Wireless Presentation for UT in Silicon Valley 2013
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Wireless Presentation for UT in Silicon Valley 2013

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    Wireless Presentation for UT in Silicon Valley 2013 Wireless Presentation for UT in Silicon Valley 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • New Frontiers in Ubiquitous Mobile Computing UT Austin Silicon Valley Event March 6, 2013 Robert Heath, Gustavo de Veciana, Jeff Andrews, Sriram Vishwanath, and Ahmed Tewfik Wireless Networking and Communications Group http://www.wncg.org
    • Wireless is Big in Texas 20 Faculty 12 Industrial Affiliates Affiliates  champion  large   federal  proposals,  provide   technical  input/feedback,   unrestricted  gi:  funds   WNCG  provides  pre-­‐prints,   pre-­‐compe@@ve  research   ideas,  vast  exper@se,  first   access  to  students   56%  of  students  full-­‐@me,  54%  of   Affiliates  provide   students  intern  over  the  summer   real  world  context   Heavily funded center 140 Grad Students $5M2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2
    • Wireless and BeyondCellular Networks Architectures Pushing RF Limits Applications High Dimensional Learning & BigDATA Security Identify ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/© SIGAL SUHLER MORAN 3
    • Technical SnapshotsIs There Really a “Spectrum Crunch”?Solving the Video Bandwidth BottleneckSecure Architectures for Wireless 4
    • The Sky is Falling!o  Mobile data demand increasing at 100-200% a year, depending on who you ask §  That’s over a 1000x increase in a decadeo  “Almost three years ago we started sounding the alarm… the debate has been settled. The plain fact is that aggregate demand is increasing at very rapid pace, while supply is flat.” §  FCC Chairman J. Genachowski, CES, Jan. 11, 2012o  The FCC’s “bold plan”? §  Add 300 MHz by 2015, 500 MHz by 2020 §  Since 2010, only 25 MHz has actually been added 5
    • Cellular Networks are Undergoing a Radical Structural Change: “HetNets”•  Mobile users simply care whether they can connect at a high rate and quality Wi-Fi Femto BS•  Key to user experience is not Femto BS Pico BS amount of spectrum Femto BS •  US WiFi spectrum > 420 MHz •  US Cellular > 550 MHz Macro BS Femto BS Wi-Fi•  The key is the amount of infrastructure Pico BS •  Picocells for hotspots Femto BS •  Femtocells for home and office •  WiFi everywhere A“HetNet” (single macrocell coverage area) 6
    • Understanding User Rate in HetNetso  The rate (bits/second) is given by a modification of Shannon’s formula: B R= log2 (1 + SINR) No  Decreasing the number of users per base station (N) is equivalent to increasing the amount of spectrum (B) 7
    • One Answer is More Base StationsTypical Counter-Argumentso  Won’t adding more base stations be really expensive?o  Won’t adding more base stations increase the amount of interference, and result in a “tragedy of the A plausible 3-tier HetNet commons” effect? (macro-pico-femto) showing max-SINR coverage areas in a given bandThe answer to both questions is “No” -- or at least “Not Necessarily” 8
    • Cost is Not a Fundamental Roadblock o  Infrastructure Cost §  There is no fundamental reason a small BS needs to cost much more than a WiFi AP §  Backhaul (and to lesser extent, power) is a huge issue and an “all of the above” solution is needed o  Other challenges include: §  Mobility management §  Self-tuning and self-organization §  Open vs. Closed Access §  Use of 3rd party wired backhaul 9
    • HetNets Can Only Increase RateOur research in WNCG at UT Austin has proven:o  Adding base stations of any power, even at random locations, actually does not change the SINR distribution in the network (breakthrough HetNet result)o  Optimal load balancing – pushing users intelligently onto the smaller cells – in a HetNet is easy and has a 3x gaino  There is no “interference overload” issue in HetNetso  Our results have been borne out by findings from Qualcomm, NSN, Samsung, Huawei, NTT Docomo, and AT&T J. G. Andrews, “Seven Ways that HetNets are a Cellular Paradigm Shift”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Mar. 2013. 10
    • Is HetNet the End of the Road?o  mmWave: More spectrum is still good §  Plenty at mmWave bands that could be exploited §  Larger bandwidth, reduced interference, §  Useful for both backhaul and access linkso  Antennas: More MIMO doesn’t hurt §  A few antennas can multiply the bandwidth efficiency §  Massive numbers of antennas can support many users and can even simplify processing in massive MIMOo  Coordination: Managing interference makes sense §  Coordinated interference may cease to be interference §  Price of coordination does not always outweigh costs §  Centralized infrastructure is easier to coordinate (cloud) M. Dohler, R. W. Heath, Jr., A. Lozano, C. Papadias, R. A. Valenzuela, ``Is the PHY Layer Dead?, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 159-165, April 2011. 11
    • Technical SnapshotsIs There Really a “Spectrum Crunch”?Solving the Video Bandwidth BottleneckSecure Architectures for Wireless 12
    • Explosion of Wireless Digital Videoo  Smartphones, Ipads, tablets, laptops, HD content.o  Wireless data traffic is increasing by 100% annually…..66% expected to be digital video.o  Additional capacity enabled by HetNets, does not resolve per user capacity variability, posing challenge to video delivery. 13
    • 1. Exploiting Knowledge of Future Capacity Variationso  Opportunistic scheduling given current capacity variations.o  Opportunistic video delivery exploits knowledge of future capacity variations and increased storage on mobile devices. Predictable Capacity mobility patterns Poor coverage Wireless coverage/capacity landscape Time
    • 2. Optimizing Video Delivery for Humans’ Quality of Experience video quality aversion + to variability in quality Size/rate Perceptual aspects Behavioral aspects of of video quality. video quality, e.g., memory 15
    • 3. Exploiting Heterogeneity of Video Content Inter-user Heterogeneity Distinguish users watchinga talk show vs. an HD movie. Intra-user HeterogeneityExploit knowledge of changing character of video content. 16
    • 4. Learning Users’ Preferences to Better Manage Video Delivery cost rebuffering qualityIndividualized contentspecific preferences. Classes of video contentPutting video delivery “intelligence” in mobile (or network).
    • New Video Delivery Infrastructureo  Designing distributed protocols for “optimal” delivery.o  Exploiting knowledge of content, device, wireless capacity, and users’ preferences to optimize for users’ quality of experience.o  Delivering 50-90% video capacity gains and improved fairness over state-of-the-art. 18
    • Technical SnapshotsIs There Really a “Spectrum Crunch”?Solving the Video Bandwidth BottleneckSecure Architectures for Wireless 19
    • “The Cloud” is Expandingo  Usage growing faster than Moore’s law §  $102B in 2012o  Main problem: Reliability, Security and Privacy. Usage by high assurance domains only possible if these solved. 20
    • The Cloud is Truly Everywhere Microsoft’s data centersIssues:1.  The provider may not be trustworthy2.  The VMs on machine may not be secure3.  The hardware itself may be compromised 21
    • Tamper Proof Architecture Security Protect Protected Environment" Kernel (trusted part of an OS) I/O" Identify Memory"o  Single-chip secure processor §  basic encryption + integrity checkingo  First implementation of an Oblivious RAM 22
    • Integrity Checking Using MACsDeploying MACs between VMs and servers to controlpassive/active adversaries 23
    • Coded Data Storage & Accesso  Current approach for storage: replicate data across serverso  Both wasteful in space and insecureo  Coded strategy: §  store coded data across servers §  Require secure collaboration to reconstruct data §  Results in simultaneous network and node security advantages 24
    • Our Research Directionso  A networked cloud + client system with verifiable properties: high evaluation assurance ratingo  Approach: co-design architecture and distributed system software with verification techniqueso  Push theory into practice: Full-system prototypes built on emerging hardware technologies. 25
    • Wireless is Big in Texas 20 Faculty 12 Industrial Affiliates Affiliates  champion  large   federal  proposals,  provide   technical  input/feedback,   unrestricted  gi:  funds   WNCG  provides  pre-­‐prints,   pre-­‐compe@@ve  research   ideas,  vast  exper@se,  first   access  to  students   56%  of  students  full-­‐@me,  54%  of   Affiliates  provide   students  intern  over  the  summer   real  world  context   Heavily funded center 140 Grad Students $5M2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 26
    • WNCG Student PresentationsOptimizing Video over Wireless NetworksPresented by Vinay Joseph Interference Alignment from Information Theory to Practice Presented by Omar El AyachA Comprehensive Model forHeterogeneous Cellular NetworksPresented by Harpreet Dhillon 27