Describe two factors that could influence whether or not you would imitate a model’s behaviour. (2 marks)
The consequence that the model incurred as a result of their behaviour The amount of attention that the observer paid to the model The observer’s ability to remember what the model did The observers ability to copy the modelledbehaviour The amount of motivation that the observer has to repeat a task The charateristics of the model, such as similarities to the observer, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The observer’s admiration for the model, in terms of their status, expertise or power.
Explain and apply insight learning as informed by Wolfgang Kőhler Explain and apply latent learning as informed by Edward Tolman
The ‘ah ha!’ Experience Finally see the solution to a problem after mental manipulation The solution is usually performed without error
Food placed out of reach Two sticks within reach Each too short to reach Placed together the sticks can be used to get the food
Preparation - sultan tries to reach with his arms, tries to reach with one stick, all attempts fail Incubation - sits at the back of the cage and seems to have given up Insightful experience - realises he is holding both sticks and can join them together Verification - uses the double stick to reach the food.
Trial and Error important but….. Mental manipulation of the elements of a problem also important Cognitive processes also involved – this is different to traditional CC and OC which ignore cognition
Latent – hidden Latent learning – the organism decides not to perform an action that has been learned Learning can occur even without reinforcement Observing behaviour is the only way to measure learning I know many songs but I’m not singing them now!
Rats run a maze with a food reward at the finish point All rats run the maze once a day Performance timed 3 groups of rats1. Always reinforced at the end of the maze2. Never reinforced at the end of the maze3. Not reinforced until the 11th day
Group 1 - got faster and faster Group 2 - remained slow Group 3 - showed no improvement until reinforcement was introduced on day 11 then were even faster than group 1Conclusions Learning can happen without reinforcement Behaviour not displayed unless incentive to do so Learning and performance are different
Rats had developed a mental picture of the maze as they learned the general layout Once the cognitive map was formed rats could chose alternate routes when doors blocked Rats always took the shortest possible route around the block ‘principle of least effort’ We all have cognitive maps Not always perfectly accurate