Tentative Scientific knowledge changes in two ways; it grows as new knowledge is discovered and improves as old knowledge is revised corrected. While scientific knowledge is tentative, there is also much reliability in scientific knowledge because of its empirical basis. Ray Drenner - Hg Toxicity in Aquatic Systems
Empirical Scientific knowledge is based on observations of the natural world. Although all scientific knowledge is based upon empirical evidence, much scientific knowledge (inferences & theories) lacks hard data directly accessible to the senses. Archaeopteryx Pangaea
Subjectivity Scientists’ theoretical commitments and expectations influence their work. Scientists’ observations acquire meaning in reference to questions or problems. These questions or problems, in turn, are derived from certain theoretical perspectives (theory-laden). H. Pylori Drs. Barry Marshall & Robin Warren
Creative Scientific knowledge involves human imagination and creativity. Science involves the invention of explanations and this requires a great deal of creativity by scientists. Dr. Bonnie Bassler
Social and Cultural Science is practiced in the context of a larger culture and scientists are the product of that culture. Science is affected by the various elements of the culture in which it is embedded. These elements include social fabric, power structures, politics, socioeconomic factors, philosophy, and religion. Stem Cell Research & HPV Vaccine
Observations and Inferences Observations are descriptive statements about natural phenomena that are “directly” accessible to the senses. By contrast, inferences are statements about phenomena that are not “directly” accessible to the senses. Charles Darwin And “his” finches
Theories and Laws Theories and laws are different kinds of knowledge; one can not develop or be transformed into the other. Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena (the “what”). Theories, by contrast, are inferred explanations for observable phenomena (the “how”).