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Launch Pad Communications Plan Book

Launch Pad Communications Plan Book

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Launch Pad Communications Plan Book Launch Pad Communications Plan Book Presentation Transcript

  • STEmulAte AmericA THE COALITION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION
  • Launch Pad Communications Erica Binns Ciara Bujanos Meredith Clampitt Abbey McLaughlin Megan Sayler Allie Wallace Liz Yardley Journalism 676, Strategic Campaigns University of Kansas May 6, 2010 2
  • Table of Contents Executive Summary....................................................................................4 Situation Analysis.......................................................................................6 Budget Summary........................................................................................9 Secondary Research..................................................................................11 Part 1: The Coalition for Space Exploration..............................................................................12 Part 2: NASA and the Space Industry.......................................................................................13 Part 3: Political Influences........................................................................................................14 Part 4: STEM Education in Elementary and Middle Schools..................................................15 Part 5: STEM Education in High School and College...............................................................17 Part 6: Engineering Schools and Math and Science Programs in Schools..................….........18 Part 7: Socioeconomic Influences.............................................................................................20 Primary Research.....................................................................................23 Part 1: Surveys...........................................................................................................................24 Part 2: Focus Group...................................................................................................................29 Part 3: One-on-One Interviews.................................................................................................29 Research Summary...................................................................................35 Key Publics...............................................................................................38 SWOT Analysis..........................................................................................41 Goals, Objectives and Tactics....................................................................46 Executions................................................................................................56 Sample “Discovery Voyager” Bus Wrap Design........................................................................57 “Discovery Voyager” Website....................................................................................................59 “Discovery Voyager” Media Kit.................................................................................................61 “Discovery Voyager” Satellite Media Tour...............................................................................66 STEM Career Awareness Commercial Script...........................................................................69 STEM Career Awareness News Release....................................................................................71 “Geek Week” Sample Programming Schedule..........................................................................73 Downloadable “Geek Week” Poster...........................................................................................75 “Where would you be without space?” Print Ads.....................................................................77 Coalition for Space Exploration Facebook Fan Page...............................................................81 Discovery Voyager Facebook Ad..............................................................................................84 Appendix A: Sources of Information........................................................86 Appendix B: Raw Primary Research.........................................................89 Survey........................................................................................................................................90 Physics Student In-Person Interview........................................................................................95 Focus Group Discussion Questions: University of Kansas Engineering Students.................98 3
  • Executive SummAry 4
  • Executive Summary To execute these goals, Launch Pad Communications recommends using a variety of traditional and non- traditional media that encourage the target audiences to take The Coalition for Space Exploration, which supports the action. We suggest fostering a relationship with an important efforts and interests of NASA and United States space intervening public, the Discovery Channel, to create a program, is currently in a precarious position. With the mobile learning bus that tours the country visiting schools retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet approaching, the and letting students experience STEM firsthand. We also American public has become increasingly skeptical of the recommend creating a “Geek Week” television programming importance of continuing to explore space. Meanwhile, special. Finally, we recommend developing an advertising United States youth are seriously underperforming in math campaign asking America “What would you do without and science literacy when compared to other industrialized space?” The results of these initiatives would be twofold; the nations. United States will be fostering future leaders in STEM fields, and the Coalition for Space Exploration will gain recognition Faced with an unresponsive public and poorly educated and public support for NASA and the space program. children, Launch Pad Communications researched these trends in depth. Our research indicates that there is a The budget for this plan is estimated to cost $99,726.90. lack of knowledge about careers that require a STEM education. There is also a strong correlation between student performance and parent educational background. A child with parents who have a college degree is much more likely to succeed in science and math. As far as successful approaches to teaching, students respond overwhelmingly better when learning is hands on and interactive, as opposed to passive. Key audiences for this plan include students between third and tenth grade, teachers, U.S. taxpayers and social media users. We also recommend targeting the following intervening publics: the media, parents, Coalition members, and the Discovery Channel. Launch Pad Communications has developed a plan recommending two goals for the Coalition to implement: 1. To encourage American youth to pursue careers in STEM-related fields, including the aerospace industry. 2. To increase public interest and support for an ongoing United States space exploration program. 5
  • SituAtion AnAlysis 6
  • may produce national security threats in the future. Coalition for Space Exploration Students between third and tenth grade may have an unfavorable perception of space exploration. Many students The Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition) is a not-for- may be unaware of the history of NASA and may not realize profit organization which supports the efforts and interests how space exploration has improved technology in other of the National Aeronautic and Space Administration and fields. United States space exploration. It consists of a board of directors, a government affairs team, a public affairs team, member companies, contributors and partners. These organizations help contribute resources to its campaigns and Environment spread its messages. The Coalition for Space Exploration operates in the political sphere. As a government-run agency, NASA depends on funding from the government. The Coalition’s government Challenges affairs team mobilizes the Coalition’s member companies’ Washington, D.C. representatives to track and lobby for The current political climate is unfavorable to American space exploration progress. space exploration. President Obama denied funding for Project Constellation and may not be supportive of future The Coalition operates in the corporate sphere as well. space exploration expenditures. The Coalition’s corporate members pay a fee to belong to the organization while its corporate contributors donate The current educational climate is unfavorable to American money and other resources. The partners also help push the space exploration. In the 2006 Programme for International organization’s messages. Student Assessment comparison, the United States ranked 21 out of 30 among students within developed countries The Coalition for Space Exploration operates in the public in science literacy and 25 out of 30 in math literacy. On sphere. In order to promote space exploration in the the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress political sphere, the Coalition must garner support from math tests, fourth graders showed no signs of progress, representatives’ constituents. while eighth graders progressed modestly. In addition, STEM coursework may be perceived as more difficult than The Coalition for Space Exploration aligns with NASA’s other coursework. Therefore, it may not be as appealing to interests. Coalition members must work together with NASA students. The next generation of American students will to achieve common goals. unlikely fulfill the need for STEM-related employees. The current international climate is unfavorable to American space exploration. Foreign students are filling STEM courses at American colleges and universities, then returning to their home countries to develop foreign space exploration programs. Losing American leadership in space exploration 7
  • Why Take Action Now? The number of American STEM students is dropping, while demand for STEM students in other industries and company types (such as Google) is not slowing. The Obama administration has shifted its priorities from manned space shuttles to public-private ventures. To avoid losing more funding, the Coalition must find a way to reach the government. This can be done either directly through lobbyists or indirectly through constituents. The space shuttle fleet will be retired at the end of this year, leaving American astronauts stranded on Earth if relations with Russia deteriorate. This may also develop into a national security issue. In order to maintain leadership as a nation in space, public and government support for space exploration must be attained. 8
  • Budget SummAry 9
  • Budget Summary STEM curricula development $2,500.00 Hulu/YouTube online advertisements (estimate) $25,000.00 Online volunteer network website (yearly; GoDaddy.com) $100.00 Social media optimized news releases (two; prweb.com) $500.00 Educator fulfillment kits $2,500.00 Media kits $1,000.00 Discovery Voyager website (yearly; GoDaddy.com) $100.00 Discovery Voyager banner advertisements (estimate) $5,000.00 Discovery Voyager Facebook advertisements (facebook.com) $21,000.00 Print advertisement in National Educator Conference program book (estimate) $500.00 “Where would you be without space?” webisodes $9,000.00 Billboards for three month cycle each (three billboards, three months each; Lamar Advertising) $5,778.00 Print advertisements (estimate) $20,000.00 Coalition collateral materials $2,000.00 Subtotal $94,978.00 Five percent contigency* $4,748.90 Total $99,726.90 *Contingency funds may be allocated for production, manufacturing and labor costs incurred. 10
  • SecondAry ReseArch 11
  • Secondary Research Members of The Coalition help increase and continue aid for government investments in space travel and exploration. These members are key individuals who are a part of After looking at the issues facing The Coalition for Space industries, associations, private firms and businesses that Exploration’s campaign, Launch Pad Communications support the growth of space travel and exploration. The determined that the research could be divided into seven Coalition is continuously seeking new members and partners sections relevant to the mission of the Coalition. The involved with any U.S.-based company or organization to seven topics researched were: 1. The Coalition for Space assist in the campaign for space exploration funding and Exploration; 2. NASA and the space industry; 3. political awareness. influences on the space industry; 4. STEM education in elementary and middle schools; 5. STEM education in high school and college; 6. engineering schools and math and science programs in schools; and 7. socioeconomic STEM Education Case Study influences. Within each part of research, we examined past case studies relevant to the topic, history, successes and The nation’s STEM supporters (including the public, the failures, current and past news articles and trends. President, Congress, scientists and engineers) are urgent to institute more science and math education in the younger school levels because of the decline in math and science scores. Supporters consider STEM education to be essential Part 1: The Coalition for Space for the nation’s prosperity, security, health and quality of life. The organization, sponsored by Lockheed Martin (an Exploration information technology firm), is committed to this cause. It is made up of 70,000 engineers and scientists who are relying Purpose, Mission and Members on the “bright young men and women to keep the people it serves safe while improving their lives with the latest According to The Coalition for Space Exploration Web advances.” The Coalition is using short and long-term goals site, its main purpose is to promote awareness of space to accomplish this. Two efforts are the National Engineers exploration through education and public outreach Week and Engineers in the Classroom. This is a “partnership programs using cost effective methods. It utilizes the media with the K through 12th grade schools.”According to and publications to secure political support and budget Lockheed Martin CTO Ray O. Johnson, this program resources for space exploration. Its mission is “to promote “[sends] practicing engineers into the classrooms to work the importance of space exploration to the national agenda with the teachers and supplement the curriculum with hands via cost-effective, high-yield public outreach activities that on activities that are fun for the kids.” include both traditional and new media to help secure political support and budget resources for NASA and space The hope of the program is that students will view these exploration.” guests as role models who are teaching more than the standard textbook could. Educators and engineers are finding these one-on-one classroom exchanges to be highly 12
  • effective and are increasingly seen as rewarding to STEM efforts. Robotics, which includes the developing of machines Part 2: NASA and the Space to carry out tasks too risky for humans, are reportedly the Industry most popular among classrooms. It is said that robotics is comparable to the thrill of working with athletic competition. NASA Mission Statements and Vision: Researchers also found that one of the professions students find most appealing is space exploration. This information “NASA’s mission is to pioneer the future in space was gathered by The Coalition’s interview with Johnson. exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research.” Achievements and Possible Setbacks Aeronautics, Exploration Systems, Science A major setback to date has been the budget cuts. Since the and Space Operations Coalition works closely with the government and government advocacy groups, the need for a strong government budget NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations, and support are what keep the space exploration thriving. which are called mission directorates. The four principal organizations are Aeronautics, Exploration Systems, Science While this may be viewed as a potential misfortune, the and Space Operations. Coalition has released a series of press releases that highlight its positive features. A poll in 2009 indicated that the top two benefits to human space exploration, according to the public, are 1) Exploration: human spaceflight draws upon Brief History of NASA our instinctive and pioneering nature to search out new horizons and 2) Down to Earth benefits: launching humans According to NASA.org, President Dwight D. Eisenhower into space results in an array of valuable spin offs to improve established NASA in 1958 in a response to the Soviet Union’s life on Earth. launch of the first artificial satellite the previous year. President John F. Kennedy proposed sending astronauts to the moon before the end of the 1960s. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first of 12 men to walk on the moon Social Media and the Coalition on July 20, 1969. NASA also focused on researching and developing applications for space technology in the hope of The Coalition has kept up with the increased use of social developing weather and communication satellites. After the media in the virtual communities. Features of the Web site Apollo mission, NASA worked on creating the first space include space Web casts, communication tools for educators, shuttle, a reusable ship that could provide regular access interested space advocates and a section dedicated to kids. It to space. The space shuttles were first launched in 1981 also utilizes Facebook, Twitter and blogging to its advantage and have had more than 120 successful flights. There are with numerous daily updates regarding space, NASA and the only four more missions planned before the shuttles retire Coalition’s advancements. this fall. In 2000, the United States and Russia partnered 13
  • together to establish a permanent human residence in space exploded 73 seconds later. The second major space shuttle aboard the International Space Station. The International disaster that was significant to NASA history is the Columbia Space Station is a multinational project representing the launch. According to an article on ProQuest, On Feb. 1, 2003, work of 16 nations. Columbia began its descent back to earth. Columbia lost contact with NASA and exploded with debris falling in Texas, In 2006, NASA planned on building a permanent moon Arkansas and Louisiana. The tragedy was investigated and base, Constellation. However, President Obama vetoed the it was confirmed that the explosion was caused by technical moon base construction in February 2010 because of budget and organizational failures. constrictions. Earth Science satellites are collecting data on the Earth’s oceans, climate and other features. NASA recently completed Part 3: Political Influences the deployment of the Earth Observing System, which is the world’s most advanced and comprehensive capability NASA’s Fiscal Year 2011 Budget to measure global climate change. The NASA Science organization monitors global environmental issues. The U.S. government added an increase of $6 billion over five years to the original $100 billion budget this In terms of the future, NASA plans to develop year. NASA was told to cancel the Constellation project in transformative technology such as heavy-lift technologies order to put money toward other things. These include: and demonstrations to pursue new approaches to space transformative technology development and flagship exploration. NASA hopes to launch robotic precursor technology demonstrations, robotic precursor missions, missions to multiple destinations in the solar system, create research and development on heavy-lift and propulsion U.S. commercial spaceflight capabilities, increase and technologies, U.S. commercial spaceflight capabilities, future extend the uses of the International Space Station, research launch capabilities, extension and increased utilization of the and observation pertaining to climate change, NextGen international space station, NextGen and green aviation and and green aviation, cross-cutting technology development focus on STEM education. in a new Space Technology Program and improvement in education, specifically STEM education. The Constellation program was developed to gain experience operating away from Earth. Some goals included developing Two major disasters have set back the NASA program and a new spacecraft and booster vehicle to replace the space affected the public’s confidence in NASA’s shuttle launches. shuttle that is retiring this year, as well as traveling back to The first was the Challenger. According to an article on the moon and possibly Mars. The Obama administration’s About.com, the Challenger was one of four space shuttles decision to cancel the project resulted from its desire to created by NASA in the 1980’s. The Challenger flew nine spend government money on Earth first. There was also missions prior to the disaster in 1986. Prior to takeoff, a focus on developing new and stronger technologies and the Challenger experienced several problems. After the focusing on the younger generations to further STEM problems were supposedly fixed, the Challenger took off and education. 14
  • Government Committees U.S. Space Policy The Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) was In 2006, President Bush authorized a new space policy that established in 1976 to help the President understand the created hope for future exploration in space and advances effects of science and technology. The mission of the OSTP in technologies. Some main goals of that policy were to is to provide the President and his staff with scientific and strengthen the nation’s leadership in space, increase technical advice. Its purpose is to ensure that the policies of the benefits of space exploration, enable a commercial the Executive Board are informed by sound science and to space sector to strengthen U.S. leadership, increase ensure that the scientific and technical work is coordinated national homeland and economic security and encourage to provide the greatest benefit to society. The OSTP focuses international cooperation with foreign nations on space on the subject technology as it relates to American concerns activity. such as health care, public safety, education and maintaining U.S. technical and strategic superiority in space. In order to achieve these long-term goals, the U.S. strives to develop space professionals, improve space system Congress has several committees relating to science, development and procurement, increase and strengthen space and education. It includes the Senate Committee on interagency partnerships and strengthen and maintain the Commerce, Science and Transportation (25 members) with U.S. space-related science, technology and industrial base. a subcommittee on space and science, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (23 members), the Senate However, with NASA’s budget cuts and the shifting focus Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (23 from developing new technologies in outer space to the members), the House Committee on Science and Technology Earth, the United States’ space policy will have to adapt to (43 members) with subcommittees on research and science this changing environment. education, space and aeronautics and technology and innovation. Major federal STEM education programs include the Part 4: STEM Education NIH Ruth Kirschstein National Research Service Awards, which constitute the largest majority of spending on in Elementary and Middle STEM education and focuses on postdoctoral research Schools in health-related fields. There are also NSF Graduate Research Fellowships, which aim to increase the size Why Is STEM Education Important? and diversity of the U.S. workforce in science and engineering. Other programs include NSF Mathematics According to the U.S. Labor Department, 15 of the 20 fastest and Science Partnerships, NSF Research Experiences for growing occupations require significant math or science Undergraduates, ED Science and Mathematics Access to preparation. STEM workers earned about 70 percent more Retain Talent Grants and ED Mathematics and Science than the national average in 2005. Between 2004 and 2014, Partnerships. employers are expected to hire approximately 2.5 million 15
  • STEM workers who are entering their occupation for the first to promote student participation in AP math, science and time. This adds up to a 22 percent increase in the next 10 English courses. Enrollment in AP courses has increased 70 years. percent in all students as well as 122 percent for minority students since the program began. UTeach is another According to the National Center for Education Statistics, program designed to train math and science teachers. one third of fourth graders and one fifth of eighth graders UTeach graduates have a 70 percent teacher retention rate, cannot perform basic math computations. This may be compared to a national average of 50 percent. because nearly 70 percent of U.S. middle school students are taught math by teachers with neither a major nor certification in math. There is also a relationship between “Important, but Not for Me” student performance and his or her parents’ education. Every year between 1990 and 2009, eighth grade students A 2007 survey, conducted by Public Agenda and Ewing whose parents had at least some education after high school Marion Kauffman Foundation, was administered in Kansas scored above the all-eighth-grade average. Those whose and Missouri asking students and parents about math, parents had no more than a high school degree scored science and technology education. Findings were based on significantly less than the average. a random survey of 1472 parents and 1295 middle and high school students in Kansas and Missouri, 12 focus groups Although the U.S. scores consistently lower in math and and a series of interviews with local employers, leaders and science tests compared to other countries, it’s not because of experts. Although the results are regional in scale, they echo a lack in instructional time. In 2007, the U.S. averaged 148 those of national research on the same subject. hours per year of eighth grade math instructional time, or 13 percent of total instructional time. The international average The survey found that parents are aware of the importance was just 120 hours and 12 percent. Additionally, countries of math, science and technology, but remain complacent. outperforming the U.S. in science and math spend 10 percent Ninety-one percent of parents and 79 percent of students less of their respective GDPs on primary and secondary believe having basic math skills is absolutely essential. education than the U.S., on average. Similarly, 60 percent of parents and 47 percent students believe understanding basic scientific ideas and principles are absolutely essential. However, less than one third of all National Math and Science Initiative parents and students believe understanding higher-level math, such as calculus and advanced sciences like physics, is The National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI) was absolutely essential. launched in March 2007 by top leaders in American businesses, education and science to help remedy this drastic Although students agree on the importance of higher-level decline in math and science education by replicating proven math, science and technology, most find it irrelevant. Nearly programs on a national scale. Programs include: Advanced half of all students surveyed said they would be unhappy Placement Training and Inventive Program (APTIP), if they ended up in a career that involved a lot of math or awarding $79 million in grants to non-profits in six states science. 16
  • You have to use basic math every day of our life. It’s just in groups to explore a particular NASA career in the areas of good to know, but you don’t need a whole bunch more STEM. The students then create a presentation marketing than that. When are we ever going to use x plus y and all that career. In 2008, the winning team created a Web site that? –Urban student about astrobiologists. I hate math just because it’s hard for me to understand Many regional events are also aimed at STEM education how that’s ever going to come back and help me. There’s awareness including Science is for Girls in Texas and just not a point. –Suburban student STEMapalooza in Colorado. The University of Texas at San Antonio hosted 400 girls in grades six through eight at Science doesn’t matter unless you want to become a the Science is for Girls workshop. The workshop included doctor or something like that. –Suburban student outreach events to encourage girls to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics by Learning about concrete opportunities in college and the introducing them to successful female scientists in small- workplace warmed students to the idea of taking math and group settings. STEMapalooza, presented by the University science courses and taking them seriously. Many students of Colorado Denver, is a two-day, free event for students of suggested they would have taken more math, science and all ages to engage in hands-on, minds-on activities. These technology in high school had someone explained the real activities include fast track racing, robotics, gaming, film world opportunities to them. production, staging, rocketry and more. STEM-Related Programs Part 5: STEM Education in Existing STEM-related programs continue to provide High School and College support for student and educators. For example, Raytheon’s Year of Math in Action program reached more than On both local and national levels, dozens of STEM-related 50,000 young students in 2009. The initiative included competitions are available for high school and college MathMovesU, a program that “engages young students with students who wish to demonstrate their abilities in a unique, interactive experiences through activities they enjoy competitive atmosphere. Many of these competitions utilize most, such as sports, music and fashion while fostering multiple aspects of STEM education and are focused on student achievement.” Highlights of the program were the teamwork and group efforts over individual accomplishment. Sum of all Thrills ride at Epcot Disneyworld, MATHCOUNTS National Competition title sponsor, MathMovesU Middle School Scholarship & Camp program and the Raytheon U.S. National Science and Math Competitions STEM Model for education. Many science and math competitions are team-based Another national program, the No Boundaries Contest question-and-answer tournaments. For example, the sponsored by NASA and USA Today, has students working National Science Bowl is an annual event sponsored by the 17
  • Department of Energy for high school students. Teams of Invention competitions, such as The Collegiate Inventors four students compete by answering multiple choice and Competition, are also available for college-level students short answer questions. who seek to solve problems with inventive STEM-related solutions. The National Chemistry Olympiad is similarly structured and is sponsored by the American Chemical Society. This competition has multiple tiers, starting with local schools and finishing with a worldwide competition. Part 6: Engineering Schools Other competitions, such as Science Olympiad, are more and Math and Science activity-based than question-and-answer based. Science Programs in Schools Olympiad hosts tournaments on multiple levels, from intramurals to national tournaments. In addition to these Math Programs for Elementary School competitions, Science Olympiad encourages students’ Through High School Students interest in science by engaging them in classroom activities, research and workshops year-round. Avid Academy for gifted youth in Irving, Calif. is among the most prestigious math and science programs in the country, connecting gifted students from both public and National Engineering and Technology private institutions as well as home-schooled students. Competitions Avid Academy partners with families, teachers, school administrators and businesses to help build character, Engineering and technology competitions are typically develop talents, provide development opportunities and team-based and primarily focus on a practical application encourage collaboration. There are a number of classes of knowledge. Many of these competitions are based around that can be taken spanning the realm of math and physics. designing and building robots, which are highly flexible Each course lasts for 10 weeks and takes place at Concordia for competitions. This is because they can range from the University. extremely simple, cost-effective variety to vastly complex and expensive machines. The Center for Talented Youth (CTY) at Johns Hopkins University seeks all students of the highest academic ability. BattleBotsIQ is one such competition where teams of high CTY conducts a talent search to find youth of the highest school students use math, physics and engineering to academic ability and will serve all qualified students, build tournament-worthy robots. The National Robotics regardless of their ability to pay. CTY caters to all pre- Challenge, which is open to middle schools, high schools collegiate students and offers special programs ranging from and colleges, also provides STEM-inclined students the early development stages to high school students. opportunity to compete in robotics contests in a variety of difficulty levels. LeapAhead! Summer Math Program is the most affordable of the options. LeapAhead! conducts online math programs 18
  • during in the summer months for only 20 minutes a day, have a positive effect on student interest in careers in science four times a week. LeapAhead’s research concluded that disciplines. Many former participants have successfully students who are not exposed to stimulating, educational entered challenging undergraduate programs throughout the activities during the summer, lose a couple of month’s worth nation, including those at Baylor. of math skills. LeapAhead’s overall objectives are to enrich a student’s interest and boost confidence in math and review. MIT’s Office of Engineering Outreach Programs offers The program also aims to reinforce math concepts and skills unique enrichment opportunities free of charge to middle and to strengthen problem-solving skills. These programs school and high school students who attend public schools are only offered for grades three to six. in the Boston area. MIT is devoted to the advancement of knowledge and education of students in areas that contribute Texas Mathworks Summer Math Camp, at Texas State to or prosper in an environment of science and technology. University, is for K-12 students and encourages them to do The programs are as follows: math at a high level. Often times, summer math camps and after-school programs include undergraduate counselors 1. MIT STEM Program: a year-round academic enrichment mentored by more experienced math teachers. Texas opportunity for talented middle school students from Mathworks strongly believes that developing students’ Boston, Cambridge and Lawrence, Mass., who want to natural math abilities early is critical to their success in explore their interests in science, technology, engineering algebra and more advanced math. and math. 2. MIT Science and Baseball Program: MSBP is a four- Canada/USA Mathcamp is an intensive five-week summer week summer program aimed at improving the math and camp for mathematically talented high school students. At science skills of entering eighth grade boys in Boston and Mathcamp, students can explore undergraduate and even Cambridge by building on their interest in baseball. graduate-level topics while building problem-solving skills 3. Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science that will help them in any field they choose to study. This (MITES) is a rigorous six-week residential, academic camp is located in Cambridge, Mass. enrichment summer program for promising high school seniors who are interested in studying and exploring Baylor University High School Summer Science Research careers in science and engineering. This national program Program is an annual summer camp established in 1991. stresses the value and reward of pursuing advanced Its purpose is to give superior high school students hands- technical degrees and careers while developing the skills on experience by working on research projects with Baylor necessary to achieve success in science and engineering. science professors in many disciplines. This program occurs 4. Saturday Engineering Enrichment and Discovery during the University’s first session of summer school and (SEED) is a seven semester, academic enrichment and is open to students between their junior and senior years career exploration program for public high school students of high school. Students are selected from high schools from Boston, Cambridge and Lawrence, Mass. Using throughout the United States to be involved in this summer the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks as a guide, research program, which allows them to earn one semester instructional staff develops original curricula that will hour of college credit. It is hoped that this experience will support students’ grasp of the math and science concepts 19
  • they are being taught in school. Each SEED Academy module focuses on a different technical discipline, from In the U.S., subjects covered in one grade are often again Mechanical Engineering to Robotics to Synthetic Biology. covered in another grade, taking away time from new concepts. Other countries have much tighter, upward spirals in learning, only repeating the minimum. “The initial Performance of American Students reaction to our drop in ranking is to assume that our middle Compared to Other Countries schools are at fault,” says LeTendre. “Low gains between third and fourth grades indicate this is not a middle school According to an article in the Washington Post on Dec. 8, problem, however, and it is not a slump, but indicative of a 2008, students are not doing any better than students in system-wide low level of achievement.” the 1990s on an international science exam. Students in Singapore, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong outperformed A 2007 article in The New York Times stated that on the U.S. fourth graders in science, but American students also most recent national assessment, the highest-performing outperformed 25 other countries. The average U.S. score was state in math was Massachusetts, and in science, North 539 on a 1,000 point scale. Dakota. Mississippi was the lowest-performing state in both math and science. In math, Mississippi students’ Eighth graders who also took the exam are not doing any achievement was comparable to those of peers in Bulgaria better. Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, England, and Moldova. In science, Mississippi students were Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Hong Kong and Russia comparable to those in Norway and Romania. all topped U.S. eighth graders in science. The average U.S. score was a 520 on a 1,000 point scale, down almost 20 points from fourth grade. Eighth graders also fell behind all of these countries except the Czech Republic and Slovenia Part 7: Socioeconomic in math scores, with an average score of 508. Taiwan led Influences math with an average score of 598. Francis Eberle, executive director of the Arlington County-based National Science Including Minorities Teachers Association said, “We need to pay attention to the results. We’re just static, and other countries are improving.” The Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE) conducted a social action project which studied the achievement gap An article from The Science Daily in August 1998, suggests between minority and non-minority students in the United that in general, American students are showing a drop in States. The research shows that fewer minority students international rankings in math and science between the were enrolled in higher-level math and science courses than fourth and eight grades – educators are calling this period of non-minority students. It was also noted in the research time a “slump.” Dr. Gerald K LeTendre, assistant professor of study that 42.8 percent of minority and 61.5 percent of non- education at Penn State said, “Our studies indicate that this minority students were enrolled in at least one advanced is not really a slump, but simply a continuation of low gains placement math or science course. Students and teachers from year to year.” were surveyed and asked questions based upon three specific 20
  • education related issues: 1. Disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM; 2. Whether Benefits to student participants in after-school programs teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM include: after-school enrichment; and 3. Developing STEM after- • Exposure and experience in hands-on real life school programs that were centered on problem applications of math, reading, writing and science taught solving and higher order thinking skills to develop students’ in the classroom. interest in STEM careers. • Improved student assessment scores. • Improved student attendance at school. The results spurred a non-profit program based out of • Improved student conduct and self-discipline. Houston, Texas called C-STEM (communication, science, • Development of good citizenship and study skills in technology, engineering and math), an after-school program motivated students. that assisted schools with reducing achievement gaps in the • Higher graduation rate from high school and college in STEM courses. It is believed that this program can address STEM fields. the management, research and implementation of quality Incentive-based scholarships and internships for students hands-on enrichment activities that will increase the number taking higher level math and science courses can also serve of students interested in pursuing careers in STEM fields. as a motivator for participation. 2.4 percent of Hispanics and 2.7 percent of African Americans hold science and engineering degrees in Relating the Real World to Science the United States. These groups represent the largest academic achievement gap in math and science. If properly According to C.R. Barman, author of Students’ Views About implemented and maintained, STEM enrichment programs Scientists and School Science, says that students view can reduce this gap. C-STEM provided information on science, as well as other subjects in their schools, as separate the perceptions of the 30 participants before and after the domains of knowledge that are not personally applicable to C-STEM program over a one-year period. The sampling them. They have difficulty connecting science to their own frame was 47 percent minority and 43 percent non-minority. lives, so this has ultimately led to a decline in good attitudes It was noted that getting children interested in STEM towards science. Because of this, there is a lower interest in courses begins with early childhood development. Not only careers related to science. In a study conducted to examine does it come from homes, but it also comes from role models the impact of a 10-day informal learning immersion science and mentors with whom children can identify. camp on low-socioeconomic status, seventh grade students and teachers visited places that affected their daily lives During the one-year C-STEM program, the students were such as a sewage treatment facility, zoo, planetarium, forest surveyed every week. Surveys found that two out of three and power plant. By the end of the camp the results showed students who have gone through STEM programs want to that both teachers and students were positively impacted by return to the program as a mentor after graduation and that their experiences at the camp. While at these sites, students one out of two indicated the likelihood of pursuing STEM were engaged in activities that supported science concepts careers at the post-secondary level. important to how those facilities functioned. The students’ 21
  • content knowledge was enhanced and expanded. A commonly used strategy that incorporates goals of connecting school and real world science is through informal learning experiences during on-site visits. Sorrentino and Bell (1970) summarized this literature, and found five common “attributed values” teachers had for taking students on site visits. They claimed these values were “1. providing first-hand experience; 2. stimulating interest and motivation in science; 3. giving meaning to learning and interrelationships; 4. enhancing observation and perception skills; and 5. increasing personal development.” When students were given free time during the on-site visits, they engaged in content-related conversations. The tape recorders that the children had to wear revealed that they were conducting learning-related conversations more than 80 percent of the time. Based on the Fennema-Sherman subscale of science anxiety, students reported significantly less science anxiety after participating in the summer camp. Students also reported significantly more in their ability to do science. 22
  • PrimAry ReseArch 23
  • Primary Research Part 1: Surveys Primary research conducted for the Coalition is separated Launch Pad Communications used the class-created survey into three parts: surveys, a focus group, and one-on-one of former space campers and collected data from other interviews. demographics to expand its reach. Since the majority of the space campers who responded were in high school, we The survey was conducted between March 3 and March 13, also extended the survey to seven college students studying 2010, under the auspices of the Kansas Cosmosphere and engineering and three elementary school students, in Space Center (KCSC). Students enrolled in the Strategic addition to their interviews. Communication Campaigns course at the University of Kansas generated questions for the survey on behalf of the The survey showed that all ages chose television or computer Coalition for Space Exploration. KCSC e-mailed a link to with Internet use as their most-used medium. YouTube an online survey to 1,242 former Space Camp participants. is the most popular networking site and all ages were in Two hundred seventy-nine e-mail accounts were invalid and agreement that parents influence their interests in school 411 of e-mails were opened. Twenty-eight students and one and education. Differences became apparent in television professor from Strategic Communications Campaigns were channel choices. Each respondent had different choices also invited to participate. The survey response rate was just than the next. However, similar demographics noted over 10 percent. Launch Pad Communications supplemented similar regularly watched channels: elementary students the online survey by administering it to seven engineering watched Nickelodeon, Teen Nick and the Disney Channel; students (four males, three females) and three elementary Space Campers watched the Discovery Channel and the students (two males, one female). History Channel; and engineering students had no common channels with one another. We noticed that surveyed older The focus group was conducted March 2, 2010, at Spahr students (Space Campers and engineering students) all used Library at the University of Kansas and consisted of eight Facebook, whereas only one of the elementary students did. engineering students ages 21 to 27. There were seven male Elementary students had little to no interest in a career in and one female participant. The focus group was videotaped math, science or space exploration; however, the majority of and transcribed. Out of the eight participants, there were the Space Campers and college students did. An interesting three mechanical, two petroleum, two chemical and one similarity was the parents’ interest in space exploration. In architectural engineering student. the engineering group, all except one person said they either agreed or strongly agreed that their parents were interested Eight one-on-one interviews with STEM majors from in space. In the Space Camper group, more than 50 percent the University of Kansas were conducted, including six agreed to this as well. This data indicates that parental aerospace engineering students, one electrical engineering influence is an important insight into what makes a child student and one physics major. Launch Pad Communications pursue a career in the STEM education field. also conducted informal interviews with three teachers from three different cities and school socioeconomic statuses as well as the program director of Science City in Kansas City. 24
  • Social Media Use 80 70 60 50 Males Percent of Survey 40 Respondents Fem ales 30 20 10 0 Facebook Twitter MySpace YouTube Blogs Other Type of Social Media 25
  • Most Watched Television Channels 90 80 70 60 Watch Occasionally 50 Watch Percent of Survey Regularly Respondents 40 30 20 10 0 Discovery ABC CBS Fox History NBC Comedy TNT ABC TBS Channel Channel Central Family Television Channel 26
  • "I admire Astronauts" Strongly Agree 60% Agree 36% Disagree 1% No Opinion 3% 27
  • "I Am Interested in Space Exploration" Disagree No Opinion 2% 5% Agree Strongly Agree 39% 55% 28
  • Part 2: Focus Group All participants agreed that parental influence on education is important and each of them was taught this at home. Each person had a story to tell about his or her family’s way of While some focus group responses were predictable based pushing education at home and it showed a good reason for on secondary research, Launch Pad Communications also why they are so dedicated in their schoolwork. uncovered new data. Focus group respondents explained that “engineering really runs life… all fields of engineering For leisure activities, although they have little time, all work hand-in-hand to make human beings work.” Basically, respondents use Facebook and many of them play sports or engineers problem solve. When asked to give an example exercise to relieve stress or unwind. of a universal problem they would typically work on, they explained that the only thing that they have in common with All of the participants agree that we need to focus on one another is “solving balances.” Every participant agreed our problems on Earth before spending money on space that in order to survive in the engineering program, you have travel. They all agreed space was “cool,” but also felt the to enjoy problem solving and must like math. They explained “it doesn’t concern me” attitude toward space exploration. how they have to work together to solve problems because The participants made good points about space not being a if they didn’t they would not be able to get the right answer. tangible resource that can be seen. All that participants see One participant admitted, “If you have a good study group, is our money being spent but little return. This heightens the you learn better, otherwise you won’t pass the test.” suspicion that the Coalition for Space Exploration needs to educate people about everything that space has and can do When asked what they felt was the most challenging for our society in the future. part about this field, all respondents stressed how time consuming it was. They felt that it might be making them miss out on something in school, but all agreed it was worth it in the end to continue in their major. Most agreed that Part 3: One-on-One Interviews money and the rewarding feeling of creating something beneficial for society keeps them going when it gets really University Students tough. Some personality traits that the participants noticed as common are “hands-on people” and “nerdy kids.” When All but in one interview, participants used Facebook asked about their high school activities and clubs, most regularly and all have a passion for science, math or both. participated in academic-type programs but some were All students said they participate in extracurricular activities embarrassed about it at the time of participation. They related to the engineering field and 25 percent were involved also made the impression that in high school “nerdy” had in STEM-related activities in elementary or middle school. a negative connotation but now is something they accept Seventy-five percent said they play sports or video games and enjoy. One participant noted that 97 percent of high during leisure time. When asked what the greatest part of school students don’t know that engineers are modern day being a STEM major is, 75 percent of interviewees said the inventors, which shows that most students are unaware and best part of the field is the challenges they face daily or the uneducated about engineering. hands-on experience. Fifty percent of respondents have family members in this field and believed that it played a 29
  • role in where they are now. One hundred percent of the When asked about the social atmosphere and if there was participants supported space exploration and want to see a problem with bullying, specifically for smarter students, more of it in the future. They all made it clear how much Bohlin’s answer was very interesting: Earth benefits from space exploration. Finally, 75 percent said they would like to pursue a career in the space industry. There is a sense of pride here to get good grades. Getting good grades isn’t seen as a bad thing. It’s cool to be smart… I don’t hear about people getting bullied for being smart. Maggie Bohlin: Special Education Teacher Instead, I hear about people getting bullied for being dumb. Maggie Bohlin is a Special Education teacher at Jordan She goes on to say, “It might be because teachers and the Community School in Chicago, Illinois. She teaches fourth, adults praise students for getting good grades, a lot of fifth and sixth graders. Jordan Community School is an positive reinforcement.” Bohlin compared her experience in inner-city school in Chicago. working in an inner city public school in Chicago with her student teaching experience in a wealthier suburb in Dayton, Bohlin described the school’s mission to have a curriculum Ohio. She said, “I think it has a lot to do with the way these that is enriched in science and math. She explained how the kids have been raised. When I was in Dayton, it was cool teachers use a lot of hands-on approaches to learning, like to not get good grades. Failing was seen as not caring; not lab experiments. She continually mentioned a school-wide caring was seen as cool. The suburban students cared about computer program called Study Island, which is very popular who you were dating and what you were wearing to school, and effective among students. like a persons ‘status.’ The inner city students wear uniforms to school and have other things to worry about.” Although many of the students don’t have access to computers at home, they enjoy listening to music and When asked her opinion on why some students don’t watching television. Many of Bohlin’s students enjoy typically like subjects like science, math, engineering and listening to a popular Chicago Hip-Hop and R&B radio technology, Bohlin stated the lack of interest is due to a lack station and artists like Lil Wayne. She also said that of opportunity to learn about the subject. She even uses television stations like Disney and Nickelodeon were very herself as an example: “To this very day I have no idea what popular, especially shows like iCarly and Hannah Montana chemical engineers do.” In terms of motivating students for girls. Many boys like Family Guy and wrestling shows to get good grades, Bohlin says the best method is to keep like WWE. Bohlin indicated that the school was lacking most the students engaged in the subject by having a fun project, after school sports except basketball. However, the school presentation or field trip at the end of the unit. If students does have a lot of after-school clubs. One club that stood know there is a reward, besides good grades, they are more out was the “S.W.A.T club, Students Working to Advance likely to work hard. Also, students will be more engaged if Technology, where students work with teachers and fix the learning is hands-on and interactive, rather than just computers that other students use.” pencil and paper. She again stressed the importance of providing students with the opportunity to learn all subjects in an engaging manner. “I feel that if they truly do learn 30
  • about something, they will become more interested in it. If of their time playing video games, playing online games you know more knowledge on a subject, you will like it. If or watching television. The Wii video games are the most you know nothing about a subject, you will put your head popular in her class, and RuneScape has been a popular down.” online game also. As far as television channels, Nickelodeon is the current favorite. Hays said the show iCarly is talked about daily. Debbie Hays: Fifth Grade Teacher When asked about bullying in her school, Hays said it was Debbie Hays is a fifth grade teacher at Andrews Elementary not a problem. In her school, being more intelligent is seen in Plano, Texas. She teaches science, social studies and in a positive light. Although, she said that you can tell the reading. Andrews Elementary is located in a suburban area gifted kids from the other kids; there is not much bullying of high socioeconomic status. at Andrews. One observation Hays thinks makes a huge difference at her school is the parents. She said the parents When asked about the school’s curriculum for science, are very involved and concerned with their kids during technology, engineering and math, she spoke about how school. Hays mentioned that last year 250 kids were tested the teachers use hands-on techniques to get the students for the gifted program because “everyone wants their child to involved and excited. Hays mentioned they also have a gifted be gifted.” program that students can test into each year. It is a creative learning program that travels to other schools once a week In Hays’ opinion, most students at her school show interest to work with other students. She also mentioned that using in these STEM-related subjects because about 50 percent technology (eight computers in her classroom) has recently of her students’ parents are engineers or in a similar field. become a big part of the curriculum because kids respond Even though that is the case, Hays said she believes kids do well to technology. Aside from in-school tactics, the school not realize how important STEM subjects are for the future offers many extracurricular programs. For example, the of society. If other students were more knowledgeable or environmental club teaches kids about recycling and how educated about the engineering field, she said the interest to create things that are helpful to the environment. Hays would rise. mentioned how the members of this club recently created a butterfly garden out of recycled materials. Other options for her students are Math Olympiad and an overnight Science Cari Davis: Seventh Grade Teacher Camp at Andrews Elementary. She explained how excited the students get for this and how much they learn in a fun Cari Davis is a seventh grade teacher at John Adams Middle environment. School in Albuquerque, New Mexico. John Adams Middle School is an inner-city school in a low socioeconomic area Hays mentioned that 90 percent of her students have with about 90 percent of students on free or reduced lunch. computers or computer access at home, 60-70 percent have cell phones, 80 percent have Wiis and about 15 percent When asked about the schools curriculum for subjects use Facebook. She explained that her students spend most relating to STEM, Davis explains the Math Strategies 31
  • class. This class is held daily for 45 minutes specifically Davis feels that the parents at her school are a major reason for students who are below their grade level in math. She many of the students do not do well. She said the parents thinks it is a positive thing for the students who need extra either do not know how to support them in education or are help and attention in order to grasp topics in math. Davis not around to do it. At John Adams, most of the parents did also explains the advanced classes that are available to not attend a college or higher level institute and therefore students in all subjects. Although only 10 to 15 percent of do not expose their children to the possibilities. This is one students qualify for these classes, she believes it is a good main reason why she thinks many students do not care about program. At John Adams they also have Gifted Science subjects in STEM. If their parents have no reason to care classes, which many of the students view as an honor. The about these topics, they usually instill those feelings in their final program she explains is MESA: Math, Engineering children. Davis had an interesting theory that students make and Science Achievement, which is only for eighth graders up their mind in third or fourth grade whether or not they at John Adams. This is targeted for students who have are good at math and science. After that decision is made, disadvantages in learning and focus on helping them to excel they either enjoy it or give up on it altogether. in math and science in the classroom. Davis said her most effective teaching method has been interactive whiteboards. The final question to Davis was, “What encourages her She explains that the students respond well to hands-on students to get good grades and succeed?” She believes that learning tactics. She believes technology is one of the most when the students can relate to, or enjoy something, they are effective ways to reach her students. In her school, students more motivated to do well. Recently, Davis said her students received clickers for two classrooms. Davis thinks clickers have been studying endangered animals and she noticed are attractive to students because the data is created almost that many students who are animal lovers have been scoring immediately and they can visualize what they are learning. higher on assignments. “Many of the students go to the community center after Davis claimed that even though it is a challenge to get these school,” Davis said. At the community center they have the students’ attention, when she succeeds at it, it is rewarding. opportunity to play sports, different types of games, arts She believes that as long as you can get the students to care and crafts and other activities with other students. Davis about something, they will want to learn more about it. said she thinks most of the students spend a lot of time at the center. She said about 60 to 70 percent have Internet access at home; however, they spend most of their time at home watching television or playing video games. She also Chris Alexander: STEM Professional mentioned PlayStation as the most popular console. Chris Alexander is the Vice President of Finance and As far as bullying, Davis said that it wasn’t a problem for Administration for the FNA Group. FNA Group is a the smart students. However, “They do get teased a little bit worldwide manufacturing company based in Chicago. and they definitely stand out.” She feels that there is not a Alexander graduated from the University of Iowa with negative connotation to getting good grades. It seems more a degree in mechanical engineering, emphasis on like a jealousy for the other students. manufacturing and materials with a minor in business and math. 32
  • Alexander discovered in high school his love for problem of exposure to the subject. He found that many students see solving and science courses. Alexander’s father owned college as a place to simply get a degree. a manufacturing plant and he credits his father’s plant for giving him the opportunity to explore his interest in “People can get excited about space, but I feel that it doesn’t engineering before going to college. have a lot of presence in schools or after school clubs. Not enough people are drawn to it early on (middle school/high “I loved applying everything I learned with my hands,” school) and when they get to college they think, ‘I need to Alexander said. “Growing up with access to the complete these classes and graduate.’ I feel like most kids manufacturing plant, I got to break apart the motors and graduate with something generic because they feel like look inside the engine. As you keep learning, you get more college is just another step in the process.” curious and want to explore it more. For students, or anyone really, to really understand what an engineer does, you need When asked about going to the moon, Alexander didn’t to have some sort of experience prior to studying it.” believe it was important because he didn’t know enough about it. Alexander noted that he was a straight-A student in high school. He had a lot of friends and played on the soccer team, When asked if he thought providing students with more even though he said he hated it. He doesn’t remember any access to clubs or information about space and technology of his high school friends enjoying similar subjects like math would be beneficial, Alexander gave a real life example that and science. In college, he noted that most of his friends he experienced that day of how smart students are and they weren’t in the engineering program either. He explained that don’t even know it. he needed, “a stable balance between engineering students and non engineering students.” Alexander didn’t consider “There’s a kid working at the hotel I am staying at. He’s himself ‘cool’ in high school or college, but he didn’t consider working the front desk and as I am checking-in he points himself a ‘dork’ either. to my Blackberry and starts talking nerd to me. He told me he programmed his Droid (smart phone) to turn on his In college, Alexander also discovered that he didn’t want to television. He starts to tell me this whole process and here I go into the engineering field as a profession. He explained am dumfounded. How did he just do that? He typed in some that his father influenced his decision to study engineering, code and created an application that changes the channel but not necessarily become a professional engineer. “My and turns down the volume on his television. Little does this father is a very successful entrepreneur and he knows that kid know, he has the ability to create the next Microsoft or having a powerful position is driven from an analytical something.” background.” Alexander’s father influenced him to pursue a unique education to gain insight that will help him later in Alexander explains how students don’t realize that their life, rather than simply becoming a professional. hobbies and past times are actually what professionals do. Students could make a career out of something they do for When asked about space exploration, Alexander believed a fun. reason that some students are not interested is due to a lack 33
  • “Kids in high school these days are smart. Smarter than me Science City is also fortunate enough to have a Challenger even, but they don’t realize it. Let me give you an example. Learning Center, which is an interactive space and science Take the iPhone or a laptop. There are kids in high school education center where groups work together to help send a creating specialty applications for the iPhone just for fun. successful mission to the moon or mars. The first Challenger They don’t realize that sitting behind their computer, Learning Center opened in 1988 as a living memorial to creating these games and features, is exactly what a the NASA Challenger crew and has since funded more computer engineer does.” than 50 centers in 31 states, as well as in Canada and the UK. Worldwide, each year more than 500,000 students participate in a Challenger Learning Center program. Jeff Rosenblatt: Director, Science City Rosenblatt said that all of its discovery area programs are Members of Launch Pad Communications visited Science equally popular among students and teachers. Science City City inside Union Station in Kansas City, Mo. on April 2, does provide educational materials for educators to use 2010. The Director of Science City, Jeff Rosenblatt, gave in preparing the students for the programs. However, he the group a tour of the facility and spoke candidly about the stressed that it doesn’t matter how skilled or knowledgeable success of its programs. the students are before attending a Science City program, because often the most responsive students are the most The first question we asked Rosenblatt was “What do the unexpected. For example, at-risk youth groups that students respond to the best?” His answer echoes our participate in the outreach programs seem to excel when previous research that activity-based learning is by far the given the responsibility and freedom to complete the best approach to teaching children science. Science City has discovery area tasks. created dozens of these activity-based learning programs in its Discovery Areas that schools, as well as the public, can In the summer, Science City hosts numerous week-long take children to explore. summer camps with themes such as “Space Exploration: Stars, Planets & Asteroids.” It offers community and Science City’s discovery areas, all of which focus on classroom outreach as well, where Science City’s professional STEM-related subjects, are led by staff members and are staff brings its interactive science demonstrations to schools supervised by teachers or parents. For example, in the Test and community events. Student groups, such as Girl Scout Kitchen, students learn about the science of food, and in and Boy Scout troops, can even hold overnight “camp-ins” at the Burns and McDonnell Engineerium, they can build and Science City and explore all night long. Most of Science City’s execute a robotics program. In the Planetarium, students business comes from word-of-mouth referrals and annual can experience a tour of the stars on the huge, 360-degree class field trips. Its marketing is mostly passive and in the screen. Science City also hosts group teambuilding activities form of a Web site and brochures. in its discovery areas that are appropriate for high school, college and adult groups. All of the discovery area programs last either one or two hours, depending on the age of the participants. 34
  • ReseArch SummAry 35
  • Summary of Key Findings Socioeconomic status also plays a part in education enthusiasm. Inner city students who received high grades were considered ‘cooler’ than those who didn’t. The opposite Launch Pad Communications uncovered many significant was true for suburban students, where failing was considered findings. The majority of seventh and eighth grade students not caring and not caring was viewed as cool. simply don’t care about math and science. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, one-fifth of Maggie Bohlin, a special education teacher in Chicago said eighth graders can’t perform basic math computations. that the best method is to keep the students engaged in the Many students don’t realize how math will help them in the subject is by having a fun project, presentation or field trip real world, so they give up on it. Because of this, scores are at the end of the unit. If students know there is a reward, down and there is a lack of knowledge in STEM curriculum. besides good grades, they are more likely to work hard. Also, Interestingly, it was found that there is a relationship students will be more engaged if the learning is hands on and between a student’s performance and his or her parents’ interactive, rather than pencil and paper. It is believed that if education background. Eighth grade students whose parents you can get the students to care about something, then they attended college or vocational school scored above the all will want to learn more about it. eighth grade average, while those whose parents had no more than a high school education scored significantly lower According to a study conducted in Houston, Texas, exposure than average. and experience in hands-on, real life applications of math, reading, writing and science leads to improved student Through our research, we discovered that the presence tests scores on knowledge tests, improves class attendance and influence of a parent or guardian is essential in the and encourages students to graduate from high school and amount of effort a child puts in to learning math and science. college in STEM fields. A 10-day informal study was done Debbie Hays, a fifth grade teacher from a suburban area with low-socioeconomic students that involved taking them of high socioeconomic status said that the parents are very to several on site locations such as the zoo, planetarium, involved and concerned with their kids during school. forest and power plant. Because the students were engaged Hays mentioned that last year 250 kids were tested for the in activities that supported science concepts that were gifted program because, “everyone wants their child to be important to how the facilities were run, their content gifted.” When we interviewed a Cari Davis, a teacher from knowledge was enhanced and expanded. It’s very important a low socioeconomic school, she agreed that the parents’ for students to be able to do interactive hands-on learning so involvement in their child’s education is key. Unfortunately, that they can relate science and math to the real world. They she has seen minimal parental involvement, which has will be able to retain more information and will enjoy the resulted in many of the students not succeeding in their subjects much more. courses. Davis said that the parents either do not know how to support their children or they simply aren’t around to do Finally, most people are unaware and uneducated about it. At the school Ms. Davis works for, most of the parents what engineering really is. During a focus group consisting of didn’t attend a college or a higher level institute so their engineering students, a participant noted that 97 percent of children aren’t as exposed to the possibilities. high school students don’t know that engineers are modern- 36
  • day inventors. The students in the focus group all agreed that you have to be a problem solver and like math in order to survive in the engineering world. It was also stated that money and the satisfaction of creating something beneficial for society are what mainly keep them motivated to continue down the engineering path. 37
  • Key Publics 38
  • Key Publics 2. Teachers a. Rationale for targeting i. Including information about STEM careers and space Primary Publics education in the curriculum may increase students’ favorable perception of STEM studies and careers. 1. Students between 3rd and 10th grades ii. If teachers are inspired to be passionate about a. Rationale for targeting teaching STEM education, then perhaps more interest i. Students in these grades may not have decided what in a US space exploration program can be generated. career to pursue, and may be persuaded to choose b. Key message STEM-related careers. i. Include hands-on STEM-related materials and b. Key message example career paths in the lesson plans to keep i. STEM-related studies and careers are interesting and students engaged in learning. help us live better lives. c. Example c. Examples i. Teacher Terry i. Science Sally 1. Teaches math and science in suburban public 1. 11 years old/6th grade middle school 2. In Science Olympiad 2. 25-35 years old 3. Encouraging parents 3. Very active in school, does lunchroom duty, etc. 4. Dad is an IT specialist, mom is a stay-at-home 4. Very involved with students’ success mom, president of the PTA 5. Sponsors MATHCOUNTS 5. Watches Discovery Channel and Disney Channel 6. Married, no children 6. Plays Wii games 7. Middle class 7. Watches YouTube 8. Uses iTunes to download music for her iPod 3. U.S. Taxpayers 9. Uses text messaging extensively a. Rationale for targeting ii. Curious Cathy i. U.S. taxpayers influence the national agenda and may 1. 8 years old/3rd grade help create support for U.S. space exploration. 2. Younger sister of Science Sally b. Key message 3. Willing to try anything once i. Things you use every day only exist because of space 4. Likes to hang out with her older sister, who she exploration. Where would you be without space? looks up to 5. Watches the Disney Channel 4. Social Media Users 6. Doesn’t use the Internet much, except with parent a. Rationale for targeting supervision i. Social media users include all target audiences. 7. Takes dance lessons b. Key message 8. Plays tee-ball i. Space exploration is a positive thing that improves 9. Outgoing and friendly your quality of life on Earth. 10. Girl Scout 39
  • Intervening Publics 3. Coalition for Space Exploration Members a. Rationale for targeting 1. Media i. Coalition members are enthusiastic about space a. Rationale for targeting exploration and STEM education, and hold STEM- i. Members of the media are gatekeepers to other target related careers. audiences, and influence the public agenda. b. Key message b. Key message i. Volunteering to speak at local schools will encourage i. Space exploration is a vital endeavor that the public students to pursue STEM education and STEM- needs to know about. If new discoveries are made in related careers. space, they could increase our quality of life. c. Examples 4. The Discovery Channel i. Reporters a. Rationale for targeting ii. Bloggers i. The Discovery Channel will co-sponsor for the iii. Entertainment media Coalition, and is invested in encouraging students to pursue STEM education and careers. 2. Involved parents of students between 3rd and 10th grades b. Key message a. Rationale for targeting i. By sponsoring a mobile learning bus, you will directly i. Parent involvement in student endeavors has been encourage students to pursue STEM education and shown to increase student participation, interest and careers and have your name associated with a good success in school. cause. ii. Parents have a direct influence over what their children believe. If parents are interested in a US space exploration program, then perhaps their children will be too. b. Key message i. America needs to educate strong leaders, and STEM education is the perfect way to inspire interest and predict future student success. c. Example i. Bob the Builder 1. Age 35-45 2. Married 3. Has 1-3 kids 4. College degree 5. Employed full time, white collar job 6. Middle class 7. Goes to parent-teacher conferences 8. Attends school functions his child is involved in 40
  • SwOT AnAlysis 41
  • SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is a commonly used strategic communications planning tool that visually analyzes an initiative’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is designed to include all factors of an initiative. The horizontal axis of a SWOT grid di- vides characteristics into positive (top) and negative (bottom) categories, and the vertical axis divides characteristics into internal (left) and external (right) categories. Internal characteristics are factors present in an initiative, and external characteristics are factors which may affect an initiative in the future. Dividing characteristics into these categories allows examiners to determine what changes need to be made, if any, to improve the initiative. SWOT Grid Strengths Opportunities (Internal/Present/Positive) (External/Future/Positive) • STEM-related jobs pay well • Enormous potential in space exploration • NASA is a well-established program • NASA’s planned missions under Obama • NASA is inspiring • Potential budget increases from government, Coalition • U.S. school system provides high-quality STEM employees members • Coalition has a strong, diverse base of support • Public/private corporation coordination • Astronauts are still viewed as heroes • Ability to reframe NASA history for youth • People are still excited about space • New media provides easy access to target audiences • Engineers are modern-day inventors • Science and technology TV shows popular with youth • Buzz Aldrin on Dancing With the Stars • NASA inventions improve quality of life on Earth • Hands-on STEM education is effective • Obama’s controversial plan for NASA Weaknesses Threats (Internal/Present/Negative) (External/Future/Negative) • “Been there, done that” mentality • Government budget cuts • NASA’s relies on government funding • Future recessions • NASA can’t market itself • Space Shuttle retirement • Slow progress into commercial sector • STEM careers abound outside space exploration field • STEM coursework is rigorous • Private sector space exploration • U.S. education system does not provide enough STEM employees • U.S. schools taken advantage of by international students • Space not prominent in grade school coursework • China and international space domination; national security • Public unaware of space history • Parents may not be involved in children’s education • Lack of media exposure for space initiatives • Lack of media exposure for space initiatives • Little public awareness of importance/definition of engineering • Future presidencies may not support space exploration • Obama’s controversial plan for NASA 42
  • SWOT Explanation Weaknesses (Internal/Present/Negative) While Americans do find NASA inspiring, older publics Strengths (Internal/Present/Positive) share a “been there, done that” mentality in regard to space exploration. In addition, NASA relies on government funding The Coalition for Space Exploration is a well-established which is affected by this mentality, and NASA is legally advocacy organization with a strong, diverse base of support. prohibited from marketing itself to raise the awareness and NASA is also a well-established agency. Its inventions support it needs. improve the quality of life on earth, its programs such as Mission to Planet Earth are inspiring to Americans and The slow progress of spaceflight into the commercial sec- astronauts are still viewed as heroes. tor can also be considered a weakness. Very few people have been to space since human spaceflight began decades ago, The U.S. school system provides STEM education which, compared to the boom in the terrestrial flight passen- opportunities to students who seek them, and provides high- ger numbers in the same amount of time, is discouraging. quality employees from these programs. STEM-related jobs tend to pay well, which can motivate students. In addition, The U.S. education system is weak compared to other hands-on STEM education has been shown to be highly developed countries, and does not produce enough STEM effective with students and helps them engage and learn. students to meet its needs. This may be due in part to parents not being involved in their children’s education Youth who are interested in STEM education opportunities and the rigorous coursework involved in STEM studies. In are also interested in science and technology TV shows. addition, space and space exploration are not prominent in Through this outlet, youth discover the benefits of STEM coursework, and students may not know what STEM careers education. are available to them. In general, the public is still excited about space. For Youth are typically unaware of space history. While this example, a recent episode of the popular TV show Dancing can be positive, in such cases as not knowing about the With the Stars featured Buzz Aldrin. If the Coalition can Challenger disaster, it can also be detrimental to the leverage this excitement to its advantage, it can potentially Coalition’s cause because youth do not know what NASA has increase its budget through both government and private accomplished. funding. The public lacks awareness of the importance and even the President Obama recently announced a plan to revitalize definition of engineering. Coupled with the lack of media NASA that he indicates will keep the United States in a exposure given to space initiatives in areas not directly leading space exploration position. This has also increased affected by them, such as Houston, the public is unaware of media coverage of space initiatives. both what the U.S. is doing in space and what kind of people and resources the space program needs to keep going. 43
  • Finally, President Obama’s plan for NASA is controversial, related companies, in corporations such as Google. The and many former astronauts are campaigning against it. dwindling supply of qualified candidates for these positions threatens NASA’s ability to replenish its staff. Opportunities (External/Future/Positive) The U.S. education system is currently graduating large numbers of international students, who return to their home The Coalition has many external opportunities to tap into if countries to further international space exploration. If this given the chance. trend continues, countries such as China may soon dominate space, which could lead to national security issues. Because youth are unaware of NASA’s history, the Coalition has the ability to reframe NASA’s history with this target The Space Shuttle will be retired within a year, and the U.S. audience in a favorable manner. Couple this with the does not currently have another way to send astronauts enormous potential in space exploration, and the Coalition to space. Future presidencies may not support space is well-poised to pitch space exploration careers and STEM exploration and pull NASA’s funding, leaving the U.S. education to youth. stranded on Earth. Because space exploration is a hot topic under the Obama Finally, when the controversy over President Obama’s plan administration right now, NASA may receive further budget for NASA dies down, a lack of media exposure for space ex- increases from the government and the Coalition may receive ploration may return. further donations from its members. In addition, space exploration may gain ground through public and private corporation coordination. SWOT Conclusions Finally, new media such as Facebook and Twitter provide Because government funding for space exploration is cur- easy access to key publics. rently controversial, the Coalition should use the most cost-effective measures possible for this campaign. If higher- priced tactics are necessary for reaching the target audiences, Threats (External/Future/Negative) the Coalition could leverage support from its private spon- sors. Budget cuts are a grave threat to NASA’s operation. Without continued government funding, NASA cannot pursue space To reach its target audience of students, the Coalition exploration, and future recessions may result in lower should focus on using non-traditional media and hands-on government spending on NASA. In addition, private sector technology as these students have grown up in the ‘gadget space exploration is becoming more common, which may age.’ The Coalition would also benefit from an attempt to hinder NASA’s case further by ‘beating them to the punch.’ reintegrate space into these students’ curriculums, as many students are unaware of space history and the benefits of STEM careers also abound outside of space exploration- space exploration. Additionally, science and technology 44
  • TV shows are popular with STEM-inclined students, which indicates that TV is a valid medium for reaching these kids. Informing the public about benefits we’ve received from space exploration, such as GPS devices and Velcro, may increase public support of space exploration. The Coalition can also help by explaining and promoting what STEM careers are available, especially in the case of engineering, which, to many key publics, is a nebulous concept. 45
  • GoAls, Objectives And tActics 46
  • Goal 1 To encourage American youth to pursue careers in STEM-related fields including the aerospace industry Objective 1 Create awareness of STEM related careers prior to entering eighth grade Tactic 1 Create curricula to send to schools pertaining to STEM-related careers Description: Provide lesson plans and curricula, which include hands-on and activity- based lessons for a four-week program, specifically for middle school students. Each week would be used to focus on a different letter of the STEM acronym. Target audiences: Teachers and middle school students Timetable: July 2010 Cost: $2,500 Tactic 2 Create a 20-second commercial Description: The commercial will raise awareness of STEM-related careers and be placed throughout online video services such as YouTube and Hulu. Target audiences: Students up to seventh grade and their families Timetable: September 2010 Cost: $25,000 47
  • Tactic 3 Develop an online network of volunteers and coalition members who have held STEM- related careers Description: Provide teachers and schools with the opportunity and resources to invite their choice of volunteer to speak at their school. Target audiences: Teachers, students and coalition members Timetable: July 2010 Cost: $100/annually Tactic 4 Distribute news releases to local media Description: Write a news release announcing the STEM-related curricula and the online network of volunteers. Target audiences: Media Timetable: July 2010 Cost: $250 Tactic 5 Pitch a “Geek Week” programming special to the Discovery Channel Description: A weeklong series of featured television programs dedicated to STEM careers and space exploration, similar to the popular “Shark Week.” Target audiences: Teachers, parents, students and the Discovery Channel Timetable: June 2011 Cost: No Cost 48
  • Tactic 6 Promote “Geek Week” partnership on all Web-related, Coalition activities (contingent on tactic 5) Description: Post updates, information and links on Coalition Website and social media sites. Target audiences: Coalition members and supporters, social media users Timetable: June 2011 Cost: No Cost Objective 2 – Create a mobile learning bus that travels to major cities in the U.S. Tactic 1 An interactive bus called the Discovery Voyager that gives students hands-on activities to participate in relating to STEM education Description: A 25-week cross-country bus tour that is sponsored by the Discovery Channel to inform students in elementary and middle schools about STEM-related education. The bus will objectively 25 hit major cities. Target audiences: Teachers, students, parents, communities, media, the Discovery Channel and volunteers Timetable: September 2011 Cost: No Cost ($100,000-$200,000 for sponsor) 49
  • Tactic 2 Send a “fulfillment kit” to school districts in major cities that wish to participate in the Discovery Voyager mobile learning bus tour Description: Send a direct mail brochure that includes a call to action (Website) to request a fulfillment kit. The kit will include sample lesson plans, preparation materials and posters. Target audience: Teachers, administrators and school board officials Timetable: June 2011 Cost: $2,500 Tactic 3 Develop a media kit Description: Send a media kit inviting local media to cover the Discovery Voyager bus tour and visits to local schools. Target audience: Local and national media Timetable: August 2011 Cost: $1,000 Tactic 4 Create an interactive website Description: The website will include information on the Discovery Voyager bus tour, including tour dates, fulfillment kit materials, a media kit and other resources. Website URL will also be physically displayed on the bus. Target audiences: Teachers, students, parents, communities, media, the Discovery Channel and volunteers Timetable: June 2011 Cost: $100/annually 50
  • Tactic 5 Develop a social media following for the Discovery Voyager’s activities Description: Create a Facebook Fan page, Twitter account and blog on the website that will promote the bus and its activities. Target audiences: Teachers, students, parents, communities, media, The Discovery Channel, volunteers and social media users Timetable: June 2011 Cost: No Cost Tactic 6 Create and place banner advertisements on the Discovery Channel website and its network of stations’ websites. Description: Place banner ads promoting the Discovery Voyager bus tour and its websites Target audiences: Teachers, parents and students Timetable: August 2011 Cost: No Cost Tactic 7 Create and place targeted Facebook advertisements Description: Place advertisements promoting the Discovery Voyager bus tour and its website on highly targeted Facebook profiles. Target audiences: Teachers, parents and social media users Timetable: August 2011 Cost: $21,000 51
  • Tactic 8 Promote the bus tour at a national education conference Description: Park the Discovery Voyager outside the annual American Association of School Administrators Conference and place advertisements in the conference program. Target audiences: Teachers and administrators Timetable: February 2011 Cost: $500 Tactic 9 Send the Discovery Voyager on a three-part media tour Description: Showcase the Voyager and its progress on influential national news and talk shows, beginning in New York City (morning shows – Good Morning America), then Chicago (daytime shows – Oprah), and ending in Los Angeles (nighttime shows – The Tonight Show). Target audiences: Media, teachers and parents Timetable: September 2011 and June 2011 Cost: No Cost 52
  • Goal 2 To increase public interest and support for an ongoing United States space exploration program. Objective 1 Educate the public about what everyday technologies were developed by the United States space exploration program Tactic 1 Develop “Webisodes” based on the theme, “Where would you be without space?” Description: A series of short videos posted on YouTube to inform audiences of the technologies derived from space exploration that we use daily. Target audiences: People who use space-derived technology, U.S. taxpayers, social media users Timetable: November 2010 (coincide with Space Shuttle fleet retirement) Cost: $9,000 Tactic 2 Create billboard advertisements based on the theme, “Where would you be without space?” Description: Strategically placed advertisements in major cities and areas of travel to remind people that they are constantly around space-derived technology. Target audiences: People who use space-derived technology, U.S. taxpayers Timetable: November 2010 (coincide with Space Shuttle fleet retirement) Cost: $5,778 53
  • Tactic 3 Create and place targeted print advertisements based on the theme, “Where would you be without space?” Description: Place advertisements in influential newspapers and magazines in large markets that lack a large space-industry presence, like Washington D.C. and San Francisco. Target audiences: People who use space-derived technology, U.S. taxpayers and government officials Timetable: November 2010 (coincide with Space Shuttle fleet retirement) Cost: $20,000 Tactic 4 Create a news release announcing the purpose of the “Where would you be without space” campaign Description: Send a news release to local and national media outlets announcing the purpose and launch of the “Where would you be without space” campaign. Target audiences: Media Timetable: November 2010 (coincide with Space Shuttle fleet retirement) Cost: $250 54
  • Objective 2 Increase public interest and support for the Coalition for Space Exploration and the United States space exploration program Tactic 1 Enhance the Coalition’s brand throughout the entire campaign Description: Include collateral materials about the Coalition and its mission into prior campaign tactics, including Discovery Voyager and “Geek Week” promotion and STEM curricula for schools. Target audiences: All Timetable: Concurrent with campaign objectives Cost: $2,000 Tactic 2 Improve Coalition social media communication Description: Designate and train one person to control the Coalition’s Facebook, Twitter and other social media Web presence and to make them more target-audience appropriate. Target audiences: Social media users Timetable: July 2010 Cost: No Cost 55
  • Executions 56
  • Title: Sample “Discovery Voyager” Bus Wrap Design Brief Description: A 25-week cross-country bus tour that is sponsored by the Discovery Channel to inform students in elementary and middle schools about STEM-related education. The bus will objectively hit major cities. Status: Mock-up completed Location: The mock-up follows this description. 57
  • 58
  • Title: “Discovery Voyager” Website Brief Description: The website will include information on the Discovery Voyager bus tour, including tour dates, fulfillment kit materials, a media kit and other resources. Website URL will also be physically displayed on the bus. Status: Mock-up home page completed Location: The mock-up home page follows this description. 59
  • 60
  • Title: “Discovery Voyager” Media Kit Brief Description: Send a media kit inviting local media to cover the Discovery Voyager bus tour and visits to local schools. Status: Completed Location: The media kit follows this description. 61
  • News Release FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Sally Starr July 1, 2010 Griffin Communications Group (555) 123-4567 (555) 987-6543 (mobile) sstarr@griffincommgroup.com Discovery Voyager Finds Way to Make Science Exciting for Youth HOUSTON – It’s hard to forget the early years of one’s science education with Ms. Frizzle and “The Magic School” gang embarking on miraculous journeys that spawned a curiosity and genuine interest in science. Fortunately, at a time when science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) scores are rapidly declining in America, the Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition), along with Discovery Channel, have initiated a real-life magic school bus as part of its STEMulate America campaign. Discovery Voyager is a mobile learning bus, equipped with multiple stages, vending windows, climate control and expanding slide-out features on the sides. Inside there are multiple interactive stations, TV’s and lab tables. Young, college-educated “Brainiacs” 62 travel with the Discovery Voyager to interact with the children and facilitate the activities. The “Pilot” of the Voyager is a university-accredited professor in a STEM- related field. “Interest in STEM education is going out the window, but it’s because kids aren’t seeing its value,” said Buzz Saturn, Head Brainiac. “Our goal is to bring the fun stuff back into science, so that when the Voyager pulls away, at least one kid from that day goes home and tells their parents they want to be an astronaut or a storm chaser when they grow up.” Some of the activities that students can participate in inside the Voyager range from an interactive dissection station, weather and robot simulations, a star gazing exercise, DNA and fingerprinting station, space and gravity simulations, interactive video games, and a biology section with living reptiles. The Discovery Voyager will make its debut on Sept. 12 in New York City and travel across the country stopping at 30 major cities along the way. The tour will end in Los Angeles on May 18, and resume again the following school year. For more information on where the bus is heading, how to sign up, or general information about the crew and featured activities, please visit our Web site at www.lifeinthesmartlane.com. About the Coalition for Space Exploration The Coalition for Space Exploration is a group of space industry businesses and advocacy groups that collaborates to educate and inform the public and Congress on the value and benefits of investing in NASA. ###
  • Backgrounder FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Sally Starr July 1, 2010 Griffin Communications Group (555) 123-4567 (555) 987-6543 (mobile) sstarr@griffincommgroup.com The Coalition for Space Exploration The Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition) is a not-for-profit organization established to build awareness for NASA and the United States space exploration effort. The Coalition’s mission is to inform the public about the benefits of space travel, which it hopes will result in funding for NASA and keep America as a leader in space and science 63 technology. Advocacy efforts are performed mainly through the Coalition’s Board of Advisors, which is comprised of former astronauts and space experts, as well as educators and young professionals who have valuable outreach and insight to various audiences. The Coalition itself is comprised of aerospace industry companies that have come together to advance the cause of space exploration. Glen Mahone of Aerojet is the 2010 Public Affairs Team Chairman. Membership in the Coalition is open to all companies and organizations that support space exploration and are willing to commit funding or resources to the effort. For information on the Coalition, the current projects they’re working on, NASA news and headlines and contact information for memberships or donations, visit the Coalition Web site at www.spacecoalition.com. ###
  • Fact Sheet FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Sally Starr July 1, 2010 Griffin Communications Group (555) 123-4567 (555) 987-6543 (mobile) sstarr@griffincommgroup.com The Discovery Voyager Prepares for Take Off What: The Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition) has teamed up with the Discovery Channel to build a mobile learning bus that is set to tour United States schools, with stops in 30 major cities. The bus is equipped with an interactive dissection station, weather and robot simulations, a star gazing exercise, a DNA and fingerprinting station, space and gravity simulations, interactive video games and a biology section 64 with live reptiles. Visit our Web site at www.discoveryvoyager.com for more information. Who: The Coalition is a not-for-profit organization established to build awareness for NASA and the United States space exploration effort. The Coalition’s mission is to inform the public about the benefits of space travel, which they hope will result in funding for NASA and keep America as a leader in space and science technology. Where: The Discovery Voyager will travel from New York City to Los Angeles, stopping at 30 major US cities along the way. When: The bus’s official kick-off is set for Sept. 12 in New York and will end its first season in Los Angeles on May 18. Why: “Interest in STEM education is going straight out the window, but it’s because kids aren’t seeing the value in it. Our goal is to bring the fun stuff back into science, so that when our bus pulls away, at least one kid from that day goes home and tells their parents they want to be an astronaut or a storm chaser when they grow up.” - Buzz Saturn, Head Brainiac Discovery Voyager ###
  • Photo Opportunity Sheet FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Sally Starr July 1, 2010 Griffin Communications Group (555) 123-4567 (555) 987-6543 (mobile) sstarr@griffincommgroup.com Discovery Voyager mobile learning bus to launch from NYC The Discovery Voyager, America’s Premier STEM education mobile learning bus, is set to take flight on Sept. 12 from the heart of Times Square in New York City. What: The Discovery Voyager will park in Times Square and do promotional Giveaways along with a plethora of fun and interactive activities for all ages. Who: The Voyager is sponsored by the Discovery Channel as part of the Coalition for Space Exploration’s STEMulate America campaign. 65 The Coalition for Space Exploration is a group of space industry businesses and advocacy groups that collaborates to educate and inform the public and Congress on the value and benefits of investing in NASA. Discovery Communications is the world's number one non-fiction (not positive about the hyphen, but it seems like it needs one!) media company, reaching more than 1.5 billion cumulative subscribers in more than 180 countries. Discovery owns 100-plus worldwide networks including: TLC, Animal Planet, Science Channel, Investigation Discovery, Planet Green and HD Theater. When: The Voyager will arrive at 10 a.m. and stay until 6 p.m., before heading to a nearby NYC school district. The bus will stay in the NYC area through Sept. 16. Where: The Voyager will park at a prime location in Times Square. Exact location has not yet been determined. Why: “We must educate kids on career opportunities in STEM fields while they’re in elementary and middle school, and before it’s too late.” - John Doe, President American Engineers Association ###
  • Title: “Discovery Voyager” Satellite Media Tour Brief Description: During the scheduled Discovery Voyager route, the bus will complete a comprehensive, 3-part media tour. The media tour will begin in New York City at the commencement of the Discovery Voyager tour Sept. 12, stop in Chicago in the middle Jan. 9, and finish in Los Angeles May 14. Local radio/television/newspaper media outlets are still encouraged to cover the Discovery Voyager when it comes to the cities not specifically designated on the satellite media tour. Status: Dates and locations completed Location: The satellite media tour dates and locations follow this description. 66
  • Satellite Media Tour First major media stop: New York City Sept. 12 to Sept. 16, 2011 Good Morning America (ABC) – Produce a segment coinciding with “back to school” season to help kick off the Discovery Voyager tour and create awareness. Live! With Regis and Kelly (NBC) – Have Kelly and the crew’s kids try out the bus activities; possibly coincide with Live’s “Top Teacher Week.” Second major media stop: Chicago Jan. 9 to Jan. 13, 2011 WGN Morning News (CW) – News report on the Discovery Voyager’s progress; interview Chicago inner-city school kids to talk about what Discovery Voyager means to them. 67
  • Oprah (CBS) – Oprah could devote a show to the decline in STEM education in the United States with an audience of educators and mothers with young children. She could also give a tour of the bus and provide segments of the bus touring from New York to Chicago thus far. Third major media stop: Los Angeles May 14 to May 18, 2011 The Ellen Degeneres Show (WB) – Develop a game to quiz Ellen about STEM careers and compare her answers to a child who completed the Discovery Voyager program. The Tonight Show with Jay Leno (NBC) – Feature a “Jaywalking” segment asking bystanders how much they know about STEM careers Talking points • Statistics on U.S. student performance in STEM subjects • Mission of the Discovery Voyager and the program • The Coalition’s role/goals in STEM and the bus • Progress of the Discovery Voyager (activities, cities and dates visited, public’s reaction) • Speak with Brainiacs about how the tour is going 68
  • Title: STEM Career Awareness Commercial Script Brief Description: The commercial will raise awareness of STEM-related careers and be placed throughout online video services such as YouTube and Hulu. Status: Script completed Location: The commercial script follows this description. 69
  • Title: STEM Career Ad Client/Sponsor: Coalition for Space Exploration Length: 20 seconds Air Dates: September 2010 MUSIC: (Inspirational, upbeat music. Establish, gradually increase) WS: Space shuttle taking off (:02) MS: Men building Golden Gate Bridge (:04) CU: Architects designing a building (:06) WS: Footage of Neil Armstrong walking on the moon (:08) MS: Students in chemistry class doing a hands-on experiment (:10) MUSIC: (Up and then fade at :11 ) FADE TO BLACK SCREEN, TEXT SCROLL IN FROM TOP WHITE TEXT: What careers are behind all of these creations? (:13) WHITE TEXT: Science (:14) WHITE TEXT: Technology (:15) WHITE TEXT: Engineering (:16) WHITE TEXT: Math (:17) WHITE TEXT: Explore careers at www.STEMcareers.com (:20) (Fade out at :20 ) ### 70
  • Title: STEM Career Awareness News Release Brief Description: Write a news release announcing the STEM-related curricula and the online network of volunteers. Status: Completed Location: The news release follows this description. 71
  • News Release FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Jane Doe July 1, 2010 Griffin Communications Group (555) 123-4567 (555) 987-6543 (mobile) jdoe@griffincommgroup.com Coalition for Space Exploration announces STEM careers initiative HOUSTON – The Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition) has launched a campaign to increase American youth’s awareness of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) related careers. The initiative includes curricula for schools, a television commercial, and an online network of ready volunteers. “This initiative to get kids interested in STEM careers could not come at a better time,” 72 said John Doe, President of the American Engineers Association. “The United States is failing in the areas of science and math education, and we as citizens and professionals in STEM careers must help reverse this trend.” The curricula sent to schools will include four weeklong lesson plans, each focusing on one career field (science, technology, engineering and math). The Coalition collaborated with educators and professionals in various careers relating to each field when developing the lesson plans. To complement the curricula, the Coalition has developed an online network of volunteers who have had or currently have careers in STEM-related industries, and are willing to speak with students or teachers about their jobs. The network can be found online at www.stemcoalition.com. “I am an engineer, and yet I had no clue what that meant when I was younger,” Doe said. “We must educate kids on career opportunities in STEM fields while they’re in elementary and middle school, and before it’s too late.” About the Coalition for Space Exploration The Coalition for Space Exploration is a group of space industry businesses and advocacy groups that collaborates to educate and inform the public and Congress on the value and benefits of investing in NASA. ###
  • Title: “Geek Week” Sample Programming Schedule Brief Description: A weeklong series of featured television programs dedicated to STEM careers and space exploration on the Discovery Channel, similar to the popular “Shark Week.” Status: Completed Location: The sample programming schedule and show descriptions follow this description. 73
  • Programming Schedule Ghost Lab: The hosts of this series use the latest technology to uncover powerful results in supernatural research. Howe and Howe Tech: This showcases the designing and Time Friday Saturday building of machines. 9:00 a.m. How It’s Made How It’s Made Raging Planet: This show features weather and geology 10:00 a.m. Mythbusters Dirty Jobs scientists who use fascinating science throughout each 11:00 a.m. Howe and Howe Tech Dirty Jobs episode. 12:00 p.m. Howe and Howe Tech Ghost Lab 1:00 p.m. Motor City Motors Next World 2:00 p.m. Motor City Motors Next World Shows That Could Replay During Geek 3:00 p.m. Raging Planet Raging Planet 4:00 p.m. Cash Cab Cash Cab Week: 5:00 p.m. Cash Cab Cash Cab The Detonators: This series follows explosive experts and 6:00 p.m. Storm Chasers Time Warp blaster crews as they take down just about any structure 7:00 p.m. Storm Chasers When We Left Earth with accuracy (Discovery.com). 8:00 p.m. The Matrix When We Left Earth Doing DaVinci: This series features a team that recreates 9:00 p.m. The Matrix When We Left Earth Leonardo DaVinci’s inventions. 10:00 p.m. The Matrix Apollo 13 Future Weapons: This show reveals weapons of the 21st 11:00 p.m. The Matrix Apollo 13 century. 12:00 p.m. The Matrix Apollo 13 Next World: This series reveals the science, the inventions and the innovations that seem impossible now but will be a reality in the future (Discovery.com). Program Descriptions for Geek Week (June One Way Out: Mix the science of escape with the art of 20-26, 2011): ingenuity. Smash Lab: This series is focused on destruction instruction. Cash Cab: STEM Edition; STEM related questions will be When We Left Earth: Relive the story of mankind’s greatest asked in the Cash Cab. adventure, leaving earth and living in space (Discovery. Dirty Jobs: Mike Rowe will find Dirty Jobs in the STEM com). career field. How It’s Made: This series will showcase products that require engineer’s input and skills in making (cars, Suggestions for Movies to Play During Geek computers, cell phones, etc…). Week: MythBusters: Adam and Jamie will test different scientific Back to the Future Transformers myths. Dante’s Peak Iron Man Storm Chasers: This series will showcase the details and The Matrix Armageddon work that meteorologists do for the chases. Mission to Mars 21 Time Warp: Replay current series. Apollo 13 I, Robot 74
  • Title: Downloadable “Geek Week” Poster Brief Description: The downloadable “Geek Week” poster will be available on both the Discovery Channel’s website and the Coalition for Space Exploration’s website. Status: Completed Location: The downloadable “Geek Week” poster follows this description. 75
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  • Title: “Where would you be without space?” Print Ads Brief Description: Place advertisements in influential newspapers and magazines in large markets that lack a large space-in- dustry presence, like Washington D.C. and San Francisco. Status: Completed Location: The print ad (slightly scaled down) follows this description. 77
  • From Orion’s Belt To Your Tool Belt 78 NASA’s research on cordless power tools for use in space helped develop the tools we keep in our tool belts today. Support space exploration and keep innovation alive. Where would you Be without space? Find out more at http://spacecoalition.com/ ©2010 The Coalition for Space Exploration
  • From Space Race To Relay Race 79 Where would you Be without space?
  • From our Space home to your safe home 80 Alarm technologies created by NASA keep astronauts safe in the International Space Station, their orbiting home. These same technologies have evolved into the emergency alarm systems that keep our homes safe on Earth. Support space exploration and keep innovation alive. Where would you Be without space? ©2010 The Coalition for Space Exploration Find out more at http://spacecoalition.com/
  • Title: Coalition for Space Exploration Facebook Fan Page Brief Description: A Facebook fan page, as opposed to a Facebook group, allows fan page updates to appear on fans’ news feeds and provides fan page administrators with analytics. Status: Mock-up completed Location: The fan page mockup and mock analytics follow this description. 81
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  • Title: Discovery Voyager Facebook Ad Brief Description: Place advertisements promoting the Discovery Voyager bus tour and its website on highly targeted Facebook profiles. Status: Completed Location: The Facebook ad follows this description. This screenshot also features sample Coalition for Space Exporation fan page posts on a fan’s news feed. 84
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  • Appendix A: Sources of Information 86
  • Articles Kuenzi, Jeffrey J. “Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: Background, Federal Policy, and Legislative Action,” March 21, 2008. Online: “About NASA,” National Aerunautics and Space http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33434.pdf. Administration, February 1, 2010. Online: www.nasa.gov/ about. “Pre-Engineering Competitions,” Engineering Education Service Center, 2008. Online: www.engineeringedy.com/ “Action This Day,” National Math and Science Initiative. competitions.html. Online: www.nationalmathandscience.org. “Supporting STEM Education,” Coalition for Space Chen Yng-Ru. “Columbia Shuttle Tragedy,” ProQuest Exploration social media release, February 16, 2010. Information Discovery Guide, October 2003. Online: Online: www.pitchengine.com/supporting-stem- www.csa.com/discoveryguides/shuttle/overview.php. education/47087/. Coalition Poll Results: Value of Human Space Exploration, “Technology,” The White House. Online: Space Coalition Blog, July 27, 2009. Online: www. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/ spacecoalition.com/blog. divisions/technology. Conger, Cristen. “10 NASA Inventions You Might Use Terrell, Nicholas. “STEM Occupations,” Occupational Every Day,” Online: science.howstuffworks.com/ten-nasa- Outlook Quarterly, Spring 2007. Online: www.bls.gov/ inventions.htm. opub/ooq/2007/spring/contents.htm. Digest of Education Statistics, National Center for Education “Why is STEM Education Important?” Talking points from Statistics, 2009. Online: http://nces.ed.gov. the STEMEd Caucus Steering Committee. Online: www. stemedcausus.org. Fleming, Grace. “National Competitions in Science and Math,” About.com. Online: www.homeworktips.about. com. Images Greene, Nick. “Challenger Disaster – A NASA Tragedy,” About.com. Online: www.space.about.com. Apollo 16 image. Online: www.nasaimages.org/luna/servlet/ detail/nasaNAS~9~9~60183~164030. “Important but Not for Me. A Report” from Public Agenda, 2007. Online: www.publicagenda.org. Astronauts image. Online: blog.digitalcontentproducer. com/briefingroom/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/ bdy_60_stills0011.jpg. 87
  • Blogger logo. Online: www.aam-us.org/mcca/images/ Blogger-Logo.jpg. Bus image. Online: www.clker.com/clipart-3043.html. Coalition for Space Exploration logo. Online: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/82/ CoalitionforSpaceExploration_logo.png. Earth image. Online: spiritualoasis.files.wordpress. com/2006/10/earth-from-space-western.jpg. Find us on Facebook image. Online: www. wildernessclassroom.com/blog/images/stories/about/ find-us-on-facebook.jpg. Hubble galazy image. Online: www.sciencemusings.com/ blog/uploaded_images/HUDF-777866.jpg. Moon image. Online: studentradio.files.wordpress. com/2009/04/full_moon_02_20001.jpg. Runner image. Online: planetfoods.ca/news/uploaded_ images/running-race-747413.bmp. Space tools image. Online: www.nasa.gov/images/ content/344876main_pgtonhubblelfight.jpg. Student image. Online: www.wsba-wy.org/j0400379.jpg. United States image. Online: www.googlemaps.com. Facebook images. Online: www.facebook.com. 88
  • Appendix B: rAw PrimAry reseArch 89
  • KU Campaigns Survey This survey is being conducted as part of a class project at the University of Kansas. Because we do not wish to inadvertently influence your answers to the following questions, we will not tell you at this time the subject of our research, but we will share that with you after the surveys are completed if you wish. Each survey response will be handled in the strictest confidence. Thank you for your participation. Let’s begin! 1. Please indicate the degree to which you agree with the following statements. Strongly Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Agree Disagree I like math. I like science. I am interested in space exploration. My parents have influenced my interest in school. My parents are interested in math, science or space exploration. My friends have influenced my interest in school. My friends are interested in math, science or space exploration. 90
  • I am interested in having a career in math, science or space exploration. I admire astronauts. If given the opportunity, I would like to travel to the moon. 2. In elementary school In middle school In high school I am: 3. Male Female I am: 4. My home state is: 5. What is your mother's occupation? 6. What is your father's occupation? 7. Please indicate in order of preference your three or four favorite leisure activities. 1 2 3 4 91
  • 8. Please rank the following media from 1 to 8, with 1 representing the medium you use the most, 2 representing the medium you use second most, etc. Magazines Radio Computer for non-internet use Computer for internet use Smart-phone with Internet Television Movies Newspapers 9. Please indicate if you use any of the following social media sites. Check all that apply. Yes No Facebook Twitter MySpace YouTube Blogs Other 9a. If you answered yes to Blogs please list your top three blogs. 1_________________________________________________________________ 2_________________________________________________________________ 3_________________________________________________________________ 92
  • 9b. If you answered yes to Other please list the other social media sites you belong to. 1_________________________________________________________________ 2_________________________________________________________________ 3_________________________________________________________________ 10. Please indicate which of these television channels you regularly watch. Check all that apply. Watch Regularly Watch Occasionally Never Watch Nick Jr. Food Channel PBS Weather Channel TLC ABC Family History Channel Bravo VH1 SyFy Discovery Kids TBS ESPN Comedy Central Hulu Nickelodeon Teen Nick Fox News Channel 93
  • TNT Discovery Channel BET Travel Channel The CW ABC CNN MTV Fox National Geographic Disney Channel Animal Planet USA CBS Cartoon Network NBC 94
  • In-Person Interview 4. What factors influenced your decision to become a physics major? March 22, 2010 Age – 23 a. It’s fun and interesting, and makes me sound smart. I was Sex – male originally an engineering major, but engineering was kind of Year in school – 5 boring and difficult for me to pay attention to. Major – Physics Hometown – Olathe, Kan. b. I wanted to be an engineering major because a high Parents’ occupations – soccer coach and business manager school focus program introduced me to the basics and got Ethnicity - White me interested in building and designing machines, rockets, airplanes, robots, etc. Before high school I hadn’t had exposure to higher-level science/math programs. 1. What year are you in college? a. Fifth out of six 5. Are your friends physics majors or family members work or have worked in the field? 2. What is your favorite aspect of the physics field/ a. Two friends are, other friends are STEM majors but not major? What has been the most rewarding part of physics. My father studied veterinary medicine, and my being a physics major? uncle is a nuclear physicist who works for the government. a. I like the logic and reducing complicated phenomena to numbers. 6. What are your plans after college? If you are going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you b. Progressing through the curriculum and learning new looking for? things, as well as making my way toward graduation. a. I want to go into the work force, but come back for more school in the engineering field after some work experience in 3. What is your least favorite aspect of the physics order to determine what I want to do for my career and learn field/major? What has been the most challenging more about it. The physics is the background that I can apply part of being a physics major? into higher-level engineering projects. I just didn’t do my undergrad in engineering because it is intuitive to me and a. Having to do liberal arts and sciences requirements. Those hard to pay attention to. subjects are difficult for me and don’t make sense. I think we should know that stuff, but in the classes themselves the b. I’m looking for whoever will hire me, but mostly materials aren’t presented in an organized and logical way. something that allows me to do research or work with robotics or animatronic prosthetics. I’d like to go back to b. The math involved. It’s challenging, but still fun. 95
  • school part-time while working, and often high-tech fields 9. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which will support you going back to school while working for them ones? so you’re a bigger asset to them. a. Facebook 7. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do you b. Twitter do in your free time? c. LiveJournal a. Independent contracting d. Blogger b. development for mobile platforms e. LinkedIn c. EVE Online because it’s very technical and you can calculate the outcome of almost any encounter f. Naka-Kon forums d. Read fantasy and sci-fi novels, some historical documents g. Society of Robots forums and physical documents as well h. PreCentral forums e. Play other video games (World of Warcraft, Mass Effect, mostly role-playing games and a few first-person shooters) 10. In elementary school or middle school, were you f. Attend anime and sci-fi conventions, for which I make interested physics or a related field? (science, math, costumes and props technology) a. Technology in general, yes. I was interested in engineering 8. Do you participate in any extracurricular but I didn’t realize it was called engineering. I liked to build activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer with Legos, take things apart and put them back together, programs? Do you have a job? and other stuff like that. a. Director for Naka-Kon Anime Convention 11. If were interested in physics or a related field, b. Kansas City Robotics Society please describe what experiences or influences encouraged or helped you further your interest c. Independent contractor Palm, develop apps in physics or a related field. Any factors that discouraged you from studying physics or a related field? a. High school stuff, see above 96
  • 12. If you were not interested in physics or a related 16. If so, what influenced your decision to purse field, what made you decide to purse physics in a career in space? When did this interest begin? college? Why do you think you weren’t interested in Describe what factors have been positive and it before college? negative influences in this interest. a. n/a a. Star Trek and Star Wars originally got me interested in it – expanding, exploring, the only new place to explore is “up.” Living in space sounds fun. Politicians suck, though, 13. In elementary school or middle school, what and turn me away from space careers since up until now it’s did you do in your free time? Were you involved in all been government run. Also, now that the private sector any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or will be the primary American source of space exploration volunteer programs? and transport, competition will drive it as fast as personal computers did. Rocket systems may someday be almost a. Boy Scouts (Eagle Scout) personal, and I’ll finally have my own ship. But the private sector boom will make interesting and fun jobs for people b. Science Olympiad like me that don’t want to deal with politicians or large amounts of bureaucracy. c. BattleBots IQ 17. Anything else you would like to add? 14. What are your thoughts on space exploration? a. No a. Need more. Cause, dude, it’s space, and space is cool! The final frontier! It’s the only place to expand to, an insane amount of resources that we can use to expand, and zero-g is fun. We’re probably as a nation going to expand faster than ever in the space race since things have moved to the private sector. 15. Do you want to purse a career in space exploration? a. It’d be nice, but I don’t know if I’m qualified for it. It’s something I’d love to do, to go into space. I’d at least like to contribute to something that gets sent up there – a rocket, a robot, whatever – if I can’t go myself. 97
  • Focus Group Discussion 5. Are your friends engineering majors or family members work or have worked in the field? Questions: University of a. Some of my friends are engineering majors but none of my Kansas Engineering Students family. Respondent 1 6. What are your plans after college? If you are going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you 1. What year are you in college? looking for? a. Sophomore a. I plan to go on to graduate school. 2. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering 7. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do you field/major? What has been the most reward part of do in your free time? being an engineering major? a. (What free time?) I’m involved in clubs and organizations a. Get a lot of hands on experience and can work with cutting and I do a lot of volunteer work. I also like a lot of outdoor edge technology activities. 3. What is your least favorite aspect of the 8. Do you participate in any extracurricular engineering field/major? What has been the most activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer challenging part of being an engineering major? programs? Do you have a job? a. The amount of teamwork (for both). a. I am in a lot of clubs and organizations and I work as a TA. 4. What factors influenced your decision to become 9. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which an engineering major? ones? a. The job market and my interest in aerospace. a. Facebook. 98
  • 10. In elementary school or middle school, were you 14. What are your thoughts on space exploration? interested engineering or a related field? (science, math, technology) a. If we have a plan that would give space exploration a good ROI then it is a great thing because it really does push a. I was more interested in science. technology to advance while motivating others to pursue technical careers which will benefit the economy. 11. If were interested in engineering or a related field, please describe what experiences or influences 15.Do you want to purse a career in space encouraged or helped you further your interest exploration? in engineering or a related field. Any factors that discouraged you from studying engineering or a a. Possibly, but I’m more interested in the research aspect in related field? terms of technology. That’s not to say that I’m not interested in possible findings, just that exploring the moon again a. I took a short summer course in Aerospace Engineering, wouldn’t exactly be a huge thrill for me since it has been and I got hooked. I was discouraged by the average starting done. salary and the amount of just grunt work they have to do (I prefer the research). 16. If so, what influenced your decision to purse a career in space? When did this interest begin? Describe what factors have been positive and 12. If you were not interested in engineering or negative influences in this interest. a related field, what made you decide to purse engineering in college? Why do you think you a. It began in high school when I started finding an interest weren’t interested in it before college? in technology and astrophysics. a. No answer Respondent 2 13. In elementary school or middle school, what did you do in your free time? Were you involved in 17. What year are you in college? any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer programs? a. Senior a. I played Basketball almost all the time and I hung out with friends. No clubs or volunteering. 99
  • 18. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering 23. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do field/major? What has been the most reward part of you do in your free time? being an engineering major? a. Catch up on sleep, watch TV, sports/workout a. Working on cool projects and everyone thinking you are really smart. 24. Do you participate in any extracurricular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer 19. What is your least favorite aspect of the programs? Do you have a job? engineering field/major? What has been the most challenging part of being an engineering major? a. I participate in a few engineering clubs as well as intramural sports. And I am currently co-oping in a. The workload in terms of homework, quizzes, tests, engineering as my job. projects, etc. Also, people doubting you and underestimating your abilities because you are a girl in a male dominated field. 25. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which ones? a. Facebook. 20. What factors influenced your decision to become an engineering major? 26. In elementary school or middle school, were you a. Exposure to it growing up. interested engineering or a related field? (science, math, technology) 21. Are your friends engineering majors or family a. Yeah I really liked science, but not math. members work or have worked in the field? a. No family members in engineering, and the majority of the 27. If were interested in engineering or a related friends I have made in college are engineers as well. field, please describe what experiences or influences encouraged or helped you further your interest in engineering or a related field. Any factors that 22. What are your plans after college? If you are discouraged you from studying engineering or a going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you related field? looking for? a. In the fourth grade we had to do a project on famous a. Get a job! In the aerospace industry, hopefully in manned Ohioans (I am from Ohio). I was assigned Neil Armstrong. spaceflight 100
  • After doing all my fourth-grade level research on the guy I 31. Do you want to purse a career in space was really inspired to be as awesome and successful as he exploration? was. In high school I also went to Space Camp which also really intrigued me and left me wanting to learn more about a. Yes space and aviation. 32. If so, what influenced your decision to purse 28. If you were not interested in engineering or a career in space? When did this interest begin? a related field, what made you decide to purse Describe what factors have been positive and engineering in college? Why do you think you negative influences in this interest. weren’t interested in it before college? a. I have been interested in space since I was kid and it is a. While doing my college search, I wasn’t 100% sure I something that has always intrigued me. Space exploration wanted to go into engineering. Guidance counselors in high is not easy and that is what makes it such an interesting field. school told me I should do it since I was good at math and Negative influences: President Obama and his ignorance science. about NASA’s achievements and potential for the future. 29. In elementary school or middle school, what 33. Anything else you would like to add? did you do in your free time? Were you involved in any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or a. Nope volunteer programs? a. Sports Respondent 3 30. What are your thoughts on space exploration? 34. What year are you in college? a. It is an incredible challenge and should continue through a. Fourth Year Senior both manned and unmanned missions. Many technologies have been developed during the process of designing, 35. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering building, and flying spacecraft. It is a discipline that affects field/major? What has been the most reward part of the entire world, not just the immediate users. And it is being an engineering major? definitely something a nation can take pride in. a. I would have to say all the research and funding that is available. Actually contributing to something that is going to keep people alive and something that people will actually use (I have done some stress analysis for the Boeing 747-8F) 101
  • 36. What is your least favorite aspect of the 40. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do engineering field/major? What has been the most you do in your free time? challenging part of being an engineering major? a. I play a lot of racquet sports and I rock climb. I also like a. The answer is the same to both questions. The long parting and spending time with my friends. hours necessary to complete all of the projects have been challenging. I feel like I have missed out on some fun stuff, because I have been in the lab too much. 41. Do you participate in any extracurricular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer programs? Do you have a job? 37. What factors influenced your decision to become an engineering major? a. Yes, I am a member of the SAE Heavy Lift team, which is a competition team that designs and builds heavy lift a. Marketability, area of interest, and job security airplanes. I have three jobs right not actually. I teach a structures class in the Aero department, I work in the composites lab, and I set routes at the rock wall. 38. Are your friends engineering majors or family members work or have worked in the field? 42. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which a. My grandfather is a chemical engineer, other than that, ones? no one in my family is an engineer. As far as friends go, I do have a lot of friends in my major. a. Facebook 39. What are your plans after college? If you are 43. In elementary school or middle school, were you going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you interested engineering or a related field? (science, looking for? math, technology) a. I would like to get a job in structural analysis after I a. No answer graduate, but unfortunately, the Aerospace industry is terrible right now so grad school is my back-up plan. 102
  • 44. If were interested in engineering or a related field, please describe what experiences or influences 48. Do you want to purse a career in space encouraged or helped you further your interest exploration? in engineering or a related field. Any factors that discouraged you from studying engineering or a a. No, astronautics hasn’t really ever caught my eye. related field? a. Hands-on experience defiantly helped to further my 49. If so, what influenced your decision to purse interest. The non-flexibility in curriculum defiantly can a career in space? When did this interest begin? discourage a new engineer. Most classes are only offered at Describe what factors have been positive and one time. negative influences in this interest. a. N/A 45. If you were not interested in engineering or a related field, what made you decide to purse engineering in college? Why do you think you weren’t interested in it before college? Respondent 4 a. N/A 50. What year are you in college? a. Third . 46. In elementary school or middle school, what did you do in your free time? Were you involved in any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or 51. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering volunteer programs? field/major? a. I played soccer, football, and tennis for the school team, so a. You learn something new every damn day. What has that kept me pretty busy. been the most reward part of being an engineering major? Knowing that Im doing what I dreamed of doing and loving it because of the fact it’s a prestigious position and Im gittin 47. What are your thoughts on space exploration? munny! a. It’s very important. Most of the recent advancements in technology have come from the space program. It would also be nice to have a space station in space or on another planet that was sustainable and could house multitudes of people. 103
  • 52. What is your least favorite aspect of the 57. Do you participate in any extracurricular engineering field/major? activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer programs? a. The electrical part of it. What has been the most challenging part of being an engineering major? Working a. Yes, and I have 3 jobs. and studying long hard hours… 58. Do you belong to any social media sites? 53. What factors influenced your decision to become an engineering major? a. Hell no. a. Wanting to fly. 59. In elementary school or middle school, were you interested engineering or a related field? 54. Are your friends engineering majors or family members work or have worked in the field? a. NOPE. (science, math, technology) a. Yes, most definitely. 60. If were interested in engineering or a related field, please describe what experiences or influences 55. What are your plans after college? encouraged or helped you further your interest in engineering or a related field. Any factors that a. Going to OCS, NTPS, and then ACP. If you are going discouraged you from studying engineering or a into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you looking for? related field? Things dealing with aircraft. a. My love of flying made me want to do it, and my father. 56. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do you do in your free time? 61. If you were not interested in engineering or a related field, what made you decide to purse a. Spend time with my kids. engineering in college? Why do you think you weren’t interested in it before college? a. N/A 104
  • 62. In elementary school or middle school, what did you do in your free time? Were you involved in Respondent 5 any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or 67. What year are you in college? volunteer programs? a. Junior a. Mess around with girls and gangs, and clubs. 68. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering 63. What are your thoughts on space exploration? field/major? What has been the most reward part of being an engineering major? a. I think it’s awesome where we have gone and yet to discover, and one day I’ll be up there. a. I love math, and the fact that I can apply math to a field is rewarding. 64. Do you want to purse a career in space exploration? 69. What is your least favorite aspect of the engineering field/major? What has been the most a. Hell yea! challenging part of being an engineering major? a. Its challenging because the work is not easy. You have to 65. If so, what influenced your decision to purse work hard for your grades, but it pays off. a career in space? NASA it’s self. When did this interest begin? Describe what factors have been positive and negative influences in this interest. 70. What factors influenced your decision to become an engineering major? a. In high school, just knowing that someone raised from a poor family and made it big getting an education lets me a. I went to a robotics presentation and that’s how I was know if he/she can do it…so can I! hooked. 66. Anything else you would like to add? 71. Are your friends engineering majors or family members work or have worked in the field? I love my children. LMAO! And I go to Embry-Riddle. a. No family members, no high school friends either. 105
  • 72. What are your plans after college? If you are 77. If were interested in engineering or a related going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you field, please describe what experiences or influences looking for? encouraged or helped you further your interest in engineering or a related field. Any factors that a. Somewhere where I can design and test what I designed. I discouraged you from studying engineering or a don’t just want to be in an office all day. I want to be in a lab. related field? a. No answer 73. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do you do in your free time? 78. If you were not interested in engineering or a. I watch a lot of tv, and am involved with church. a related field, what made you decide to purse engineering in college? Why do you think you weren’t interested in it before college? 74. Do you participate in any extracurricular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer a. I wasn’t interested because I didn’t know what it was. My programs? Do you have a job? school didn’t inform us on these, I was interested in college because I started doing good in math and loved math, I went a. Yes, Engineering Honor Society, Society of Women to a robotics presentation and thought: what a great way to Engineers, Mexican American Engineers and Scientists, and apply math into a field. I have LOVED electrical engineering right now I am currently working at NASA on my first co-op since then. tour. 79. In elementary school or middle school, what 75. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which did you do in your free time? Were you involved in ones? any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer programs? a. Facebook a. Only Soccer Athletics. 76. In elementary school or middle school, were you interested engineering or a related field? (science, 80. What are your thoughts on space exploration? math, technology) a. It’s a very important and critical part of our daily lives. We a. Not at all. It all came to me in college. have gotten this far in technology because of the discoveries that were made by space exploration. 106
  • 81. Do you want to purse a career in space (so far) has been the co-op experience that I have been able exploration? to obtain through my major (Jacobs Technology @ Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX) a. YES! 86. What is your least favorite aspect of the 82. If so, what influenced your decision to purse engineering field/major? What has been the most a career in space? When did this interest begin? challenging part of being an engineering major? Describe what factors have been positive and negative influences in this interest. a. My least favorite part is the strength of curriculum without a doubt. The hardest part has been passing all my Calculus a. In all honesty, I just wanted to come to NASA because it classes and losing my scholarship because of my inability to was interesting, but now after my few months here I have do so. grown to love and appreciate all it has done. I would love to pursue my career here because I love what I’m doing, and I know it’s only going to get better. 87. What factors influenced your decision to become an engineering major? 83. Anything else you would like to add? a. My strong interests in the math/science fields and devout hatred towards English/reading (reading anything…doesn’t a. No answer matter what. I HATE reading) 88. Are your friends engineering majors or family Respondent 6 members work or have worked in the field? 84. What year are you in college? a. No, only friends I have in the engineering field are the ones that I’ve met since I’ve been in the field. And no family a. Senior members, either. 85. What is your favorite aspect of the engineering 89. What are your plans after college? If you are field/major? What has been the most reward part of going into the work force, what kinds of jobs are you being an engineering major? looking for? a. The technology/science behind a lot of things that you a. I’m not entirely sure. Ultimate goal is to be an astronaut, work on, be it through my co-op or just projects in class. I but that’s a bit lofty and I would have to enroll in a graduate like the hands-on part of the field. The most reqarding part studies program, which isn’t very enticing. 107
  • 90. When you aren’t in class or studying, what do 95. If you were not interested in engineering or you do in your free time? a related field, what made you decide to purse engineering in college? Why do you think you a. Play basketball, fish, hang out with friends, drink, etc. weren’t interested in it before college? a. N/A 91. Do you participate in any extracurricular activities, clubs, organizations or volunteer programs? Do you have a job? 96. In elementary school or middle school, what did you do in your free time? Were you involved in a. I have a co-op job, and I’m in AIAA, as well as a couple any extra circular activities, clubs, organizations or intramural sports. volunteer programs? a. I was very involved, playing basketball, baseball, track, 92. Do you belong to any social media sites? Which soccer, volunteering at the zoo, the Salvation Army, ones? president of FCA, SGA, etc. a. Facebook. 97. What are your thoughts on space exploration? 93. In elementary school or middle school, were you a. I love it, I want to be a part of it. I think it’s so valuable interested engineering or a related field? (science, an necessary and should be a bigger priority in the eyes of math, technology) America and the world. a. I preferred math but I had no ambition or expectations of being an engineer. I had no idea what I would do. 98. Do you want to purse a career in space exploration? 94. If were interested in engineering or a related a. Absolutely. I’d give my left arm to be an astronaut, and if field, please describe what experiences or influences not then at least work in the field. encouraged or helped you further your interest in engineering or a related field. Any factors that discouraged you from studying engineering or a related field? a. I’ve just always been better at math and I can’t stay focused on reading at all. Almost like I have ADD or something. That’s been the majority of my cause. 108
  • 99. If so, what influenced your decision to purse a career in space? When did this interest begin? Describe what factors have been positive and negative influences in this interest. a. I’ve always liked space. From space movies, to dad buying me a telescope for Christmas, and so on. The unknown fascinates me because I love adventure and exploration, and to be honest, most of Earth is fairly founded/explored, and that only leaves space to charter now. 100. Anything else you would like to add? a. No answer 109