Lesson 11 one trial and trial error learning

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  • Lesson 11 one trial and trial error learning

    1. 1. Lesson 11: OneTrial Learningand Trial andError Learning
    2. 2. From last lesson......What role does the learner play in each of the differenttypes of conditioning?
    3. 3. From last lesson......What role does the learner play in each of the differenttypes of conditioning?In classical conditioning, the learner is passive, whereas in operantconditioning the learner actively chooses to respond in a particulamanner to gain reinforcement or avoid punishment
    4. 4. This lesson........• Explain and apply one-trial learning with reference to taste aversion as informed by John Garcia and Robert A.Koelling (1966)  • Explain and apply trial-and-error learning as informed by Edward Lee Thorndike’s puzzle-box experiment 
    5. 5. Trial and error learning involves learning by tryingalternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achieved
    6. 6. Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmental demands
    7. 7. Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmental demands Required that an individual (or animal) be motivated to explore and respond to the environment
    8. 8. Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmental demands Required that an individual (or animal) be motivated to explore and respond to the environment Correct Responses (trials) must be rewarded
    9. 9. Thorndike’s puzzle box experiment demonstrated trial and error in cats A hungry cat is placed in a box with slatted sides, food is placed outside the box and can be seen Cat must operate alever to open Cat initially explores box andthe door and unsuccessfully tries to escapeescape to get the food By accident (during trial and error) the cat presses the lever that opens the door Cat escapes and eats the food (i.e. is rewarded) Escape times become faster as the number of trails increase
    10. 10. Cat is ‘instrumental’ in learning the correct responseand ‘operated’ on the environment to get the desiredoutcome. Thorndike called this ‘instrumentallearning’The results of this experiment led Thorndike to develop thelaw of effect.The law of effect essentially states that a behaviour that isaccompanied or closely followed by ‘satisfying‘ consequences ismore likely to recur, and a behaviour that is followed by ‘annoying‘consequences or discomfort is less likely to recur.
    11. 11. One-Trial LearningHave you ever been nauseated after once eating a particularfood and never eaten that same type of food again
    12. 12. One-Trial LearningHave you ever been nauseated after once eating a particularfood and never eaten that same type of food againOne-trial learning (OTL): a relatively permanent changein behaviour as a result of one experience only.
    13. 13. One-Trial LearningHave you ever been nauseated after once eating a particularfood and never eaten that same type of food againOne-trial learning (OTL): a relatively permanent changein behaviour as a result of one experience only.Taste aversion: a conditioned response involvingavoidance of food associated with feeling/being ill when eatenpreviously
    14. 14. One-trail learning is not Classical Conditioning because:One Trial Learning involves one pairing of CS (tasting/eating food)and UCS (illness), not numerous trials as per CCIn One Trial Learning, time lapse between CS and UCS can beup to 12 hours or more, but in CC the CS and UCS occur closetogether.
    15. 15. Research by Garcia and Koelling (1996)Garcia and Koelling (1966) showed that rats soon learned to avoid a sweet-tasting liquid when it was followed by an injection that made them ill, butthey did not learn to avoid the liquid when they received electric shocksafterwards.Presumably this is connected with learning what foods they could safelyeat. The rats did, however, learn to avoid the electric shock when it waspaired with light and noise (but injection+light/noise failed). Maybe thisis related to learning about natural hazards like lightning or fallingobjects.

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