Classification

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Classification of living things

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Classification

  1. 1. Classification of Living Things
  2. 2. What is Life???? <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Response to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to the environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do we classify living organisms? <ul><li>We use a system that is credited to Carolus Linnaeus called: Binomial nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>This mean 2-name, naming. </li></ul><ul><li>Before we get to that we will start with much larger systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. KINGDOM <ul><li>The top-level, or nearly the top-level, taxon of organisms in scientific classification </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHYLUM <ul><li>Phyla represent the largest generally accepted groupings of animals and other living things with certain evolutionary traits </li></ul>
  6. 6. CLASS <ul><li>a rank in the scientific classification of animals and plants in biology.It is It is below phylum and above order. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ORDER <ul><li>The area of scientific classification in biology between class and family </li></ul>
  8. 8. FAMILY <ul><li>The area of biological classification of highly related organisms between order and genus. Next to genus and species this is the most important area of classification </li></ul>
  9. 9. GENUS and SPECIES <ul><li>In the binomial nomenclature used worldwide, the name of an organism is composed of two parts: its genus name (always capitalized) and a species modifier (known as the &quot;epithet&quot;) </li></ul>
  10. 10. In a nutshell…. <ul><li>Every time you use binomial </li></ul><ul><li>Nomenclature (Genus species), </li></ul><ul><li>You are also representing all </li></ul><ul><li>Of the classifications above </li></ul><ul><li>them </li></ul>
  11. 11. What are some differences in Kingdoms? <ul><li>There are a lot of reasons that organisms are classified into different kingdoms, phylums, etc. Let’s look at some: </li></ul>
  12. 12. The type of cell <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul>
  13. 13. The way they eat <ul><li>Autotrophs: self-feeding. They make their own food; like plants, algae, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs: Different feeding; that is that they must consume food made outside of themselves </li></ul>
  14. 14. The way they reproduce <ul><li>Sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction </li></ul>
  15. 15. The method of consumption: <ul><li>Carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytic </li></ul>
  16. 16. The way that they “breathe” <ul><li>Aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic respiration </li></ul>
  17. 17. OK Lets look at some Kingdoms
  18. 18. MONERA <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteia: Blue-Green Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses???????? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Monerans are classified by: <ul><li>Prokaryotic-no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual </li></ul><ul><li>Many are autotrophic: light, nitrogen, sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Many are anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Many have cilia or flagella </li></ul>
  20. 20. Evolution of Monera
  21. 21. Structures <ul><li>Notice the lack of a nucleus </li></ul>
  22. 22. Types of bacteria: Shapes <ul><li>Bacteria genus are named for their shapes </li></ul>
  23. 23. What about viruses???? <ul><li>They are not always classified as living organisms since they do not fulfill the criteria of living things without the assistance of another living cell </li></ul>
  24. 24. West Nile virus <ul><li>Often viruses need more than one host </li></ul>
  25. 25. Here is what a virus looks like <ul><li>Scary </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is Blue-green Algae? <ul><li>Cyanobacteria: </li></ul><ul><li>prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Very primitive </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Blue-Green Algae Images <ul><li>Care for a swim? Algae blooms </li></ul>
  28. 28. Microscopic views
  29. 29. Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Meaning the first, These are the first Eukaryotic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Unicelled </li></ul><ul><li>Most are aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>All move on their own ability </li></ul><ul><li>Many can be parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>3 subcatagories </li></ul>
  30. 30. Animal-like Protozoans <ul><li>Paramecium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move by cilia/Flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giardia is a common example of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paramecium </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Giardia <ul><li>Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract and causes giardiasis . Fecal </li></ul><ul><li>transfer in water </li></ul>
  32. 32. Plant-like <ul><li>Photosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile by flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Euglena and certain algae </li></ul>
  33. 33. Euglena <ul><li>A duck pond with Euglena blooms </li></ul>
  34. 34. Close-ups
  35. 35. Really close up-Euglena
  36. 36. Fungi-Like Protists <ul><li>Amoeba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move by pseudopods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ingest” food by Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce by binary fission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water mostly </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Amoeba Structures
  38. 38. Microscopic Views-Amoeba
  39. 39. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Cells have cell walls (chitin) </li></ul><ul><li>Multicelled - coenocytic </li></ul><ul><li>Digest cellulose mostly </li></ul><ul><li>Usually saprophytic/some parasites) </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: Spore (asexual and sexual), fragmentation, budding </li></ul><ul><li>First sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual (symbiotic) relationships </li></ul>
  40. 40. 5 Phyla <ul><li>4 Phyla are based on the fungi sexual reproduction methods and one based on the fact that it has NO sexual reproduction </li></ul>
  41. 41. Fungi Phyla
  42. 42. Chytridiomycota <ul><li>The “first” </li></ul><ul><li>fungus </li></ul>
  43. 43. Zygomycota <ul><li>The “sugar” fungus </li></ul>
  44. 44. Mycelium and spores
  45. 45. Ascomycota <ul><li>The sac fungi </li></ul><ul><li>75% of all fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Bread mold including penicilium </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens </li></ul>
  46. 46. Reproduction of ascomycota
  47. 47. Lichens <ul><li>A symbiotic realtionship between algae and a specie of ascomycota </li></ul>
  48. 48. Basidiomycota <ul><li>Club fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Produce large fruiting bodies to release spores </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mushrooms <ul><li>The fruiting body of a mushroom is only a small portion of the actual mushroom organism </li></ul><ul><li>Mycelium make up the majority </li></ul>
  50. 50. Mushrooms are very diverse
  51. 51. Many Mushrooms are deadly <ul><li>Never eat a mushroom unless you have had it professionally identified </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid any bright mushroom;especially with white spots </li></ul>
  52. 52. Deuteromycota <ul><li>No sexual stage </li></ul><ul><li>Not really a “fungi” </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this </li></ul>Penecillium
  53. 53. Plant Kingdom <ul><li>Multi-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall (with cellulose) </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Plastids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromoplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leucoplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all sexual reproduction </li></ul>
  54. 54. Plant cell structure
  55. 55. Classification <ul><li>Classification is based on reproduction types (flowers, seeds, spores, cone) and presence of different tissues </li></ul>
  56. 56. Spores <ul><li>A small, usually single-celled reproductive body that is highly resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and non-flowering plants-haploid </li></ul>
  57. 57. Seeds <ul><li>A ripened plant ovule containing an embryo-diploid </li></ul>
  58. 58. Vascular Tissue in plants <ul><li>Phloem-transfers food down to roots </li></ul><ul><li>Xylem-transfers water up from roots and throughout plant </li></ul><ul><li>Cross section of a stem showing vascular bundles </li></ul>
  59. 59. Cones-To fertilize and protect the “naked” seed-Gymnosperms This is a primitive trait Male cone Female cone
  60. 60. Flowers-Angiosperms use for fertilization and development of fruit and seeds
  61. 61. Fruits and Berries <ul><li>The sole purpose of fruits and berries of angiosperms is for reproduction and dispersal </li></ul>
  62. 62. Bryophytes <ul><li>Mosses, liverworts, hornworts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-vascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get water from surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore not seed reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Ferns and Horsetails <ul><li>Ferns and horsetails have a vascular system to transport fluids through their bodies but like the mosses, they reproduce from spores rather than seeds </li></ul>
  64. 64. Gymnosperms <ul><li>Conifers-cone bearing </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce from seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds are “naked” not covered by ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization and seed development by cones </li></ul>
  65. 65. Angiosperms Flowering Monocots <ul><li>Monocots start with one seed-leaf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single cotyledon: small leaf in seed for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young plant development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Main venation is unbranched and parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Usually fleshy </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking certain arrangements of vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Orchids, lillys, etc </li></ul>
  66. 66. Angiosperms Flowering Dicots <ul><li>Most plants we see are in this group. </li></ul><ul><li>Have 2 cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Many have woody tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Contain vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf venation is branched </li></ul>
  67. 67. Dicot/Monocot seedlings
  68. 68. Plant Structure
  69. 69. The Animal Kingdom <ul><li>Multi-cellular </li></ul><ul><li>No cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Strong response to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted growth </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all sexual reproduction </li></ul>
  70. 70. Invertebrates <ul><li>Animals with no backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Most have an exoskelaton or no skelaton </li></ul><ul><li>No central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>No “brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Ectothermic </li></ul>
  71. 71. Vertebrates <ul><li>Animals with back-bones </li></ul><ul><li>Most have endoskelaton </li></ul><ul><li>Many advanced have central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Many have a “brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Many are endothermic </li></ul>
  72. 72. Nine Phylums <ul><li>THE INVERTEBRATES THE VERTEBRATES </li></ul><ul><li>Porifera Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Platyhelminthes </li></ul><ul><li>Nematoda </li></ul><ul><li>Annelida </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>Echinodermata </li></ul>
  73. 73. Coelom-Body cavity <ul><li>Acoelomate-no body cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomate-false body cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Eucoelomate (coelomate)-true body cavity </li></ul>
  74. 74. Coelom Comparison
  75. 75. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Asymmetrical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more advanced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most advanced </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Porifera: Pore-bearing
  77. 77. Cnidaria: Stinging animals <ul><li>Coral </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Anenome </li></ul><ul><li>Jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese Man of war </li></ul><ul><li>Stinging cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nematocysts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tentacles </li></ul>
  78. 78. Platyhelminthes: Flat-worms <ul><li>Absorb nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphroditic </li></ul>
  79. 79. Nematoda: Round worms <ul><li>Often parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-coelom </li></ul>
  80. 80. Annelida: Segmented worm <ul><li>Earthworm, leech </li></ul><ul><li>Coelom </li></ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Arthropoda-jointed foot <ul><li>Jointed appendeges </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented bodys </li></ul><ul><li>Tough ectoskelaton </li></ul><ul><li>Coelom </li></ul>
  82. 82. Mollusca: Mollusks <ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized foot to move </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle with gills/lung, secretes shell </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavity (coelom) present </li></ul><ul><li>Many sensory organs </li></ul>
  83. 83. Echinodermata- spiny skin <ul><li>Endoskelaton </li></ul><ul><li>Spiny skin </li></ul><ul><li>Water Vascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Tube feet </li></ul><ul><li>5 part radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Coelom </li></ul>
  84. 84. Chordata-The Chordates <ul><li>Notochord </li></ul><ul><li>Gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal, hollow nerve chord </li></ul><ul><li>“ brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Include: vertibrates, Cephalochordates, Urochordates </li></ul>
  85. 85. Notochord <ul><li>A rod-like structure for support and protection in the phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  86. 86. Classes of the Chordates <ul><li>Agnatha-jawless fish-lamprey </li></ul><ul><li>Chondricthyes- Cartilaginous fish </li></ul><ul><li>Ostyichthyes- Boney fish </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibia </li></ul><ul><li>Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Mammalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass-monotremes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass-marsupials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclass-placentals </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Agnatha
  88. 88. Class Chondricthyes <ul><li>Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilagenous backbone </li></ul>
  89. 89. Class Ostyichthyes- boney fish Boney (calcium based) skelaton
  90. 90. Class Amphibia- Amphibians <ul><li>Meaning dual life: aquatic/terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>Toads, frogs, salomanders </li></ul>
  91. 91. Class Reptilia- Reptiles <ul><li>Scaly skin, claws </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes, Lizards, Turtles </li></ul>
  92. 92. Class Aves-Birds <ul><li>Feathers, flight, egg bearing,lightweight bones, endothermic </li></ul>
  93. 93. Class Mammalia-Mammals <ul><li>Hair, nurse young, bear live young </li></ul>
  94. 94. Mammal-Subclass Monotremes <ul><li>Egg-bearing mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Duck-billed platypus, Spiny anteater </li></ul>
  95. 95. Mammals-Subclass Marsupial <ul><li>Early birth, child develop in pouch (marsupium) </li></ul><ul><li>Kangaroo, </li></ul>
  96. 96. Mammals-Subclass Placental <ul><li>Full development of young inside mother </li></ul>

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