Tackling child labour in the
cocoa-growing sector
Opportunities and challenges for traders
Presentation to the Soft Commod...
Who are we?
A unique multi-stakeholder partnership between
industry and civil society
New members (2012):
Board Advisor:
B...
To tackle the problems of child labour, child trafficking
and forced adult labour in the cocoa supply-chain.
What is our m...
Through joint thinking
and collective, multi-
stakeholder action,
based on the principle
of shared responsibility.
How do ...
What is child labour?
Unacceptable child labour
• Underage, unsupervised
• Excessive hours, deprived of schooling
Worst fo...
Scale of the problem
• 132 million child labourers (U15) in agriculture globally.
• 56-72 million child labourers (U15) in...
Improved understanding of child
labour in cocoa
• Causes
 Income poverty and fragile livelihoods.
 Incomplete awareness ...
Stronger national leadership
and coordination at origin
• Ratification of ILO Conventions
138 and 182.
• Development of Na...
Increased commitments
from the cocoa industry
• Concern for lowest-tiers in supply-chain.
• Sustainability targets (includ...
Positive impact on
child education
In ICI-supported
communities, from 2007
to 2011, school enrolment
increased by :
24% in...
In 31 communities in Adamsi South, Ghana, community-
based activities lifted primary school enrolment to 97%,
and boosted ...
Real reductions in child labour
Bas Sassandra, Côte d'Ivoire, over 18 months
• Children spraying pesticides: 97% reduced.
...
Spreading detailed knowledge and understanding
Remaining challenges
• Moving from definitions to common operational supply...
Matching the resources
to the scale
• Shared responsibility 
defining roles and burdenshare.
• Tapping development fundin...
Managing child labour risks as part of
responsible supply-chain management
• Know your supply chain
(down to lowest tiers/...
Cocoa: from a sector in crisis
to a model sector?
• Ageing farmers, predicted
supply deficit, social
challenges, reputatio...
Large volumes
• Coverage and leverage.
Buying from/selling to many
• Supply-chain penetration.
Responding to client demand...
Not consumer facing
• Harder to justify investments
in child labour mitigation to
shareholders.
• In absence of client dem...
Cost/market share dilemmas
• Effective child labour mitigation is not resource-neutral (in short-term).
• If consumers or ...
• Research
 Child labour causality and good practice.
• Awareness-raising and training
 Child labour definitions, child ...
Nestlé case study
Responsible management of
child labour risks in the cocoa
supply chain
ICI's work
• Standardised training of all supply-chain actors
 Nestlé and first-tier suppliers (ADM, Cargill, Olam, Noble).
 Certif...
• ICI is funded through members' annual
contributions (category/metric tons of
cocoa usage).
 Core technical and advisory...
Thank You
For all ICI's activities and results: www.cocoainitiative.org
Partnership enquiries: n.perroud@cocoainitiative.o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Tackling child labour in the cocoa-growing sector - Opportunities and challenges for traders

1,315

Published on

Presentation of Nick Weatherill, Executive Director of ICI, to the Soft Commodities Trading Operations, Logistics & Finance Summit, Geneva, 27 February 2013

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,315
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
39
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tackling child labour in the cocoa-growing sector - Opportunities and challenges for traders

  1. 1. Tackling child labour in the cocoa-growing sector Opportunities and challenges for traders Presentation to the Soft Commodities Trading Operations, Logistics & Finance Summit Geneva, 27th February 2013 Nick Weatherill
  2. 2. Who are we? A unique multi-stakeholder partnership between industry and civil society New members (2012): Board Advisor: Board Observer:
  3. 3. To tackle the problems of child labour, child trafficking and forced adult labour in the cocoa supply-chain. What is our mission?
  4. 4. Through joint thinking and collective, multi- stakeholder action, based on the principle of shared responsibility. How do we do this?
  5. 5. What is child labour? Unacceptable child labour • Underage, unsupervised • Excessive hours, deprived of schooling Worst forms of child labour • Conditional: hazardous activities (age/context). • Unconditional: exploitation and trafficking. Acceptable child work • Work that is limited to a few hours a week, supervised by responsible adults • Light tasks, usually carried out on the family farm, that do not compromise school attendance.
  6. 6. Scale of the problem • 132 million child labourers (U15) in agriculture globally. • 56-72 million child labourers (U15) in agriculture in Africa. • Prevalent - but not specific or unique to cocoa. • Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana: 300,000-900,000 children in child labour, in cocoa growing. • 97% on family farms.
  7. 7. Improved understanding of child labour in cocoa • Causes  Income poverty and fragile livelihoods.  Incomplete awareness through the supply- chain, amongst farmers, and in key national actors.  Inadequate social infrastructure and basic services.  Weak legislative frameworks, poor rule of law. • Solutions and good practice  Holistic (multiple drivers).  Context-specific.  Community-oriented.  Area-based (cross-sectoral).  Multi-stakeholder, but nationally-led. Progress to date
  8. 8. Stronger national leadership and coordination at origin • Ratification of ILO Conventions 138 and 182. • Development of National Hazardous Activity Decrees and Frameworks. • Articulation of National Action Plans for Child Labour Elimination. • Establishment of cross-sectoral, multi-stakeholder coordination platforms. • Commitment to child labour monitoring and national surveys. • Sector reforms that benefit farmers. Progress to date
  9. 9. Increased commitments from the cocoa industry • Concern for lowest-tiers in supply-chain. • Sustainability targets (including certification). • Increasing resources for sustainability, social development and child labour mitigation. Progress to date
  10. 10. Positive impact on child education In ICI-supported communities, from 2007 to 2011, school enrolment increased by : 24% in Ghana. 16% in Côte d'Ivoire. Progress to date
  11. 11. In 31 communities in Adamsi South, Ghana, community- based activities lifted primary school enrolment to 97%, and boosted school attendance from 50% to 85%. Progress to date
  12. 12. Real reductions in child labour Bas Sassandra, Côte d'Ivoire, over 18 months • Children spraying pesticides: 97% reduced. • Children carrying excessive loads: 84% reduced. • Children using heavy machetes: 63% reduced. Côte d'Ivoire Wassa Amenfi West, Ghana, over 18 months • Children spraying pesticides: 97% reduced. • Children carrying excessive loads: 88% reduced. • Children using heavy machetes: 94% reduced. Ghana Progress to date
  13. 13. Spreading detailed knowledge and understanding Remaining challenges • Moving from definitions to common operational supply-chain standards. • Developing tools and capacities to implement standards.
  14. 14. Matching the resources to the scale • Shared responsibility  defining roles and burdenshare. • Tapping development funding: child labour = development failure. • Building partnerships. • "Investing back" for sustainability: taxation revenues & commercial profits. • Passing costs to consumers? • Ensuring efficiency through coordination and best practice. Remaining challenges
  15. 15. Managing child labour risks as part of responsible supply-chain management • Know your supply chain (down to lowest tiers/smallholders and workers). • Understand and identify the child labour risks. • Manage those risks responsibly (prevention, remediation, referral / advocacy). • Monitoring / Compliance  Remediation / Assistance Remaining challenges
  16. 16. Cocoa: from a sector in crisis to a model sector? • Ageing farmers, predicted supply deficit, social challenges, reputational risks. • Vast potential for change.  Engaged industry, engaged origins.  Production concentration.  Multi-stakeholder collaboration.  Sustainability win-wins. • Child labour as a composite sustainability indicator. Remaining challenges
  17. 17. Large volumes • Coverage and leverage. Buying from/selling to many • Supply-chain penetration. Responding to client demand • Translating manufacturers' consumer commitments into supply chain action (e.g. certification, quality, social responsibility). Direct interface with producers and intermediaries • Organising and training farmers (e.g. coops). Agro-social win-wins. • Influencing middle-men (supply- chain standards, traceability, efficiency). Challenges for traders/suppliers
  18. 18. Not consumer facing • Harder to justify investments in child labour mitigation to shareholders. • In absence of client demand, tests commitment to child labour risk-management on basis of:  respecting and supporting child/human rights, and  securing sustainable supply and longevity of profits. Challenges for traders/suppliers
  19. 19. Cost/market share dilemmas • Effective child labour mitigation is not resource-neutral (in short-term). • If consumers or clients don't pay (e.g. premiums), responsible supply-chains may become less competitive. Investor does not benefit. • Crowded, multi-layered, fragmented & liberalised supply-chains most vulnerable. • Importance of pre-competitive approach and level-playing field.  National standards/industry standards (ICI/CEN). Challenges for traders/suppliers
  20. 20. • Research  Child labour causality and good practice. • Awareness-raising and training  Child labour definitions, child protection, standards, responses.  Community mobilisation (Community Action Plans, Community Child Protection Committees, community/government resources). • Access to quality education  School construction/rehabilitation/ equipment/teachers.  Formal and non-formal education, vocational training for youth. • Livelihood support  Farmer-field schools, extension, inputs. • Basic services  Health, water, sanitation. ICI's work
  21. 21. Nestlé case study Responsible management of child labour risks in the cocoa supply chain ICI's work
  22. 22. • Standardised training of all supply-chain actors  Nestlé and first-tier suppliers (ADM, Cargill, Olam, Noble).  Certified co-operatives.  Farmers and cocoa-growing communities (+ local authorities). • Injection of child labour capacity and responsibility  Child Labour Agent (CLA) in coop management structure.  Community Liaison Officer (CLO) at producer level. • Child Labour Monitoring and Remediation System  CLO monitors farms, identifies at-risk individuals/households, reports to coop.  CLA validates CLO reports, follows-up cases, allocates remediation funds, reports to supplier. • Strengthening of existing certification models (UTZ, Fair Trade)  Revision of standards.  Expanded training.  More regular and reliable farm-level monitoring (remediation link). Nestlé case study
  23. 23. • ICI is funded through members' annual contributions (category/metric tons of cocoa usage).  Core technical and advisory capacity.  Influencing and advocacy (national/international policies).  Community development and child protection activities in 400 communities. • Service-provision and company-specific projects for members, funded separately. • ICI is actively seeking additional traders and logistics companies to join.  Expansion of supply-chain improvements and business-oriented innovations.  Inclusive, sector-wide, standardised, pre- competitive protection of children. Partnering with traders/suppliers
  24. 24. Thank You For all ICI's activities and results: www.cocoainitiative.org Partnership enquiries: n.perroud@cocoainitiative.org Thank you!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×