Lesson 12 observational learning

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Lesson 12 observational learning

  1. 1. Monkey see monkey do!
  2. 2. Influentialresearch on one-trial conditioned taste aversion in a variety of animal species was pioneered by John Garcia. This research supports the notion that one-trial conditioned taste aversion A. demonstrates the powerful effect of punishment on animal behaviour. B. is the same as classical conditioning. C. has an adaptive survival value for animals. D. shares many features with negative reinforcement.
  3. 3. Influentialresearch on one-trial conditioned taste aversion in a variety of animal species was pioneered by John Garcia. This research supports the notion that one-trial conditioned taste aversion A. demonstrates the powerful effect of punishment on animal behaviour. B. is the same as classical conditioning. C. has an adaptive survival value for animals. D. shares many features with negative reinforcement.
  4. 4.  Explain and apply observational learning (modelling) processes in terms of the role of attention, retention, reproduction, motivation, reinforcement as informed by Albert Bandura’s (1961, 1963a, 1963b) experiments with children
  5. 5.  Observational learning occurs when someone uses observation of another persons actions and their consequences to guide their future actions Because the person being observed is referred to as a model, observational learning is often called modeling. This is not to say that every time we watch someone do something we learn how to do it Observational learning is a more active process than either classical or operant conditioning It is not entirely different from conditioning.
  6. 6.  Normal Operant Conditioning the learner is directly reinforced or punished Vicarious reinforcement – viewing a model being reinforced can strengthen behaviour in an observer Vicarious punishment – viewing a model being punished can weaken a behaviour in an observer
  7. 7.  Will children model violent behaviour? Does TV violence effect children? Does it matter who they observe? Are boys more violent than girls?
  8. 8.  All experiments involved children witnessing adult models be in the room with a bobo doll Some models were aggressive some calm and some ignored the doll altogether Children were then given the opportunity to play in a room with the doll Aggressive acts by the child towards the doll were recorded
  9. 9.  3 conditionsExperimental Aggressive model in room with child Non aggressive mode in room with childControl No model in room
  10. 10. Aggressive model condition - sub groups6 boys with male 6 boys with female 6 boys with female 6 girls with malemodel model model modelNon aggressive model condition – sub groups6 boys with male 6 boys with female 6 boys with female 6 girls with malemodel model model modelControl condition – 24 children each with no model in the room
  11. 11.  Children who saw aggressive model performed more aggressive acts Boys were more aggressive over all Boys imitated aggression more from male models Girls imitated physical aggression more from male models rather than female Girls imitated verbal aggression from female models rather than male Children already had sex role expectation about male and female aggression – ‘that’s not the way for a lady to behave’, ‘that man is a strong fighter’. These expectations influenced how much they imitated male Vs female aggression. Behaviour learned through observation may not be demonstrated unless opportunity presented
  12. 12.  4 conditionsExperimental• Live Human aggressive model• Human aggressive models on film• Aggressive cartoon characterControl• No model shown
  13. 13.  Exposure to aggressive models increases the probability that children will behave aggressively This is true both for real life models and film- portrayed models Sex differences were again found
  14. 14.  4 conditionsExperimental• Aggressive model Rewarded with praise and a food treat• Aggressive model Punished with verbal telling off and a spankingControl• Non aggressive model Received no consequence• No model shown
  15. 15.  Model reinforced – More copied aggressive behaviour No significant difference between other conditions Boys were more aggressive than boys generally Children in experimental conditions were later asked which of the two models they would like to be The models success in gaining reward was a key factor in choosing who they wanted to be like
  16. 16.  The learner plays an active role in the learning process. They must:Pay attentionin order to observe the modeled behaviour Attention may be influenced by numerous factors The motivation and interest level of the observer personality characteristics of the model attractivenessMentally retain what has been observed Responses learned by modeling are often not needed until some time after they have been acquired Therefore, memory plays an active role in observational learning.
  17. 17. Be capable of Reproducing the behaviour Our ability to reproduce the modelled response may be restricted by physical limitations Paraplegics cannot learn to walk by observing othersBe motivated or have some reinforcement available Unless the behavioural response provides a reward for you, it is unlikely that you will want to learn it

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