Military Justice  System
<ul><li>All Officers and soldiers in the active service of the AFP </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the Reserve Force from dat...
Person Subject to Military Law <ul><li>Cadets of PMA,  Flying Cadets of the PAF,  Flying Schools and P2LTs </li></ul><ul><...
Role of the Military <ul><li>Uphold the sovereignty,  support the constitution and defend the territory of the RP against ...
Role of the Military <ul><li>Plan,  organize,  maintain,  develop and deploy its regular and citizen reserve forces for na...
Role of the Military during Normal Conditions <ul><li>Perform civic action  </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement duties </li>...
Military Jurisdiction <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>International L...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>General  </li></ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li>...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Composition: </li></ul><ul><li>All commissioned Officer in the Active Duty </li></ul><ul><li>No dist...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Number: </li></ul><ul><li>General CM - any member of officer not less than five (5). </li></ul><ul><...
Court-Martial <ul><li>A law member,  who shall not be an officer of the Judge Advocate General Service shall be detailed a...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>General Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>President of the P...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>Special Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who can ap...
Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>CO of Garrison,  F...
PUNITIVE ARTICLES OF WAR
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Article 54 -  Fraudulent Enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Any Person who procures himse...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Instance Offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Concealment of previous dishonorable discharge ...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Fraudulent enlistment is not void but voidable only at the option of the government...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Maximum Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Dishonorable Discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Forfe...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Article 55 -  Officer Unlawful Enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer who knowing...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Article 56 -  False Muster </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer who are: </li></ul><ul><li...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Article 57 -  False Return </li></ul><ul><li>Committed by officer who render false ...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissal from the service </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer o...
Enlistment,  Musters,  Returns <ul><li>Article 171 </li></ul><ul><li>Falsification of public office, employee,  notary or ...
Desertion,  Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 58 -  Acts Constituting Desertion </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer, having ...
Desertion,  Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 59 -  Desertion -No intent to Return </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subjec...
Desertion,  Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 60 -  Advising or Aiding another to Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Any person ...
In advising or persuading to desert,  it is not necessary that there is actual desertion.  It is important  that the prose...
Desertion,  Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 62 -  Absent Without Leave (AWOL) </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject t...
AWOL is lesser offense included in Desertions
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 63 -  Disrespect toward President, Vice President, Congress, or SND <...
Mere adverse criticism uttered in a political  discussion not intended to be respectful is not violated in this article
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 64 -  Disrespect toward Superior Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Any person...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Words like open declaration of intention to disobe...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 65 -  Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying Superior Officer </li></ul><...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 66 -  Insubordinate Conduct toward Non-Commissioned Officer </li></ul...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 67 -  Mutiny or Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to mili...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Mutiny -  concerted insubordination on opposition,  defiance of, or resistanc...
Disrespect, Insubordination,  Mutiny <ul><li>Article 68 -  Failure to suppress Mutiny or Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Any of...
It is crime simply to “stand by”  while mutiny is being committed
Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 70 -  Arrest or Confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to mil law charged...
Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 72 -  Refusal to Receive and Keep Prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>No Provost Marshall o...
Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 74 -  Releasing Prisoner Without Proper Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subj...
Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 75 -  Delivery of Offenders to Civil Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>When a person su...
Punishment:   (Any CO in time of War,  to deliver over such  accused person to the civil authority or to aid officer of  J...
Miscellaneous Crimes and Offenses
Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 85  -  Waste on Unlawful Disposition of Military Property Issued to Soldie...
Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 88  - Personal Interest in Sale or Provision </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment:...
Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 94   - Various Crime </li></ul><ul><li>This AW has been modified by  PD 18...
Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 96   - Conduct Unbecoming of an Officer and Gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>Mi...
Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 97   - General Article </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>All ...
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  1. 1. Military Justice System
  2. 2. <ul><li>All Officers and soldiers in the active service of the AFP </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the Reserve Force from dates of their CAD and while on active duty </li></ul><ul><li>Training undergoing military instructions </li></ul><ul><li>All other persons lawfully called, Draftees or ordered into, or to duty or for training in the service from dates of their calls, drafs or order to obey the same </li></ul>Person Subject to Military Law
  3. 3. Person Subject to Military Law <ul><li>Cadets of PMA, Flying Cadets of the PAF, Flying Schools and P2LTs </li></ul><ul><li>All retainers to the camp and all person accompanying or serving with the AFP in the field in time of war or when Martial Law is declared </li></ul><ul><li>All persons under sentence adjudge by Court-Martial </li></ul>
  4. 4. Role of the Military <ul><li>Uphold the sovereignty, support the constitution and defend the territory of the RP against all enemies, foreign and domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Promote and advance the national aims, goals, interest and policies </li></ul>In consonance with national objectives
  5. 5. Role of the Military <ul><li>Plan, organize, maintain, develop and deploy its regular and citizen reserve forces for national security </li></ul><ul><li>Assist and support the National Government in its task of nation building </li></ul><ul><li>Perform other functions as may be provided by law or assigned by higher authorities </li></ul>
  6. 6. Role of the Military during Normal Conditions <ul><li>Perform civic action </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement duties </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic programs </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of Reserve Force </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading mission, objectives or goals to include policies </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of self-reliance program </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance of Public Relation program </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading of morale and welfare of the members of the AFP </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of sports and other recreational activities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Military Jurisdiction <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>International Law </li></ul>
  8. 8. Court-Martial <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  9. 9. Court-Martial <ul><li>Composition: </li></ul><ul><li>All commissioned Officer in the Active Duty </li></ul><ul><li>No distinction exists among the various classes of officer in the mil service </li></ul><ul><li>2LTs and members of the Nurse Corps and Reserve Officer on Active Duty training may not serve on court martial </li></ul>
  10. 10. Court-Martial <ul><li>Number: </li></ul><ul><li>General CM - any member of officer not less than five (5). </li></ul><ul><li>Special CM - any member of officer not less than three(3). </li></ul><ul><li>Summary CM - consist of one (1) officer. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Court-Martial <ul><li>A law member, who shall not be an officer of the Judge Advocate General Service shall be detailed as one of the members of the GCM </li></ul>
  12. 12. Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>General Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>President of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>CSAFP </li></ul><ul><li>When empowered by the President </li></ul><ul><li>CO of Division </li></ul><ul><li>Supt of PMA (except for the trial of an offr) </li></ul><ul><li>CO of Separate Brigade or Body of Troops </li></ul>
  13. 13. Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>Special Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who can appoint GCM </li></ul><ul><li>When empowered by the President </li></ul><ul><li>CO of Garrison, Fort, Camp, Brigade, Regiment, Detached Bn or other Detached Command </li></ul>
  14. 14. Court-Martial <ul><li>Appointing Authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Court-Martial </li></ul><ul><li>CO of Garrison, Fort, Camp or other place where troops are on duty and the CO of a Regiment, Detached Bn, Detached company or other detachment </li></ul>
  15. 15. PUNITIVE ARTICLES OF WAR
  16. 16. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Article 54 - Fraudulent Enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Any Person who procures himself to be enlisted by: </li></ul><ul><li>Willful misrepresentation </li></ul><ul><li>Concealment as to qualification for enlistment and receive Pay and Allowances </li></ul>
  17. 17. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Instance Offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Concealment of previous dishonorable discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Concealment of discharge without honor </li></ul><ul><li>Concealment that he was a deserter </li></ul><ul><li>False representation of marital status </li></ul>Article 54 - Fraudulent Enlistment
  18. 18. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Fraudulent enlistment is not void but voidable only at the option of the government. The offenses can be waived and the soldier may be retained in the service </li></ul>Article 54 - Fraudulent Enlistment
  19. 19. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Maximum Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Dishonorable Discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Forfeiture of all Pay and Allowances </li></ul><ul><li>1 -year confinement and hard labor </li></ul>Article 54 - Fraudulent Enlistment
  20. 20. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Article 55 - Officer Unlawful Enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer who knowingly enlist or musters into the military service to any person whose enlistment or muster is prohibited </li></ul>
  21. 21. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Article 56 - False Muster </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer who are: </li></ul><ul><li>Make false muster of a men or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Sign, direct or allows the signing of any muster roll knowing to the same contain false statements as to the absence or pay an officer or soldier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrongfully takes money or other consideration </li></ul>
  22. 22. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Article 57 - False Return </li></ul><ul><li>Committed by officer who render false report to superior authority on the return of troops under his unit or arms, ammunition, funds, etc </li></ul>
  23. 23. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissal from the service </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer other punishment as Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>Article 57 - False Return
  24. 24. Enlistment, Musters, Returns <ul><li>Article 171 </li></ul><ul><li>Falsification of public office, employee, notary or ecclesiastics </li></ul>Article 57 - False Return
  25. 25. Desertion, Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 58 - Acts Constituting Desertion </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer, having tendered his resignation and prior notice or acceptance, quits his post or proper duties without leave and with intent to absent permanently </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer without having first discharge against enlist in the AFP or AF of foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to military law quits his organization or place of duty with intent to avoid hazardous duty or shirk important service </li></ul>
  26. 26. Desertion, Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 59 - Desertion -No intent to Return </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to military law desert or attempt to desert the AFP shall: </li></ul><ul><li>If the offense committed in time of war shall suffer death or such other punishment as Court-Martial may direct </li></ul><ul><li>At any other time - any punishment that Court-Martial may direct except death. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Desertion, Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 60 - Advising or Aiding another to Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Any person who: </li></ul><ul><li>Advises, persuades, assist another to desert the service </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>Wartime - DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>Committed at other time - any punishment except death </li></ul>
  28. 28. In advising or persuading to desert, it is not necessary that there is actual desertion. It is important that the prosecution should have induced the act
  29. 29. Desertion, Absence Without Leave <ul><li>Article 62 - Absent Without Leave (AWOL) </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to military law who: </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to report at fixed time to the properly appointed place of duty </li></ul><ul><li>Goes from same without proper leave </li></ul><ul><li>Absent himself from his command, guard quarters, station without leave </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  30. 30. AWOL is lesser offense included in Desertions
  31. 31. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 63 - Disrespect toward President, Vice President, Congress, or SND </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespect words against the above </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissed from the service </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mere adverse criticism uttered in a political discussion not intended to be respectful is not violated in this article
  33. 33. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 64 - Disrespect toward Superior Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Any person who behave with disrespect toward his superior officer </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  34. 34. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Words like open declaration of intention to disobey orders </li></ul><ul><li>Disrespect word uttered against an officer in the presence of other officer </li></ul><ul><li>Acts neglecting the customary salute </li></ul><ul><li>By indifference, insolence or rudeness in his presence </li></ul>Article 64 - Disrespect toward Superior Officer
  35. 35. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 65 - Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying Superior Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to military who: </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes his superior officer </li></ul><ul><li>Draw or lift any weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Officer violated against him being in the execution of his office </li></ul><ul><li>Willfully disobey any lawful command of his superior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: DEATH or as Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  36. 36. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 66 - Insubordinate Conduct toward Non-Commissioned Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Any soldier who: </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes or assaults, or who attempts of threatens to strike or assault, or willfully disobeys order of a NCO or uses threatening or insulting language, or behaves in an insubordination or respectful manner toward a NCO while in an execution of his office </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  37. 37. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 67 - Mutiny or Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to military law who: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to create or who begins, excite, causes or joins any mutiny or sedition in company, party, post, camp, detachment guard or command. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  38. 38. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Mutiny - concerted insubordination on opposition, defiance of, or resistance to lawful mil authority by two or more persons subject to such authority or neutralize it for the time being. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition - form of resistance to civil power demonstrated by riot, disorder. Intent alone is not sufficient no matter how deliberate and fixed or even if there is unanimous conspiracy, the offense of mutiny will fail. In other words, words alone, unaccompanied by acts will not suffice to constitute mutiny. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny <ul><li>Article 68 - Failure to suppress Mutiny or Sedition </li></ul><ul><li>Any officer or soldier present at any mutiny or sedition does not use his utmost endeavor to suppress the same of having reason to believe that mutiny or sedition is to take place does not without delay, give info to his CO. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  40. 40. It is crime simply to “stand by” while mutiny is being committed
  41. 41. Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 70 - Arrest or Confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to mil law charged with crime or with an offense under these articles shall be placed in confinement or arrest as circumstances may require; but when charge with a minor offense only, such person shall not ordinarily be placed in confinement. Or who break his arrest, whether before or after trial or sentence and before he set at liberty by proper authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  42. 42. Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 72 - Refusal to Receive and Keep Prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>No Provost Marshall or Commander of the Guard shall refuse to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his charge by any officer belonging to the AFP or PNP, provided the officer committing shall, at the time deliver an account in writing, if the crime of offenses charges against the prisoner. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: (Any Officer or Soldier) </li></ul><ul><li>As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  43. 43. Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 74 - Releasing Prisoner Without Proper Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Any person subject to mil law, without proper authority, release any prisoner duly committed to his charge, or who through neglect or design suffers any prisoner to committed to escape. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As Court-Martial may direct </li></ul>
  44. 44. Arrest and Confinement <ul><li>Article 75 - Delivery of Offenders to Civil Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>When a person subject to mil law, except one who is held by the mil authorities to answer, or who is awaiting trial or result of trial or who is undergoing sentence for a crime of offense punishable under those articles is accused a crime or offense committed and punishable under those article is accused a crime or offense committed and punishable by law ordinance, the CO is required, except in time of war, to deliver such accused person to the civil authorities or the Officer of Justice in apprehending and securing him, in order that he may brought to trial. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Punishment: (Any CO in time of War, to deliver over such accused person to the civil authority or to aid officer of Justice in apprehending and securing him) Dismissed from the Service As Court-Martial may direct When under the provision of this Article, delivery is made to the civil authorities of an offender undergoing sentence of a Court-Martial, such delivery, if followed by conviction, shall be held to interrupt the execution of the offense of the Court-Martial and the offense shall be return to military custody, after having answered to the civil authorities for his offense, for the completion to the said Court-Martial sentences
  46. 46. Miscellaneous Crimes and Offenses
  47. 47. Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 85 - Waste on Unlawful Disposition of Military Property Issued to Soldier </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As CM may direct </li></ul><ul><li>Article 86 - Drunk on Duty </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: Officer (In time of War)- Dismissed from the Svc/ (Time of Peace) -As CM may direct/ Any Person Subject to Mil Law (Except Officer) - As CM may direct </li></ul><ul><li>Article 87 - Misbehavior of Sentinel </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: (In time of War) - Death/As CM may direct/ (Time of Peace) - As CM may direct except death </li></ul>
  48. 48. Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 88 - Personal Interest in Sale or Provision </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As CM may direct </li></ul><ul><li>Article 88A - Unlawfully Influencing Action of Court </li></ul><ul><li>Violation: </li></ul><ul><li>Favoring a certain private contractors in the supply of victuals, other food stuff or other necessaries of life used by the soldier in the camp or station of which he is the CO </li></ul><ul><li>In order to violate this Article, it is necessary for the CO has gained private advantage, either for himself or any member of his family </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: As CM may direct </li></ul>
  49. 49. Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 94 - Various Crime </li></ul><ul><li>This AW has been modified by PD 1850 which makes person subject to mil law trial by Court-Martial irrespective whether the offense was committed inside or outside a military reservation and whether or not the offended party is a person subject to mil law </li></ul>
  50. 50. Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 96 - Conduct Unbecoming of an Officer and Gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>Military Personnel amenable under this AW: </li></ul><ul><li>Officer </li></ul><ul><li>Cadet </li></ul><ul><li>Flying/P2LT </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty: Dismissal from the Service </li></ul>
  51. 51. Miscellaneous Crimes & Offenses <ul><li>Article 97 - General Article </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>All disorders and neglect to the prejudice of good order and military discipline and all conduct of nature as to bring discredit upon the military service </li></ul><ul><li>General Court-Martial or Summary Court-Martial shall take this offense according to the nature and degree of the offense </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty: Discretionary upon the court </li></ul>
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