Lesson 9   applications of operant conditioning
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Lesson 9 applications of operant conditioning

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Lesson 9   applications of operant conditioning Lesson 9 applications of operant conditioning Presentation Transcript

  • Reward and Punishment
  • The two types of reinforcement are distinguished as being either ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. What do the concepts ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ refer to within these terms?
  • Within these terms, ‘positive’ refers to theaddition of something good, whereas‘negative’ refers to the ‘removal’ ofsomething bad
  •  Shaping – a strategy in which a reinforcer is given for any response that successively approximates and ultimately leads to the final desired response Used to train behaviours that are unlikely to occur spontaneously
  •  The consistent use of Operant conditioning to alter behaviour over time Use of tokens as rewards that can be ‘cashed in’ for bigger rewards later Schools Prisons
  •  Can effect the relationship – The punisher may be disliked, or stop speaking to the punisher Punishment can be perceived as attention and have the opposite effect Punishment does not teach desirable behaviour
  •  It should be presented immediately following this undesirable behavior. Punishment should be aimed at behaviour and not personality Once the punishment has started the punisher should not back down. Should be combined with positive reinforcement