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18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
18th Century Economy And Society
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18th Century Economy And Society

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Slide Show on 18th Century Economy and Society

Slide Show on 18th Century Economy and Society

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  • 1. 18 th Century Economy and Society <ul><li>The Agricultural Revolution (17 th -18 th C) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to Rev.: Medieval field system was predominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open field system: common lands were open and strips of land for agriculture were not dividend by fences or hedges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 to ½ of lands lie in fallow on any given year so soil could recover </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. The Agricultural Revolution (17 th -18 th C) <ul><li>England, the Netherlands and France leaders in Ag. Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased production of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New methods of cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective breeding of livestock </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. The Agricultural Revolution: Low Countries <ul><li>Science and technology was applied to agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By mid 17 th century, the Dutch enclosed fields, rotated crops, employed heavy use of manure for fertilizer and planted a wide variety of crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage –Dutch reclaimed wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cornelius Vermuyden: famous Dutch engineer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. England <ul><li>Charles “Turnip” Townsend pioneered crop rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of nitrogen crops such as turnips and clover to replenish soil so that fallowing was not necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jethro Tull (1674-1741) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Of empiricism of the S.R. was applied to agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seed Drill – allowed for sowing of crops in a straight row </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Bakewell (1725-95) pioneered selective breeding of livestock </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in increased availability of meat, wool, leather, soap, and candle tallow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. England: Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Landowners sought to increase profits from wool production by enclosing fields for raising sheep (16 th Century) </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Century Enclosure: end to open field system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in commercialization of agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament passed over 3,000 enclosure acts in the late 18 th century and early 19 th century that benefited large landowners </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. England: Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Corn Laws in 1815 benefited landowners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High tariffs on foreign grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drove up price of English grain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurt the poor—could not afford price increases for food </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. England: Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Impact on the peasantry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced off lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many moved to towns or cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men other opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women had no way to raise animals on common lands for extra-money </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. England: Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Impact on women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional communities: women had been an indispensable part of a household’s economic survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosure of common lands meant that women (and men) were forced off the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic opportunities for women thus decreased significantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young women increasingly went to find domestic work or extreme measures: prostitution </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Impact of Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Population explosion (18 th century) Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Altered society in the countryside (enclosure) </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage industry emerged as means of supplementing family incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased supply of food resulted in lower food prices that enabled people to spend more money on consumer goods </li></ul>
  • 10. Cottage Industry (“Putting Out” System)

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