BRAIN RESEARCH
                              METHODS




Monday, 22 February 2010
BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS

               BRAINS ARE HARD TO STUDY BECAUSE THEY ARE
               SURROUNDED BY A SCULL




...
CASE STUDIES

               WE CAN’T GO BUSTING HEADS IN ORDER TO SEE WHAT
               HAPPENS TO THE BRAIN. THIS IS U...
ADVANTAGES

         •     LOTS OF INDEPTH DETAIL

         •     RICH AMOUNT OF INFO

               LIMITATIONS

       ...
ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE
                   BRAIN (ESB)
                ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE BRAIN INVOLVES ...
ADVANTAGES

         • CAN PINPOINT LOCATION AND FUNCTION OF CERTAIN BRAIN
         STRUCTURES.
         • CAN HELP IDENTI...
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH (EEG)

               THE EEG MEASURES ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN LOCALISED
               AREAS OF THE ...
ADVANTAGES

         • NON-INVASIVE

         • INEXPENSIVE AND SAFE CAN BE USED ON EVERYONE

         • CAN BE USED TO ME...
COMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY
                      (CT OR CAT )
               CAT SCANS WERE THE FIRST NEURO-IMAGING TECHNIQUE...
ADVANTAGES

         • NON-INVASIVE

         • PROVIDE VERY DETAILED IMAGE OF LIVING BRAIN

         • CAN FORM 3D IMAGE
...
POSITRON EMISSION
                             TOMOGRAPHY
               A PET CONSTRUCTS A COMPUTER IMAGE OF BRAIN FUNCTI...
ADVANTAGES

         • YOU CAN SEE HOW THE BRAIN FUNCTIONS

         • YOU CAN SEE WHICH WHICH AREAS OF THE BRAIN ARE ACTI...
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

               MAGNETIC AND RADIO WAVES BOUNCE OFF NEURONS IN THE
               BRAIN AND THE...
ADVANTAGES

         •     NON INVASIVE

         •     DETAILED AND CLEAR IMAGES OF THE BRAIN.

               LIMITATION...
FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC
                  RESONANCE IMAGING (FMRI)
               THE FMRI SHOWS HOW THE BRAIN IS FUNCTIONING ...
ADVANTAGES

         •     NO RADIATION

         •     SHOWS FUNCTIONING OF BRAIN

         •     COLOUR CODING MAKES IT ...
CLARIFICATIONS

               INVASIVE: IN RELATION TO BRAIN RESEARCH, ANY TECHNIQUE
               THAT INVOLVES OPENING...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS




Monday, 22 February 2010
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS

        Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small
        amount...
Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of
         radioactive substance will b...
The brain scanning methods that provide the most comprehensive information
         on the functioning brain are _________...
The brain scanning methods that provide the most comprehensive information
         on the functioning brain are _________...
Monday, 22 February 2010
Monday, 22 February 2010
Monday, 22 February 2010
Monday, 22 February 2010
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that




Monday, 22 February 20...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the
      brain is that
      A. it cannot be used...
One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain
       is that
       A. it cannot be us...
Which of the following is incorrect about computerised tomography (CT)
         scans?
         A. CT scans provide inform...
Which of the following is incorrect about computerised tomography (CT)
         scans?
         A. CT scans provide inform...
A PET scan provides information

         A. in very high resolution pictures that show brain structure and function.
    ...
A PET scan provides information

         A. in very high resolution pictures that show brain structure and function.
    ...
Monday, 22 February 2010
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of
         PET scanning in comparison with ...
1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET
         scanning in comparison with ...
In positron emission tomography (PET) scans, a substance is tagged with a radioactive marker and then monitored. This subs...
Monday, 22 February 2010
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)




Monday, 22 February 2010
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)




Monday, 22 February 2010
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark)

            the PET scan sh...
Monday, 22 February 2010
c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional
               ma...
c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional
               ma...
c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional
               ma...
c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional
               ma...
c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional
               ma...
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  1. 1. BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS Monday, 22 February 2010
  2. 2. BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS BRAINS ARE HARD TO STUDY BECAUSE THEY ARE SURROUNDED BY A SCULL IN THE PAST RESEARCH’S USED THE BRAINS OF DEAD PEOPLE AND ANIMALS. BUT THIS HAD MAJOR LIMITATIONS!! RESEARCH’S ALSO USED LIVING ANIMALS BUT THIS WAS HIGHLY UNETHICAL. IT HAS ONLY BEEN IN THE LATER HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY THAT RESEARCH’S HAVE HAD THE TECHNOLOGY TO STUDY THE BRAIN EFFECTIVELY AND ETHICALLY. Monday, 22 February 2010
  3. 3. CASE STUDIES WE CAN’T GO BUSTING HEADS IN ORDER TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BRAIN. THIS IS UNETHICAL! THE ETHICAL WAY TO GO ABOUT STUDYING A PERSON WITH SOME DAMAGE TO THEIR BRAIN IS TO WAIT FOR THEM TO HAVE AN ACCIDENT AND THEN HOPE THEY ARE PREPARED TO ALLOW YOU TO STUDY THEM. STUDYING MEANS DOING ALL SORTS OF MEASUREMENTS LIKE, DIAGNOSTIC TESTS, INTERVIEWS, OBSERVATIONS, AND LOOKING AT MEDICAL RECORDS Monday, 22 February 2010
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES • LOTS OF INDEPTH DETAIL • RICH AMOUNT OF INFO LIMITATIONS • TAKE A LONG TIME TO GET INFORMATION • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ARE NOT MEASURED • PLASTICITY - THE BRAIN CAN ADAPT TO • AS THEY ARE QUITE UNIQUE TO THE INDIVIDUAL, THE RESULTS CAN’T BE GENERALISED FAIRLY Monday, 22 February 2010
  5. 5. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE BRAIN (ESB) ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE BRAIN INVOLVES USING AN ELECTRODE TO DELIVER AN ELECTRIC CURRENT TO THE BRAIN, THEN THAT PART OF THE BRAIN THAT RECEIVES THE CURRENT RESPONDS ACCORDINGLY. EXAMPLE: STIMULATING THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN ANIMALS EVOKES FEEDING, DRINKING, SEXUAL AROUSAL AND AGGRESSION DEPENDING ON THE AREA STIMULATED Monday, 22 February 2010
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES • CAN PINPOINT LOCATION AND FUNCTION OF CERTAIN BRAIN STRUCTURES. • CAN HELP IDENTIFY HEMISPHERIC SPECIALISATION LIMITATIONS • EXTREMELY INVASIVE - MUST APPLY DIRECTLY TO THE BRAIN • CRUDE - NOT EASY TO TELL HOW FAR THE STIMULATION HAS SPREAD • CAN’T ALWAYS BE GENERALISED TO ALL PEOPLE, AS ESB IS USUALLY DONE ON NOT PROPERLY FUNCTIONING BRAINS • CAN ONLY BE USED ON THOSE UNDERGOING BRAIN SURGERY Monday, 22 February 2010
  7. 7. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH (EEG) THE EEG MEASURES ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN LOCALISED AREAS OF THE BRAIN. ELECTRODES ARE ATTACHED TO THE SURFACE OF THE SCALP AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE NEURONS ARE MEASURED. Monday, 22 February 2010
  8. 8. ADVANTAGES • NON-INVASIVE • INEXPENSIVE AND SAFE CAN BE USED ON EVERYONE • CAN BE USED TO MEASURE OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME EG. SLEEP DISADVANTAGES • GENERAL MEASURE OF ACTIVITY • NOT AN IMAGING TECHNIQUE • SKULL CAN INTERFERE WITH ELECTRODE READING Monday, 22 February 2010
  9. 9. COMPUTERISED TOMOGRAPHY (CT OR CAT ) CAT SCANS WERE THE FIRST NEURO-IMAGING TECHNIQUES CAT SCANS TAKE A NUMBER OF X-RAYS FROM DIFFERENT ANGLES TO PRODUCE A COMPTUTER IMAGE OF SLICES OF THE BRAIN Monday, 22 February 2010
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES • NON-INVASIVE • PROVIDE VERY DETAILED IMAGE OF LIVING BRAIN • CAN FORM 3D IMAGE DISADVANTAGES • WILL ONLY SHOW STRUCTURE AND NOT FUNCTION • EXPENSIVE AND NEEDS HIGHLY QUALIFIED STAFF • MUST REMAIN STILL IN AN ENCLOSED SPACE Monday, 22 February 2010
  11. 11. POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY A PET CONSTRUCTS A COMPUTER IMAGE OF BRAIN FUNCTION AND ACTIVITY. IT IS USED TO VIEW COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY WHEN PATIENTS ARE GIVEN A RANGE OF TASKS. RED INDICATES AREAS OF HIGH ACTIVITY, WHERE AS PURPLE INDICATES AREAS OF LOW ACTIVITY. A HARMLESS RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE IS INJECTED INTO THE PATIENT WHICH EMITS SIGNALS WHEN PRESENT IN THE BRAIN. A COMPUTER THEN READS THIS INFORMATION TO HELP COLOUR CODE THE IMAGE. Monday, 22 February 2010
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES • YOU CAN SEE HOW THE BRAIN FUNCTIONS • YOU CAN SEE WHICH WHICH AREAS OF THE BRAIN ARE ACTIVE FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF TASKS • COLOR CODE MAKES THINGS EASY TO UNDERSTAND LIMITATIONS • NEED TO INJECT RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL INTO THE PERSON, SO SESSIONS MUST BE KEPT SHORT • ONLY ABLE TO VIEW THE BRAIN FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME, AS IT TAKES 30 SECONDS TO SCAN AND YOU MUST REST FOR 40 SECONDS BETWEEN SCANS Monday, 22 February 2010
  13. 13. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING MAGNETIC AND RADIO WAVES BOUNCE OFF NEURONS IN THE BRAIN AND THESE VIBRATIONS ARE DETECTED BY A HUGE MAGNET IN THE MACHINE AND FED INTO A COMPUTER. THE COMPUTER THEN PROCESSEs THIS INFO AND CREATES A COLOUR CODED 3D IMAGE.  IT IS MORE DETAILED THAN A CT SCAN. IT IS USED TO DIAGNOSE STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES AND SMALL CHANGES OVER TIME. FOR EXAMPLE YOU CAN STUDY THE BRAIN OF A SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENT  AND LOOK THE BRAIN CELLS CHANGE OVER TIME. IT IS MORE EXACT THAN A CT SCAN. Monday, 22 February 2010
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES • NON INVASIVE • DETAILED AND CLEAR IMAGES OF THE BRAIN. LIMITATIONS • THE INABILITY TO USE IT ON PEOPLE WITH METAL IN THEIR BODIES • DOES NOT SHOW YOU THE FUNCTIONING ON THE BRAIN. • CONFINED SPACE A PROBLEM Monday, 22 February 2010
  15. 15. FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (FMRI) THE FMRI SHOWS HOW THE BRAIN IS FUNCTIONING BY MONITORING THE LEVELS OF OXYGEN IN THE BRAIN. THE HIGHER THE FUNCTIONING, THE HIGHER THE BLOOD FLOW. THE MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN FMRI AND A PET IS THAT IT CAN PICK UP CHANGES RAPIDLY, OVER SECONDS AS OPPOSED TO MINUTES. FMRI HAS ALSO BECOME 3D IN RECENT YEARS. Monday, 22 February 2010
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES • NO RADIATION • SHOWS FUNCTIONING OF BRAIN • COLOUR CODING MAKES IT EASY TO UNDERSTAND • CAN TRACK BRAIN CHANGES MOMENT TO MOMENT LIMITATIONS • ACTIVITY MAY BE A RESULT OF SOMETHING ELSE, OTHER THAN THE TASK GIVEN Monday, 22 February 2010
  17. 17. CLARIFICATIONS INVASIVE: IN RELATION TO BRAIN RESEARCH, ANY TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES OPENING THE BRAIN UP. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PET AND CT INJECTIONS. • CT - THE PARTICIPANT MUST BE INJECTED WITH A SUBSTANCE IN THE ARM OR HAND. THE SUBSTANCE IS BASED ON IODINE AND IS NOT RADIOACTIVE • PET - PRIOR TO THE PROCEDURE A RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE IS IS INJECTED INTO THE PATIENTS BLOOD VESSEL. Monday, 22 February 2010
  18. 18. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Monday, 22 February 2010
  19. 19. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. Monday, 22 February 2010
  20. 20. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? Monday, 22 February 2010
  21. 21. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG Monday, 22 February 2010
  22. 22. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET Monday, 22 February 2010
  23. 23. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT Monday, 22 February 2010
  24. 24. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  25. 25. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  26. 26. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  27. 27. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  28. 28. PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  29. 29. Arthur has agreed to participate in a research study. In the study a small amount of radioactive substance will be injected into his blood vessels and transported to his brain. At the same time as the injection he will be asked to think of as many words as he can beginning with the letter L. What is this recording procedure known as? A. EEG B. PET C. CT D. MRI Answer: B. PET Monday, 22 February 2010
  30. 30. The brain scanning methods that provide the most comprehensive information on the functioning brain are _________ and __________. A. PET; fMRI B. CT; MRI C. MRI; fMRI D. CT; PET Monday, 22 February 2010
  31. 31. The brain scanning methods that provide the most comprehensive information on the functioning brain are _________ and __________. A. PET; fMRI B. CT; MRI C. MRI; fMRI D. CT; PET Answer: A. PET; fMRI Monday, 22 February 2010
  32. 32. Monday, 22 February 2010
  33. 33. Monday, 22 February 2010
  34. 34. Monday, 22 February 2010
  35. 35. Monday, 22 February 2010
  36. 36. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that Monday, 22 February 2010
  37. 37. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. Monday, 22 February 2010
  38. 38. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. Monday, 22 February 2010
  39. 39. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). Monday, 22 February 2010
  40. 40. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Monday, 22 February 2010
  41. 41. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Monday, 22 February 2010
  42. 42. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Monday, 22 February 2010
  43. 43. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Monday, 22 February 2010
  44. 44. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Monday, 22 February 2010
  45. 45. One disadvantage of using an electroencephalograph (EEG) to investigate the brain is that A. it cannot be used with a range of patients such as infants. B. it is invasive. C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). D. it is expensive compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). C. it does not provide detailed information about brain function compared to positron emission tomography (PET). Monday, 22 February 2010
  46. 46. Which of the following is incorrect about computerised tomography (CT) scans? A. CT scans provide information about the function and extent of damage to the brain. B. The risks to the patient associated with CT scans are negligible. C. CT scans usually require an injection into the bloodstream. D. CT scans use X-rays taken at various angles to create an image of the brain. Monday, 22 February 2010
  47. 47. Which of the following is incorrect about computerised tomography (CT) scans? A. CT scans provide information about the function and extent of damage to the brain. B. The risks to the patient associated with CT scans are negligible. C. CT scans usually require an injection into the bloodstream. D. CT scans use X-rays taken at various angles to create an image of the brain. A. CT scans provide information about the function and extent of damage to the brain. Monday, 22 February 2010
  48. 48. A PET scan provides information A. in very high resolution pictures that show brain structure and function. B. in a colour-coded map that reveals areas of high activity in the brain. C. about abnormalities in the structure of the brain. D. about the number of cognitive tasks that were performed correctly. Monday, 22 February 2010
  49. 49. A PET scan provides information A. in very high resolution pictures that show brain structure and function. B. in a colour-coded map that reveals areas of high activity in the brain. C. about abnormalities in the structure of the brain. D. about the number of cognitive tasks that were performed correctly. B. in a colour-coded map that reveals areas of high activity in the brain. Monday, 22 February 2010
  50. 50. Monday, 22 February 2010
  51. 51. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  52. 52. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  53. 53. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  54. 54. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  55. 55. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) 2. If a person has a metallic implant in their body, such as a heart pacemaker or a pin in a bone, they are advised not to undertake a certain brain scanning technique. What is the name of this technique? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  56. 56. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) 2. If a person has a metallic implant in their body, such as a heart pacemaker or a pin in a bone, they are advised not to undertake a certain brain scanning technique. What is the name of this technique? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  57. 57. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) 2. If a person has a metallic implant in their body, such as a heart pacemaker or a pin in a bone, they are advised not to undertake a certain brain scanning technique. What is the name of this technique? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  58. 58. 1. In terms of the potential risks to participants, describe one disadvantage of PET scanning in comparison with CT scanning. (1 mark) The PET scan: • is more invasive • involves injecting a radioactive substance into the body. 2. If a person has a metallic implant in their body, such as a heart pacemaker or a pin in a bone, they are advised not to undertake a certain brain scanning technique. What is the name of this technique? (1 mark) MRI or fMRI scanning Monday, 22 February 2010
  59. 59. In positron emission tomography (PET) scans, a substance is tagged with a radioactive marker and then monitored. This substance is a form of A. iodine. B. kryptonite. C. uranium. D. glucose. D. glucose. Which procedure results in a high-quality three-dimensional picture of the brain? A. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan B. electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) scan C. positron emission topography (PET) scan D. electroencephalograph (EEG) scan Which two procedures allow researchers to view changes in brain activity over time? A. positron emission topography (PET) scan and computerised tomography (CT) scan B. positron emission topography (PET) scan and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan C. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan D. computerised tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan Monday, 22 February 2010
  60. 60. Monday, 22 February 2010
  61. 61. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  62. 62. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  63. 63. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed Monday, 22 February 2010
  64. 64. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed Monday, 22 February 2010
  65. 65. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. Monday, 22 February 2010
  66. 66. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. Monday, 22 February 2010
  67. 67. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. Monday, 22 February 2010
  68. 68. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  69. 69. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: Monday, 22 February 2010
  70. 70. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action Monday, 22 February 2010
  71. 71. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas Monday, 22 February 2010
  72. 72. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas • PET is more sensitive than CT in detecting areas of brain damage Monday, 22 February 2010
  73. 73. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas • PET is more sensitive than CT in detecting areas of brain damage • unlike CT scans, PET scans are colour-coded, which aids interpretation. Monday, 22 February 2010
  74. 74. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas • PET is more sensitive than CT in detecting areas of brain damage • unlike CT scans, PET scans are colour-coded, which aids interpretation. Monday, 22 February 2010
  75. 75. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas • PET is more sensitive than CT in detecting areas of brain damage • unlike CT scans, PET scans are colour-coded, which aids interpretation. This question demanded a speci7ic comparison; however, many students mistakenly compared PET scans with  other forms of brain‐imaging. Monday, 22 February 2010
  76. 76. a. What information about the brain does positron emission tomography (PET) provide? (1 mark) the PET scan shows which areas of the brain are active while certain tasks are performed • the PET scan gives information about brain functioning. b. When compared to computerised tomography (CT), outline one advantage of using positron emission tomography (PET). (1 mark) Advantages of PET include: • CT is static while PET shows the brain in action • CT shows structural features and location of damage while PET shows functional areas • PET is more sensitive than CT in detecting areas of brain damage • unlike CT scans, PET scans are colour-coded, which aids interpretation. This question demanded a speci7ic comparison; however, many students mistakenly compared PET scans with  other forms of brain‐imaging. Monday, 22 February 2010
  77. 77. Monday, 22 February 2010
  78. 78. c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? (1 mark) Monday, 22 February 2010
  79. 79. c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? (1 mark) DIFFERENCES INCLUDE: Monday, 22 February 2010
  80. 80. c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? (1 mark) DIFFERENCES INCLUDE: • fMRI uses a magnetic field to create a three dimensional image of the brain where any two dimensional slice can be selected, and also displays brain activity on the screen Monday, 22 February 2010
  81. 81. c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? (1 mark) DIFFERENCES INCLUDE: • fMRI uses a magnetic field to create a three dimensional image of the brain where any two dimensional slice can be selected, and also displays brain activity on the screen • MRI shows only the structure of the brain. Monday, 22 February 2010
  82. 82. c. What is the difference in the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? (1 mark) DIFFERENCES INCLUDE: • fMRI uses a magnetic field to create a three dimensional image of the brain where any two dimensional slice can be selected, and also displays brain activity on the screen • MRI shows only the structure of the brain. Monday, 22 February 2010
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