Goal 1 -- Life: Determine if life ever arose on Mars Determine if life exists today Determine if life existed on Mars in the past Assess the extent of prebiotic organic chemical evolution on Mars Goal 2 -- Climate Characterize Mars’ present climate and climate processes Characterize Mars’ ancient climate and climate processes Goal 3 -- Geology Determine the geological processes that have resulted in formation of the Martian crust and surface Characterize the structure, dynamics, and history of Mars interior Goal 4 -- Prepare for human exploration Acquire Martian environmental data set (such as radiation) Conduct in-situ engineering/science demonstration Establish infrastructure for future missions
With goals to detect health hazards for future human space explorers, to discover what our neighboring planet is made of, and to find buried water ice in the shallow subsurface of Mars, the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter has achieved mission success. &quot;As of August 24, 2004, the end date for its primary mission, Odyssey has officially fulfilled its science goals, and we look forward to refining our understanding of the red planet throughout an extended mission,&quot; said Dr. Jeff Plaut, Odyssey project scientist.
TES 1km res
Magellan was ripped apart in the Philippines. 260 sailors, 5 ships, 3 years later 1 ship returned with 16 men Magellan crews dying daily, and the living surviving by eating rats and boiled leather. Columbus: #1--3 ships, 104 men. Lost 2 ships and most of the men (40 killed in the new world) #2--With 17 ships, 1,200 men and boys #3The monarchs financed yet another voyage for Columbus. On May 30, 1498, Columbus set sail with six ships.= Columbus was arrested and sent back to Spain in chains. #4—10 years later with four ships and 150 crewmen, one being his 13-year-old son, Diego.
1--Columbia & Examples 2--Autonomy--SCIP for MSL ‘09 Evolvable Design 3--Humans and robots Steve Squyres How to work with “Mule”/IVHM Reliable software 4--Future Where do humans and robots converge? Conclusion
Expanding Our Reach Into the Solar System by Prof. G. Scott Hubbard
Expanding Our Reach Into The Solar System Prof. G. Scott Hubbard, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Stanford University April 15, 2010
Space Exploration: Humans or Robots? <ul><li>We explore and utilize space for a variety of reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science, National Interest, Return on Investment and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All space exploration is human exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes humans are physically present, many times we send our robotic emissaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots are excellent at 3-D’s: Dull, Dirty, Dangerous work and they do what you tell them to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans excel at adaptation in an unstructured environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of all science goals humans would be particularly valuable for exploring the surfaces of other worlds and collecting samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NASA’s FY 2011 Budget Advances both Human and Robotic Exploration </li></ul>
Astrobiology - the Scientific Heart of Space Exploration <ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary study of life in the universe created in 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three fundamental questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does life begin and evolve? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does life exist elsewhere in the universe? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is life’s future on Earth and beyond? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrobiology seeks to define habitable environments and biosignatures </li></ul></ul>
Exploring Mars: Following the Water Why Mars? It is the most Earth-like of the planets The most likely to have past or present life Reachable every 26 months Why Water? Liquid water is required for life as we know it. Climate Life Common Thread Human Exploration Geology W A T E R When Where Form Amount
Today’s Robotic Mars Exploration Program Redefined in October 2000 after twin failures in 1999 A science-driven effort to characterize and understand Mars as a dynamic system, including its present and past environment, climate cycles, geology, and biological potential. Central among the questions to be asked is… “ Did life ever arise on Mars?” The science strategy is known as “Follow the Water.” Mars Global Surveyor Mars Exploration Rovers Mars Odyssey Phoenix Scout Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Science Laboratory
Mars Odyssey Finds Water Ice From Orbit Measurements show strong evidence of underground water ice
Mars Phoenix Confirms Polar Ice! <ul><li>Landed at Mars Northern Plains (69 deg) May 25th, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Ice found, then evaporates </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed by on-board chemical measurements </li></ul>
The Water Picture from Mars Global Surveyor Flat northern hemisphere may represent the location of a large ancient ocean. Minerals consistent with long exposure to water
Mars Rovers Find the Water Minerals! 5th year of operations!! “ Berries” of minerals that on Earth are always associated with liquid water
Next: 2011 Mars Science Laboratory <ul><li>In-situ science with the first astrobiology instrument (X-ray diffraction) </li></ul><ul><li>Next generation roving capability (10’s of kilometers) </li></ul><ul><li>Radioisotope power for long duration </li></ul><ul><li>Precision entry decent & landing </li></ul>Rover Family Tree
Human/Robot Comparison <ul><ul><li>It takes the MER rover a day to do what a field geologist can do in about 45 seconds. -- Steve Squyres MER PI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apollo 17 comparison </li></ul></ul>Drove 36 km in 20 hours of EVA (less time driving) Collected 110 kgs of rocks from 30 sites; analysis still ongoing The Spirit rover drove 3.6 km in 8 months and examined roughly 25 rocks. It cannot collect rocks.
Challenges of Human Exploration of Mars Technology must be available Must be affordable in budgetary and human terms The biomedical problem must be solved $$$ +
IT Challenges for Space Exploration Beyond LEO <ul><li>Management of large data sets </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy and mobility on other worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Human/machine interaction and telepresence interface </li></ul>
Mars Sample Return Campaign Mars Orbit Rendezvous Return to Earth Lander to the Surface <ul><li>International collaboration probable </li></ul><ul><li>Key Astrobiology Science Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to Humans at Mars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of soil toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-to-End Travel Demonstration </li></ul></ul>
The Future of Space Exploration: Searching for Life with Humans and Robots Together