States of consciousness
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States of consciousness

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States of consciousness States of consciousness Presentation Transcript

  • States of Consciousness
  • Are you conscious?
  • Are you conscious? How do you know?
  • For the next 5 min you are to writeevery thought that pops into youhead.
  • For the next 5 min you are to writeevery thought that pops into youhead. Consciousness is – personal, selective, continuous and changing
  • Consciousness refers to theawareness of one’s own existenceand mental activities (includingthoughts, sensations, and feelings)and of objects and events in theexternal world.
  • William JamesHow is human consciousness like a stream
  • Rene Descartes Consciousness includes everything we are aware of, including our own existence (but our senses can’t be Thinking provides evidence of trusted, so we need to rely on our consciousness and thinking). knowledge of our own existence, e.g. ‘I think, therefore I am’.Consciousness is of the mind (i.e. ‘soul’) and canexist in the body as it does not take up space. The mind (non-physical) and body (physical) are separate and different things but interact via the pineal gland in the brain (dualism)
  • William JamesConsciousness includeseverything we are awareof, including our ownexistence. It is like a stream, i.e constant flow of images, sensations and thoughts, etc. Consciousness is continuallychanging, personal and selective It has an evolutionary-based role that enhances our ability to adapt to the environment.
  • Venn Diagram
  • Characteristics of Normal Waking ConsciousnessAlthough the content of each person’s consciousness is unique there arecharacteristics that differentiate the different states of consciousness. Theseinclude:•Level of attention and awareness•Content Limitations•Emotional awareness•Level of Control•Experience of time•Cognitive processes
  • Attention
  • Divided Attention
  • Selective Attention Level of ConsciousnessDivided Attention
  • Content LimitationsContent Limitations – Content may be limited and restricted through selectiveattention. It is generally organised and logical.
  • Levels of awarenessControlled processes – Information processing requiring conscious, alert awareness and mentaleffort in which the person actively focuses their attention towards achieving a particular goal. Anexample of this is someone learning to drive a manual car. They need to concentrate on controllingthe steering wheel, the brake, clutch and accelerator when changing gears.       Automatic processes - requires little conscious mental effort and awareness, minimal attention and may not interfere with other activities. An example of automatic process is someone who has been driving a manual car for a number of years. They are able to changes gears automatically.
  • Time OrientationTime is perceived as moving at a normalrate. We also have an awareness of ourplace in time, and are able to focus on thepast, present and future.
  • Define the term consciousness How do you know if someone is in NWC?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Where there anychanges in thought content? Disorganised thought, fantasy etc?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Where there anychanges in thought content? Disorganised thought, fantasy etc? Changes in emotional feeling? Do you feel more relaxed after the relaxation exercise, did it make you feel more happy? Etc
  • Distortions in Cognition. Where there any changes in thought content? Disorganised thought, fantasy etc? Changes in emotional feeling? Do you feel more relaxed after the relaxation exercise, did it make you feel more happy? Etc Disturbed sense oftime? How long do you think we were relaxing
  • Distortions in Cognition. Where there any changes in thought content? Disorganised thought, fantasy etc? Changes in emotional feeling? Do you feel more relaxed after the relaxation exercise, did it make you feel more happy? Etc Disturbed sense oftime? How long do you think we were relaxing Distortions of Perception? Did you notice any changes in perception? Were you more or less aware of the outside world?
  • Meditation Is a process employing mental exercises toachieve a highly focussed state of consciousness
  • Sleep/dreaming/daydreaming • thought patterns are disorganised • distorted perception of time • lack of control of movements • sensations and perceptions are dulled Hypnosis • distorted perceptionMeditation of time• sensations or perceptions are dulled (for example, pain) • sensations or• distorted perception of time perceptions are dulled• awareness of external environment is reduced (for example, pain) • loss of awareness of self • can increase self From drug use control (for example, • thought processes are disorganised quitting smoking) • sensations or perceptions are dulled or heightened • more suggestible, so • memory impaired less inhibited • more/less/inappropriate emotional reactions • distorted perception of time • lack of self control
  • Self-control – Did he have difficultymaintaining self control, coordinatingand controlling movements?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Do you think histhoughts were disorganised, will he remember this in the morning? Self-control – Did he have difficulty maintaining self control, coordinating and controlling movements?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Do you think histhoughts were disorganised, will he remember this in the morning? Changes in emotional feeling? What do you think his emotional state would be like? Self-control – Did he have difficulty maintaining self control, coordinating and controlling movements?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Do you think his thoughts were disorganised, will he remember this in the morning? Changes in emotional feeling? What do you think his emotional state would be like? Disturbed sense oftime? Do you think hewould know how long he Self-control – Did he have difficulty had been drinking? Or maintaining self control, coordinating how long he was in the and controlling movements? shop?
  • Distortions in Cognition. Do you think his thoughts were disorganised, will he remember this in the morning? Changes in emotional feeling? What do you think his emotional state would be like? Disturbed sense oftime? Do you think hewould know how long he Self-control – Did he have difficulty had been drinking? Or maintaining self control, coordinating how long he was in the and controlling movements? shop? Distortions of Perception? Would this guy notice be experiencing any changes in perception?
  • Complete table: Handout
  • Complete table: HandoutWhat else would you do to learn the difference between NWC and ASC?
  • Read: Pg 17-20