Autism spectrum disorders
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Autism spectrum disorders

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Autism
1. Umbrella Category for Autism:
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) is an umbrella term for disorders characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction skills and communication skills.

PDD includes:
● Autistic Disorder* and Asperger’s Syndrome (very similar disorders, and some consider them variations of the same disorder)
● Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
● Rett’s Disorder
● Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)

*of all the disorders under PDD, Autism is the most severe.

Definition of Autism:
-Developmental disability
-Affecting verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction and imaginative creativity.
-Evident before age three
-Referred to as a spectrum disorder ranging from mild to major in severity.

In laymen terms this means that Autism is a disorder that affects a child’s communication with the outside world. These children with autism seem locked inside of themselves, unable to communicate with loved ones through speech or gestures or even eye contact. The world is so overwhelming that sometimes they seek to solace in a repetitive action of some kind like rubbing their cheek, spinning around, shouting or any other number of repetitive actions. This is call “stimming” or “self-stimulation”.

Definition of Asperger’s Disorder:
-Affects how a child communicates with the outside world.
- Symptoms are less severe than general Autism. Many of the same characteristics of Autism, however are able to interact more easily as their language skills are less effected.
-Greater trouble rooted in social relations, because they cannot interpret social signals and cues that are non-literal.
-Have a higher cognitive development and more typical communication skills.
-Have an above average intelligence.

2. How Common; Causes; & Characteristics



How Common:
-Autism is a low incidence disability: 1 in 2000 children
-When including the full spectrum, PDD is estimated to occur 1 in 300-500 individuals
-Four times more prevalent in in boys than girls.
-Knows no racial, ethical, or social boundaries.

Causes:
No single significant cause of autism has been found. Some research has hinted to the involvement of:
-Organic Factors such as:
a) Brain damage
b) Genetic links
c) Complications during pregnancy
-A Biological Basis
-Some evidence that genetics may play a role.

Note: Children born with rubella and those classified as having fragile X syndrome are more likely to develop autism

Characteristics
Autism Asperger’s Syndrome
□ Auditory-based sensory impairments
□ Avoid eye contact
□ Significant verbal and non-verbal impairments in communication
□ May show anxiety
□ Have problems relating to to other individuals
□ Difficulties in social relations
□ Need consistency and resist change
□ Sensitive to light, sound, touch or other sensory information.
□ Difficulties with abstract reasoning
□ Inappropriate attachment to objects
□ Unable to pay attention to others and their interests
□ Unable to understand gestures, facial expressions, and body language
□ Unable to understand variations in cadence and tone of voice
□ May have repetitive speech or echo things they have just heard
□ Take the literally interpretation of word, and are unable to understand figurative language
□ Hand-flapping, toe-walking, spinning, rocking, or other repetitive actions
□ Unusual response to sensory stimulation
□ May excel at visual or spatial tasks and are fascinated by movement or moving objects.
□ Self-injurious behaviours
□ Difficulty in expressing needs; may use gestures instead of words
□ May prefer to be alone
□ Average intelligence □ Not very adaptable
□ May be inattentive
□ Repetitive and restrictive behaviour patterns
□ May have difficulty conducting a conversation
□ Appear to be insensitive to others,
□ Correct others often
□ May say inappropriate or insulting

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Autism spectrum disorders Autism spectrum disorders Presentation Transcript

  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
    By: Sonya Schulzki and Megan Cochrane
  • Umbrella Category for Autism
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD): are characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction skills and communication skills.
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
    Autistic Disorder and Asperger’sSyndrome
    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
    Rett’s Disorder
    Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)
    Of all the disorders under PDD, autism is the most severe.
  • Definitions
    What is Autism?-Developmental disability-Affecting verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction and imaginative creativity.-Evident before age three-Referred to as a spectrum disorder ranging from mild to major in severity.
    What is Asperger’s Disorder?
    -Affects how a child communicates with the outside world.
    • Symptoms are less severe than general Autism.  Many of the same characteristics of Autism, however are able to interact more easily as their language skills are less effected. View slide
    • -Greater trouble rooted in social relations, because they cannot interpret social signals and cues that are non-literal. View slide
    • -Have a higher cognitive development and more typical communication skills.
    • -Have an above average intelligence.
  • How Common is Autism and What Causes it?
    How Common:
    -Autism is a low incidence disability: 1 in 2000 children
    -When including the full spectrum, PDD is estimated to occur 1 in 300-500 individuals
    -Four times more prevalent in in boys than girls.
    -Knows no racial, ethical, or social boundaries.
    Causes:
    No single significant cause of autism has been found.  Some research has hinted to the involvement of:
    -Organic Factors such as:    a) Brain damage    b) Genetic links    c) Complications during pregnancy
    -A Biological Basis
    -Some evidence that genetics may play a role.
    Note: Children born with rubella and those classified as having fragile X syndrome are more likely to develop autism
  • Characteristics of Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome
    See your handout for a list of common characteristics. ---- Check this out!
    However there are some positive and unexpected characteristics for some people with Autism;
    Splinter skills- small areas in which they are very gifted.  e.g.) Calendar abilities, artistic ability, excellent music ability, and ability to count  visual things quickly.*
    Note: Autistic people with these abilities are rare, and are referred to as autistic savants.
  • Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
    (a) Strategies for Curriculum and Instruction:Tips for Teachers-Teaching a child with autism should be seen as a team approach with the aid of many professionals.-Learn everything possible about the child’s development, behaviour, and what services they have received.-Try to foster an atmosphere of shared decision making with other professionals responsible for the child’s progress-Do not assume that children with Autism have a mental disability.-Beware of even suggesting that parents have caused their children’s difficulties.-Prepare the class for the child with autism.
  • Strategies
    • General classroom routine: where to sit, where to find materials, where to look for information.   
    • Use positive reinforcements
    • Try to broaden the students scope of interest
    • Seat student at front of the class and direct frequent questions to them.
    • Break assignments down into small units.
    • Timed work sessions.
    • Firm expectations and a structured program (learns rules and rewards).
    Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
  • Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
    Strategies Continued
    • Take into consideration to provide extra time for child.
    • Pictures to convey meaning.
    • Teach student social skills, cues and use social stories.
    • Minimize transitions, have clear cues for transitions, and give advance warning.   
    • Adapt reading assignments.
    • Make adaptations such as fewer sentences or draw a picture to express understanding.
    • Adaptations made for handwriting such as tracing, copying, or using markers.
  • Learner’s Needs
    -Use child’s interests as a guide to learning.
    -Occupational/Physical Therapy.
    -Social involvement with peers (e.g. Create cooperative projects in which the children work together in teams toward a shared goal).
    -Provide sensory opportunities.
    -Picture schedule.
    -Self-regulation (e.g. rocking).
    -Teacher’s patients.
    Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
  • b) Possible Classroom Adaptations:
    In the Instruction of your Class
    -Smaller classes and a structured environments
    -Very important to keep things consistent in your instruction or class schedule.
    Physical Needs of Students
    -Weighted vests or lap bags: helps them to understand where their body is and to help reduce the feeling that they are flying
    -Therapeutic brushes: can be used to regulating the student before they become over-stimulated
    -Visual schedules: very helpful to provide a safe and predictable day for the student.
    -Awareness of limited gross and fine motor skills.
    Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
  • Strategies for Supporting the Learner in an Inclusive Setting
    Special Arrangements of Your Classroom
    -Ensure that room is a safe environment for self-regulation: movement or have an outbreak due to over-stimulation.
    -Have a safe “home base” for the child to go in times of stress.
    -Student to sit at front of the class to diminish distractions.
  • Resources:
    Online:
    A Handout for Developing and Implementing Programs for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder:  http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/specedu/aut/pdf/chapter1.pdf
    Teaching students with Autism, A Resource Guide for Schools:    http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/docs/autism.pdf
    Books:
    Symons, Cam. (2010). The Exceptional Teachers’ Casebook. Brandon, MB: Brandon University Faculty of Education Proffesional Development Unit.       
    Tom E.C. et al. (2006). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings. Second Canadian Edition. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc.
    Woolfolk, Anita E., Winne, Philip. H., Perry, Nancy E., Shapka, Jennifer. (2010). Educational Psychology. Toronto, ON:  Pearson Canada Inc.