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Lesson 2: Creating, manipulating, and viewing objects . . . . . . . . . 29 iii
  4. 4. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Creating a new scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Primitive objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Toolbox: Layout shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Toolbox: Transformation tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Channel Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Duplicating objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Save your work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Lesson 3: Viewing the Maya 3D scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Camera tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Workflow overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Viewing objects in shaded mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Grouping objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 The Hypergraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Selection modes and masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Pivot points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Save your work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Lesson 4: Components and attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Template display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Attribute Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Surface materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Save your work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Chapter 3 Polygonal Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Preparing for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Lesson 1: Modeling a polygonal mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Setting modeling preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Using 2D reference images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Creating a polygon primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Modeling in shaded mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Model symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Selecting components by painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Selecting edge loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Editing components in the orthographic views . . . . . . . . . . 86 Editing components in the perspective view . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Drawing a polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Extruding polygon components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Bridging between edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 iv | Contents
  5. 5. Adding polygons to a mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Splitting polygon faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Terminating edge loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Deleting construction history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Mirror copying a mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Working with a smoothed mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Creasing and hardening edges on a mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Lesson 2: Sculpting a polygon mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Using Soft Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Selecting with Camera based selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Sculpting with symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Sculpting with Surface based falloff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Selecting with Drag select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Adjusting the Seam tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Chapter 4 NURBS Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Preparing for the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Lesson 1: Revolving a curve to create a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Creating a profile curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Creating a revolve surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Editing a revolve surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Lesson 2: Sculpting a NURBS surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Preparing a surface for sculpting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Basic sculpting techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Additional sculpting techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Sculpting a nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Sculpting eye sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Sculpting eyebrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Sculpting a mouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Sculpting other facial features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Lesson 3: Lofting curves to create a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Creating profile curves for a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Duplicating curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Lofting a surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Modifying a primitive object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Using the Outliner to parent objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Contents | v
  6. 6. Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Chapter 5 Subdivision Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Preparing for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Lesson 1: Modeling a subdivision surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Creating a subdivision surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Splitting a surface in polygon proxy mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Extruding polygon faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Deleting polygon faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Subdivision surface levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Refining surface components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Creating a crease in a subdivision surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Chapter 6 Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Preparing for the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Lesson 1: Keyframes and the Graph Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Setting the playback range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Setting keyframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Using the Graph Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Changing the timing of an attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Fine tuning an animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Deleting extra keyframes and static channels . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Using Playblast to playback an animation . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Lesson 2: Set Driven Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Lesson setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Using Set Driven Key to link attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Viewing the results in the Graph Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Lesson 3: Path animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Animating an object along a motion path . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Changing the timing of an object along a motion path . . . . . 224 Rotating an object along a motion path . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Blending keyframe and motion path animation . . . . . . . . . 231 Using Playblast to playback an animation . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Lesson 4: Nonlinear animation with Trax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 vi | Contents
  7. 7. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Open the first scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Creating clips with Trax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Changing the position of clips with Trax . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Editing the animation of clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Reusing clips within Trax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Soloing and muting tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Scaling clips within Trax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Open the second scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Creating clips from motion capture data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Extending the length of motion capture data . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Redirecting the motion within a clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Lesson 5: Inverse kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Understanding hierarchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Viewing hierarchies using the Hypergraph . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Creating a skeleton hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Parenting a model into a skeleton hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Applying IK to a skeleton hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Creating a control object for an IK system . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Constraining an IK system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Limiting the range of motion of an IK system . . . . . . . . . . 298 Simplifying the display of a hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Applying parent constraints on an IK system . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Planning an animation for an IK system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Animating an IK system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Chapter 7 Character Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Preparing for the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Lesson 1: Skeletons and kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Creating joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Adding joints to a skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Creating a skeleton hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Forward and inverse kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Posing and animating using inverse kinematics . . . . . . . . . 328 Posing and animating using forward kinematics . . . . . . . . . 332 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Lesson 2: Smooth skinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Contents | vii
  8. 8. Smooth binding a skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Skin weighting and deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Modifying skin weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Influence objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Lesson 3: Cluster and blend shape deformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Creating a target object for a blend shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Creating a cluster deformer on a target object . . . . . . . . . . 346 Editing cluster weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Creating a blend shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Refining deformation effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Adding target objects to an existing blend shape . . . . . . . . . 355 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Chapter 8 Polygon Texturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Preparing for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Lesson 1: UV texture mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Creating a cracker box model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 Applying a texture map to a polygon mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Viewing UVs in the UV Texture Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Mapping UV texture coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 Working with UVs in the UV Texture Editor . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Lesson 2: UV unfolding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Lesson Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Dividing the mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Creating a planar mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Unfolding a UV mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Adjusting the checker pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Outputting UVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Unfolding with constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Sewing UV Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Smoothing/Relaxing a mesh interactively . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Fixing problem areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Applying Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Lesson 3: Normal mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Lesson setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Creating a Normal Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 viii | Contents
  9. 9. Viewing a normal map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Chapter 9 Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Preparing for the lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Lesson 1: Rendering a scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 Creating shading materials for objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Refining shading materials for objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 Maya renderers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 Rendering a single frame using IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 Rendering using the Maya software renderer . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Batch rendering a sequence of animation frames . . . . . . . . . 459 Viewing a sequence of rendered frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Beyond the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Lesson 2: Shading surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Open the scene for the lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Assigning