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Terrestrial biomes
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  • 1. I. Biomes:areas that have distinctive climates and organisms
  • 2. Tropical Rainforest
  • 3. Tropical Rainforestonce, 20% of earth;now 7%exist around equator, so strong sunlight and consistent climate.
  • 4. Tropical Rainforesthumid, always warm,never freezes, lots ofrain (100-400 in. a year= 250-1000 cm/yr)
  • 5. Tropical Rainforest Has poor soil.So how do many species of plants thrive?
  • 6. answer: rapid decay of plants and animals constantly returning nutrients to the soil
  • 7. plants grow in layers (strata) for sunlight. Lots of light at canopy; little at bottom. Plants on forest floor often have huge leaves.
  • 8. animals are oftenpoisonous orcamouflaged
  • 9. Temperate Rain Forest occur in North & South America,Australia, &New Zealand
  • 10. Temperate Rain Forestcool & humidMild winters and summers for latitude70 – 200 inches of rain per year (150 – 500 cm)
  • 11. Temperate Rain ForestOnly a few species of lush evergreen and deciduous trees on windward slopesRedwoods – tallest trees on earthHuge ferns, thick undergrowth
  • 12. Temperate Rain ForestNumerous bird andmammal species –raccoons, gray wolf,white-tailed deer, bears,badgers, wild pigs, etc.
  • 13. TemperateDeciduous Forests Leaves turn colors. Trees shed leaves each fall.
  • 14. TemperateDeciduous Forestsexist b/t 30 degrees & 50 degrees north latitude, so seasonal variation
  • 15. TemperateDeciduous Forests30 - 100 inchesPrecipitation(75-250 cm/yr)
  • 16. soil rich & deep. Why?rain causes rapid decomposition of leaves
  • 17. forests grow in layersmigratory birds ; hibernating animals
  • 18. Taiga: northern coniferous forest just below Arctic Circle
  • 19. Taigalong, cold wintersprecipitation = snowconstant daylight in summer
  • 20. Taigaconifer trees: needle- shaped leaves (retain water, acidic)
  • 21. Taigasoil forms slowly, is acidic; few plants on ground
  • 22. Taigamigrating birds, burrowing and camouflaged animals
  • 23. Tropical Savanna
  • 24. Tropical Savannanear equatorvery little rain - less than 6 months of the year (4 –70 inches)
  • 25. Tropical Savannaplants: long underground roots to survive fire and dry season, perennials;- thorny plants so animals won’t eat
  • 26. Tropical SavannaMigratory herbivores follow rains- different herbivores eat plants of different heights.
  • 27. Tropical SavannaContains the largest number of grazing animals
  • 28. Tropical Savannapredators followmostly large land animals
  • 29. Grassland & Prairies
  • 30. Temperate Grasslands & PrairiesRainfall – 25 – 88 cm/year (10 – 35 in/yr)Sizzling temperatures in summer buffalo30º - 50º N latitude
  • 31. Temperate Grasslands & Prairies Plant Adaptations - Root systems of plants form dense mats to survive drought and fire and hold the soil in place. - Few trees because of the drought, fire and constant wind.
  • 32. Temperate Grasslands & Prairies Animal Adaptations - buffalos have thick coats to withstand the cold winters - prairie dogs & owls live in underground burrows to protect them from fire, elements and predators
  • 33. Deserts
  • 34. Desertsreceive less than 10 in. precip/yr (25 cm/ yr) extreme temp flux!Dry winds
  • 35. Desertssoil rich in minerals, but poor in organic matter. Why?
  • 36. Desertsans: not enoughwater to aid indecomposition.
  • 37. Desertsplants:succulents :thick stems & leaves to store water -
  • 38. Desertsspiny & thornyunderground bulbs or wide root systems
  • 39. Deserts animals: dry, scaly skin
  • 40. Desertssome estivate (bury themselves in the ground & sleep through the dry season)
  • 41. Desertsmany nocturnal Kangaroo rat
  • 42. Tundra
  • 43. TundraNorth of theArctic Circle
  • 44. Tundrabiome w/o trees, grasses & shrubs grow in permanently frozen soil (permafrost)
  • 45. Tundra7 – 40 inches of rain/yearOnly 2 or 3 months above freezingLong and cold winterBrief cool summer
  • 46. Tundraplants:mosses & lichens (can grow w/o soil)
  • 47. Tundrawide, shallow roots anchor plants against wind
  • 48. Tundra animals: migratory camouflage thick coats