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5 NPMA Bed Bug Best Management Practices & Global Perspective
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5 NPMA Bed Bug Best Management Practices & Global Perspective


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4th Annual Bed Bug Summit sponsored by the Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force

4th Annual Bed Bug Summit sponsored by the Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force

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  • While we have heard an increasing amount about bed bugs over just the past many months, bed bugs have been on the rise for the past several years. In fact, the NPMA has been working on bed bug training (for industry professionals and consumers) for several years and collecting data on these elusive pests. Few quick facts about bed bugs: They adults are small brown bugs that look like a thin apple seed. They are about ¼ inch long and can be seen with the human eye. The babies are much smaller and are not easily seen. They feed on blood, mostly of humans at night while we are sleeping. We don’t usually feel them feeding because they inject an anesthetic like substance into our skin before they bite. Most people who are bitten, though not all, present with itchy bumps or welts. After feeding, bed bugs return to their hiding places, where they spend the majority of their time. Bed bugs typically hide in cracks and crevices close to where we sleep, but can also be found anywhere humans spend a good deal of time resting.
  • NPMA conducted a survey recently and only 13% of people correctly answered three basic facts about bed bugs correctly. Most people are living with incorrect assumptions and may believe they are not at risk for bringing bed bugs into their lives. But as noted in the last slide, people ARE starting to take protective steps to minimize the likelihood of a bed bug infestation. THE NEXT SLIDE shows some of the steps people are taking.
  • In response the bed bug pandemic and the challenges of treating these bugs, NPMA convened a Blue Ribbon Bed Bug Task Force to look at all that needs to be done to help this country control or eradicate bed bug populations. Participants in the Task Force include a good cross representation of people from industry, academia, scientists, and the government. Over 40 in all.
  • The Task Force is working on bed bug issues associated with public policy, research and efficacy, public outreach, and best management practices. The group is asking hard questions and working through the processes necessary to arrive at the BEST POSSIBLE ANSWERS.List what each of the workgroups is working on:Local, state and federal policy options Developing a national research agenda and protocols for evaluating the efficacy of chemicals, devices and other bed bug technologiesMessaging, outreach, education and dataBMPs, training, testing and credentialing
  • The five things represented on the slide offer a look at the primary principles that were of concern in the development of the BMPs. Our goal was not to make an easy document that everyone could follow – but a challenging set of recommendations that could ensure effective and safe control.
  • One of the main questions we get in the industry is what works best for controlling bed bugs. There is no one answer that is right. Pest professionals understand how to eliminate bed bugs and will work with customers in determining the most appropriate solution for the given problem. The BMPs address each of the current control methods, how each should be performed, and some of the need-to-knows about each.
  • Some of the recommendations in the BMPs will be surprising to many. For instance, we recommend in residential settings that mattresses not be discarded. Throwing them out can cause an unnecessary expense and improperly doing so can actually cause an infestation to spread.
  • The BMPs help pest professionals understand what training should be provided to all employees who work with customers who may have bed bugs. Bed bugs are a unique pest. They often create high levels of emotion for those affected by them and accordingly special training is required for the first person who may talk to a customer about them to the technicians responsible for treatment.
  • The BMPs even contain language about professionalism. The pest management industry is proud of the work our professionals do each and every day in protecting people’s families and homes and businesses from pests that can cause damage and spread disease. When it comes to treating bed bugs, the BMPs offer guidance on recordkeeping, inspection, IPM, and more.
  • As noted earlier, in order to properly control bed bugs in the long run, we each need to do our part. Pest professionals following the Best Management Practices for Bed Bugs are doing their part – they are doing bed bug work the RIGHT WAY. They will be able to best help anyone who is concerned about a bed bug infestation. NPMA offers a consumer brochure on line that provides an overview of the BMPs and tips for selecting a professional. The full copy of the BMPs can be found in both Spanish and English.
  • SPEAKER NOTE: Please select whichever website serves your needs. offers full info on bed bugs but has the find-a-pro locator which may lead customers to other pest professionals. The web site has thorough information on the BMPs but not anything else, by design. It does NOT link back to
  • Transcript

    • 1. NPMA Bed Bug Best Management Practices & Global Perspective
      Gene Harrington, National Pest Management Association
      Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
      4th Annual Summit
      September 9, 2011
    • 2. The
    • 3. NPMA Bed Bug Surveys
      Conducted two industry surveys & a consumer survey over the past two years
      73% of consumer respondents believe bed bug infestations in the U.S. are increasing
      Nearly 80% saw, heard or read about bed bugs over the past few months
      78% concerned about encountering bed bugs at hotels; 52% on public transportation; 49% at movie theaters; 44% at retail stores
      25% had checked a hotel room for bed bugs; 12 percent had cancelled or altered travel plans due to concern about encountering bed bugs
    • 4. Bed Bugs Continue to Migrate
      PMPs reported seeing increases in number of bed bug work at college dorms, hotels, nursing homes, office buildings, schools & daycare centers, hospitals, public transportation & movie theaters compared to last year.
      College dorms: 54 % compared to 35% in 2010
      Hotels/motels: 80 % compared to 67%
      Nursing homes: 46% compared to 25%
      Office buildings: 38% compared to 18%
      Schools & daycare centers: 36% compared to 10%
      Hospitals: 31% compared to 12%
      Public transportation: 18% compared to 9%
      Movie theaters: 17% compared to 5%
    • 5.
    • 6. Blue Ribbon Bed Bug Task Force
    • 7. Task Force Work Groups
      • Public Policy
      • 8. Research and Efficacy
      • 9. Public Outreach
      • 10. Best Management Practices
    • Public Policy Work Group
      NPMA Supports:
      • Registering additional pesticides for bed bugs for PCO use
      • 11. Increased government funding for bed bug research
      • 12. Limiting treatments in multi-family housing to professionals
      • 13. Requiring efficacy data for 25(b) pesticides labeled for bed bugs
      • 14. Including bed bugs in the legal definition of "vermin" or “pest”
      • 15. Formation of a state/municipal bed bug task force/working group/advisory committees
      • 16. Government subsidies for treatments in affordable housing
      • 17. More rigorous oversight of claims related to products/services
      • 18. Stronger sanitation requirements for used mattresses and furniture
      • 19. Statewide regulation of bed bug issues as opposed to local rules
    • Public Outreach Work Group
    • 20. Research and Efficacy Work Group
      • Many new products have been introduced into the marketplace
      • 21. Many products work well, but many don’t
      • 22. Few have scientific data to back claims
      • 23. Currently, no government agency is requiring efficacy data
      • 24. NPMA has partnered with a diverse group of stakeholders to develop performance standards and test conditions
    • NPMA Bed Bug BMPs
      Developed by Blue Ribbon Bed Bug Task Force
      Adopted by NPMA Board of Directors in January 2011
      24 page, 16 section document, English & Spanish versions
      Four page consumer version
      All available available at
    • 25. Table of Contents
      Introduction & Purpose
      Business Practices
      Service Agreements
      Technician & Sales Staff Training
      Client Education
      Disposal of Bed, Furniture, Possessions
      Client Cooperation & Treatment Preparations
      Bed Bug Detection
      Bed Bug Scent Detection Canine Teams
      Integrated Pest Management & Methods of Control
      Surrounding Units
      Post-Treatment Evaluation
      Health & Safety of Technicians
      Health & Safety of Customers
      Appendix A – Minimum Standards for Canine Bed Bug Scent Detection Team Certification
      Appendix B – Recommended Temperature & Exposure Periods for Bed Bug Control
    • 26. Bed Bug Best Management Practices: Guiding Principles
    • 27. Consumer Protection
      • Before beginning service:
      • 28. Identify active infestation
      • 29. Communicate fees
      • 30. Communicate details of service
      • 31. Communicate realistic expectations
      • 32. Provide bed bug specific information with agreements
      • 33. Canine detection teams require third party certification
    • Integrated Methods
      Describes best practices for multiple methods of control
    • Community Wide Approach
      • Discourages disposal of mattresses and furniture
      • 42. Recommendations for inspection and treatment of surrounding areas and adjacent rooms
      • 43. Recommendations for training and educating hotel and facility staff about bed bug identification
    • Education
      • Training requirements for all employees
      • 44. Additional requirements for technicians or salespeople involved in bed bug work
      • 45. Recommendations for educating clients
      • 46. Client preparation communication
    • Professionalism
      Encourages professionalism through:
      • Business practice recommendations
      • 47. Service agreement guidelines
      • 48. Recordkeeping practices
      • 49. Training requirements
      • 50. Inspection practices
      • 51. Integrated Pest Management approaches
    • Consumer Outreach Brochure
      • Provides a summary overview of the BMPs
      • 52. Guidance for selecting a professional
      • 53. Provides a summary and full English and Spanish versions
    • Bed Bug Best Management Practices
      Available in English and Spanish…in full, and consumer-friendly, light versions at:
    • 54. Bed Bug Public Policy
      States enacted bed bug related laws/rules in the early and mid part of the 20th Century
      Some of laws/administrative rules still on the books
      Alabama, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, Ohio, West Virginia, Nevada, South Dakota
      AZ & TX classify bed bugs in sleeping accommodations as a public health nuisance
    • 55. Ohio Revised Code/Title 37 Health-Safety-Morals/Chapter 3731: Hotels
      3731.13 Bedding, floors, and carpets must be kept sanitary. All bedding used in any hotel must be thoroughly aired, disinfected, and kept clean. No bedding which is infested with vermin or bedbugs shall be used on any bed in any hotel. All floors, carpets, and equipment in hotels, and all walls and ceilings shall be kept in sanitary condition.
    • 56. Primary Drivers/Concerns of Policy Makers
      Affordability/Accountability/Identifying who is responsible for paying for mitigating bed bug infestations and replacing associated loss/destruction of possessions
      Protecting hospitality industry and tourism revenue
      Providing additional tools to combat bed bugs
      Right to Know/Disclosure
      Shift/Balance liability
      Sanitation related issues (i.e. wrapping discarded mattresses, treating used mattresses & furniture)
    • 57. Overview
      Legislative bodies in Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and South Carolina have considered bed bug legislation over the last two years; Bed bug related administrative rule pending in Oregon
      IL, ME & NY all adopted bed bug related laws last year; AZ, ME & NY enacted legislation this year
      Municipalities have also addressed or are looking at issue – Jersey City, San Francisco, Trenton, New York City, Boston, Cincinnati, Detroit, Yonkers, NY, Ocean City, MD etc.
    • 58. AZ Bed Bug Law
      In late April 2011 Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed a bill into law assigning specific responsibilities to landlords and tenants in preventing and managing bed bugs in multifamily housing.
      Senate Bill 1306, which went into effect in late July, stipulates that:
      The landlord cannot knowingly lease a bedbug infested dwelling unit.
      The landlord provide existing and new tenants with educational materials on bedbugs
      A tenant must refrain from moving bedbug infested materials into a dwelling unit.
      A tenant must notify (if prior knowledge of bedbug infestation is known) the landlord of an infestation by written or electronic document
      New law also preempts local governments from enacting ordinances pertaining to bed bugs.
    • 59. 2010 IL Bed Bug Law
      In late July of 2010 Illinois Governor Pat Quinn signed legislation directing the Department of Public Health’s Structural Pest Control Advisory Council to convene a subcommittee to develop a report to the General Assembly by December 31, 2011 with recommendations on the prevention, management, and control of bed bug infestations.
    • 60. Maine Bed Bug Law
      Maine Governor John Baldacci signed comprehensive bed bug legislation into law in April 2010; In June of 2011, Governor Paul LePage signed legislation into law amending the 2010 law.
      Law assigns various duties and responsibilities to landlord, tenant, and pest management professional
    • 61. Maine Bed Bug Law
      Landlord must:
      Inspect the unit for bed bugs within five days of being notified by tenant of possibility of infestation
      Contact a “pest control agent” within 10 days of determining there is an infestation
      Take reasonable measures to effectively identify and treat bed bug infestation as determined by pest control agent
      Employ a pest control agent that carries current liability insurance to promptly treat infestation
    • 62. Maine Bed Bug Law
      Before renting a dwelling unit, a landlord shall disclose to a prospective tenant if an adjacent unit is currently infested with or being treated for bed bugs
      If requested, the landlord must inform prospective tenant of the last date the unit or an adjacent unit was inspected for and found to be free of bed bugs
      Landlord may not offer for rent a dwelling unit the landlord knows or suspects is infested with bed bugs
    • 63. Maine Bed Bug Law
      Tenants must:
      Promptly notify a landlord when the tenant knows of or suspects an infestation of bed bugs in the tenant’s unit
      Grant landlord and pest control agent access to the unit
      Comply with reasonable measures to eliminate and control a bed bug infestation as set forth by the landlord and pest control agent or risk being financially responsible for all pest control treatments of dwelling unit arising from the tenant’s failure to comply
    • 64. Maine Bed Bug Law
      Pest control agent
      Initial inspection of unit may include only a visual and manual inspection of tenant’s bedding and upholstered furniture
      Items other than bedding and upholstered furniture may be inspected when pest control agent considers such inspection is reasonable
      Pest control agent may have additional access to tenant’s personal belongings if bed bugs are discovered in unit or adjoining unit
    • 65. New York Bed Bug Laws
      In late August 2010, New York Governor David Paterson signed bills requiring New York City schools to notify parents of bed bug infestations and New York City landlords to inform incoming tenants whether the apartment unit under consideration or the building had been infested within the previous year; In August 2011, Governor Cuomo signed legislation modifying school bed bug notification law.
      In September of 2010, the New York State Division of Housing & Community Renewal developed a Disclosure of Bed Bug Infestation History Form
    • 66.
    • 67. Pending Congressional Legislation/Bed Bug Management, Prevention & Research Act of 2011/H.R. 967
      Introduced by Rep. Jean Schmidt of Ohio on March 10, 2011
      Specifically, H.R. 967:
      Authorizes a federal bed bug research funding program to resume research that has been neglected for 50 years;
      Requires efficacy testing for minimum risk pesticides to protect consumers from products that don’t effectively manage bed bug infestations;
      Adds “quality of life” criteria EPA must consider when registering a public health pesticide so as to help provide professionals and consumers more safe, affordable, and effective tools;
      Establishes a Bed Bug Prevention and Mitigation Pilot Program to provide subsidized treatments for those on fixed and lower incomes.
    • 68. Kansas Administrative Rule
      In October 2007 the Kansas Department of Health & Environment adopted a comprehensive set of regulations pertaining to lodging establishments – included a section on bed bugs
      Rulemaking developed in conjunction with Kansas Hospitality and Restaurant Association
      Oversight of lodging industry transferred over to Department of Agriculture in 2008
    • 69. Kansas-Bed Bug Provision/Lodging Establishment Regulations
      Each guest room shall be free of any evidence of insects, rodents, and other pests. 
      If a guest room has been vacant for at least 30 days, the licensee shall visually inspect that room for any evidence of insects, rodents, and other pests within 24 hours of occupancy by the next guest. 
      No guest room that is infested by insects, rodents, or other pests shall be rented until the infestation is eliminated. 
    • 70. Kansas-Bed Bug Provision/Lodging Establishment Regulations
      The presence of bed bugs, which is indicated by observation of a living or dead bed bug, bed bug cara-pace, eggs or egg casings, or the typical brownish or blood spotting on linens, mattresses, or furniture, shall be considered an infestation. 
      The presence of bed bugs shall be reported to the regulatory authority within one business day upon discovery or upon receipt of a guest complaint. 
      All infestations shall be treated by a licensed pest control operator(PCO). 
      All pest control measures, both mechanical and chemical, shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. 
      No rodenticides, pesticides, or insecticides shall be stored in a guest room or in any area that could contaminate guest supplies, food, condiments, dishware, or utensils. 
    • 71. Bed Bug Public Policy– Ongoing activity/What is on Horizon
      Second & third wave into suburban & rural areas of country
      Review of pest management licensing requirements
      Increasing number of legislative initiatives covering more & more settings
      More right to know initiatives
      Increased bed bug related litigation
      Legislative response to court decisions/Shifting liability
      WDI – type real estate inspections for bed bugs
      Requiring bed bug infestations to be revealed on real estate disclosure forms
      Increased pesticide misuse
      Closer scrutiny of various products & associated claims
      Increased licensing requirements/bed bug specific applicator category, etc
      Emerging/new industries
      Coordination between typically disparate gov’t agencies
      Impact on various industries (hospitality, mattress, furniture, etc)
    • 72. Thank You
      Gene Harrington