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A New Exploration Strategy
 

A New Exploration Strategy

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A New Exploration Strategy

A New Exploration Strategy
Dr. Edward F. Crawley
Ford Professor of Engineering at MIT
Co-chair of NASA Exploration Technology Development Program Review Committee

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    A New Exploration Strategy A New Exploration Strategy Presentation Transcript

    • Ed Crawley April 2010 A New Exploration Strategy
    • Why We Explore
      • More tangible benefits:
        • Credible plans for science
        • Technology for space and Earth
        • Economic development and industrial capability
        • Exploration Preparation
      • Less tangible benefits
        • U.S. leadership of international ventures
        • Engagement of the public
        • Inspiration of the youth, and excitement about STEM
    • A Space Faring Civilization
      • We explore to chart a path for human expansion into the solar system.
      • Mars should be the ultimate destination for that exploration in the inner solar system
      • Staying on Mars, and extending human civilization within the solar system should be the ultimate goal.
      • This will require a lengthy commitment.
      • But it is time to begin.
      These goals should drive destinations and systems
    • Starting Point High Level Decision Evolution of the Committee Moon Mars ISS ISS Moon Mars ISS Moon Mars Flexible Path Flexible Path Flexible Path Moon Mars ISS Moon Flexible Path Flexible Path
    • A New Strategy for Exploration, in Close Cooperation with Robotics
      • Goal – Expand beyond the Earth – Moon system as quickly as possible, develop the capability to live and work in free space, gather science knowledge and support science operations
      • Travel to many places in the inner solar system but initially not walk on the surface
      • For locations and small bodies, rendezvous and explore much like encountering the ISS or a Hubble repair
      • For larger bodies, crew arrives in vicinity, scans, sends down telerobotic probes, explores through robots, collects samples launched by robots
      • Explore many sites in the Solar System with essentially the same space systems
      Review of US Human Space Flight Plans Committee A strategy that is flexible, enabled by capability and guided by discovery L 4 L 2 L 1 L 3 L 5 Phobos & Deimos Earth Moon Venus Mars NEOs Sun - Earth L 1 Sun - Earth L 2
    • Mass, Energy & Time Considerations Total Mission Change in Velocity from Low Earth Orbit (Kilometers/sec) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Lunar Surface Near Earth Objects Martian Moons Surface of Mars Increasing Mass in Low Earth orbit ( mt) Increasing Mission Duration (Days) Earth Moon Lagrange Points Lunar Orbit Earth Sun Lagrange Points Mars Flyby Flexible Path Lunar Mars
    • Planning Flexibility on the Flexible Path to Mars and Moon
    • Value Proposition for Flexible Path Destination Public Engagement Science Human Research Exploration Preparation Lunar Flyby/Orbit Return to Moon, “any time we want” Demo of human robotic operation 10 days beyond radiation belts Beyond LEO shakedown Earth Moon L1 “ Onramp to the inter-planetary highway” Ability to service ES L2 s/c at EM L1 21 days beyond the belts Ops at potential fuel depot Earth Sun L2 First human in “deep space” or “Earth escape” Ability to service ES L2 s/c at ES L2 32 days beyond the belts Potential servicing, test airlock Earth Sun L1 First human “in the solar wind” Potential for Earth/Sun science 90 days beyond the belts Potential servicing, test in-space hab NEO’s “ Helping protect the planet” Geophysics, Astrobiology, Sample return 190-220 day, similar to Mars transit Encounters with small bodies, sample handling, resource utilization Mars Flyby First human “to Mars” Human robotic operations, sample return? 440 days, similar to Mars out and return Robotic ops, test of planetary cycler concepts Mars Orbit Humans “working at Mars and touching bits of Mars” Mars surface sample return 780 days, full trip to Mars Joint robotic/human exploration and surface ops, sample testing, Mars Moons Humans “landing on another moon” Mars moons’ sample return 780 days, full rehearsal Mars exploration Joint robotic/human surface and small body exploration
    • Flexible Path to Mars and Moon Milestones, Destinations & Capabilities Lunar Sortie Flights Lunar Extended Duration Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Human Lunar Return 1st Habitat Flight Year 7 Days 32 Days Unpiloted Lunar Test Lunar Flyby NEO (2007 UN12) 10 Days EarthMoon L1 Sun Earth L2 Sun Earth L1 90 Days 190 Days First Humans to NEOs Humans in Interplanetary Space 21 Days Humans in Cislunar Space Sun Earth Vicinity Near Earth Human to Mars Vicinity NEO (2008 EA9) 190 Days Mars Vicinity Phobos 780 Days Inner Solar System Mars Flyby 440 Days Option 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 8 Mars Flyby 440 Days 9 10 11
    • Timelines of the Three Less Constrained Lunar Options Ares I + Orion Flights in low - Earth orbit Ares V Option 3 Variant: With Technology and ISS Extension Shuttle Lunar Landing Flights to the International Space Station Commercial Crew to low – Earth orbit EELV Derived Option 5B: Flexible Path – EELV Heritage Moon Orbit Earth Escape NEO Mars Flyby Shuttle Flights to the International Space Station Lunar Landing 2010 2020 2030 2010 2020 2030
    • Development and Ops Cost Phasing: Lunar vs. Flexible DDT&E DDT&E DDT&E Plus Ops
      • 2010’s – operate the ISS, build the deep space systems
      • 2020’s – operate the deep space systems, build the planetary systems
      • 2030’s – operate the planetary systems
      $ Capsule Booster Lander Surface Systems In space elements Moon Flexible Path Time $ Surface Systems Lander Capsule Booster Time Moon Flexible Path In space elements $ Capsule Booster Lander Surface Systems In space elements Moon Flexible Path Time
    • Summary of Benefits
      • Faster start
      • New destinations
      • Regular cadence of exploration
      • Deep space capability
      • Authentic synthesis of humans and robotics
      • Opportunities for interesting science
      • Phase development profile
      • Engaging for international partners
      • Generational change
      • Progress toward our ultimate goal
    • A Space Faring Civilization
      • We explore to chart a path for human expansion into the solar system.
      • Mars should be the ultimate destination for that exploration.
      • Staying on Mars, and extending human civilization within the solar system should be the ultimate goal.
      • This will require a lengthy commitment.
      • But it is time to begin.