Presentation2 (culture)


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Presentation2 (culture)

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGY GS121 Culture
  2. 2. What is culture <ul><li>Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A fairly large number of people are said to constitute a society when they live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is culture <ul><li>Culture consists of both material and nonmaterial elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Material culture : Physical or technological aspects of daily lives: Food, House, Raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmaterial culture : Customs, Beliefs, Philosophies, Governments, and Patterns of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sociobiology emphasizes the ways that culture is determined by human biology. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is culture <ul><li>Subcultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value that differs from the pattern of the larger society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : employees of international call centers in India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countercultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture Shock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprise and disorientation experienced when people encounter cultural practices different from their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Americans who encounter dog meat as a delicacy in China. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Language and Culture <ul><li>Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. Language not only describes reality, it also serves to shape the reality of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language can transmit stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : dictionary definitions of words such as black and white. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language can shape how we taste, smell, feel, and hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures, facial expressions, and other learned visual images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies from culture to culture. Example: The meaning of the “thumbs-up” symbol in the U.S. and Australia. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Norms <ul><li>Norms are established standards of behavior maintained by society. Norms are classified as either formal or informal. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal norms generally are written down and specify certain behaviors through laws and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal norms are generally understood, but not precisely written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : standards of proper dress. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Norms <ul><li>Acceptance of Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People do not follow norms in all situations. Weak norms will often be ignored. Example : teenage drinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms may be violated due to norm conflict. Example : reporting your neighbor being beaten after you hear screams. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norms are influenced by political, economic, and social conditions of a culture. Example: views on interracial marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What is culture <ul><li>Values are collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, or what is considered bad, undesirable, and improper in a culture. Values may be specific or they may be more general. The values of a culture may change, but most remain relatively stable during any one person’s lifetime. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symbols
  10. 10. Symbols
  11. 11. Symbols
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Functionalists view culture as a stabilizing agent for society. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict theorists view culture as serving the privileges of powerful groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant ideology is a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: male domination of females. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Group discussion <ul><li>A group of five. </li></ul><ul><li>First quiz: Think what makes culture and present in a mind map form. </li></ul><ul><li>Second quiz: If you grew up in your parents’ generation without computers, e-mail, ipod, and cell phones. How would your daily life differ from the one you lead today? </li></ul><ul><li>Write your name down in the paper with student ID. </li></ul><ul><li>This is your homework  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Big Project <ul><li>Group project (45%): 3 and 10 September : “ Breaking a normal behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go out in public, break social norms and document it with your video camera. Upload to Sociology facebook page 1 day before presentation and Present in class how people around you react, and how your action creates this meaningful event. You need to present at least 3 different scenarios. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Example