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Lesson 13   insight and latent learning
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Lesson 13 insight and latent learning

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  • 1. WOW!
  • 2. Describe two factors that could influence whether or not you would imitate a model’s behaviour. (2 marks)
  • 3.  The consequence that the model incurred as a result of their behaviour The amount of attention that the observer paid to the model The observer’s ability to remember what the model did The observers ability to copy the modelledbehaviour The amount of motivation that the observer has to repeat a task The charateristics of the model, such as similarities to the observer, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. The observer’s admiration for the model, in terms of their status, expertise or power.
  • 4.  Explain and apply insight learning as informed by Wolfgang Kőhler Explain and apply latent learning as informed by Edward Tolman
  • 5.  The ‘ah ha!’ Experience Finally see the solution to a problem after mental manipulation The solution is usually performed without error
  • 6.  Food placed out of reach Two sticks within reach Each too short to reach Placed together the sticks can be used to get the food
  • 7.  Preparation - sultan tries to reach with his arms, tries to reach with one stick, all attempts fail Incubation - sits at the back of the cage and seems to have given up Insightful experience - realises he is holding both sticks and can join them together Verification - uses the double stick to reach the food.
  • 8.  Trial and Error important but….. Mental manipulation of the elements of a problem also important Cognitive processes also involved – this is different to traditional CC and OC which ignore cognition
  • 9.  Latent – hidden Latent learning – the organism decides not to perform an action that has been learned Learning can occur even without reinforcement Observing behaviour is the only way to measure learning I know many songs but I’m not singing them now!
  • 10.  Rats run a maze with a food reward at the finish point All rats run the maze once a day Performance timed 3 groups of rats1. Always reinforced at the end of the maze2. Never reinforced at the end of the maze3. Not reinforced until the 11th day
  • 11.  Group 1 - got faster and faster Group 2 - remained slow Group 3 - showed no improvement until reinforcement was introduced on day 11 then were even faster than group 1Conclusions Learning can happen without reinforcement Behaviour not displayed unless incentive to do so Learning and performance are different
  • 12.  Rats had developed a mental picture of the maze as they learned the general layout Once the cognitive map was formed rats could chose alternate routes when doors blocked Rats always took the shortest possible route around the block ‘principle of least effort’ We all have cognitive maps Not always perfectly accurate