Teacher Notes <ul><li>This PPT was revised November 19, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>This PPT is a companion PPT to Mitosis & M...
Reproduction & DNA Replication   How does DNA copy itself?
Why do cells divide? <ul><li>to increase surface area </li></ul><ul><li>to repair damaged cells </li></ul><ul><li>to produ...
Cell   Reproduction <ul><li>Cells reproduce either sexually or asexually. </li></ul>Bacteria
<ul><li>Requires only one parent </li></ul><ul><li>Binary Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Budding  </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative ...
Advantages of  Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>offspring cells are exactly like the parent cell (clones) </li></ul>Speed Desi...
TRY THIS! <ul><li>On your notebook paper draw a Verbal Visual table for  Asexual Reproduction </li></ul>Non-Example Drawin...
TRY THIS! Non-example sperm and egg Drawing Definition Requires only one parent Vocabulary Term Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual reproduction requires two parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Two sex cells (called gametes) mus...
Fertilization <ul><li>Fertilization is the union of egg & sperm. </li></ul>New Individual 46 Mom 23 Dad 23
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Offspring are unlike the parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction provides ...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>Every species has a specific number of chromosomes that every body cell is supposed to have. </l...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>Since you inherit half of your chromosomes from each parent, you carry two complete sets of chro...
Homologous Chromosomes <ul><li>These two complete sets of chromosomes are  homologous ,   the chromosomes from the female ...
Homologous Chromosomes <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes  are similar in size and shape and control the same traits. </li></u...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>Humans inherit one set of 23 chromosomes in the egg from the mother and one set of 23 on the spe...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>The single set of one chromosome of each type inherited from one parent is called haploid. </li>...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>A cell (such as a fertilized egg) with two sets of homologous chromosomes is called  diploid . <...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>Recall that every body cell in an organism must have the specific 2n chromosome number for that ...
How does this happen? <ul><li>When we grow by our cells dividing to make two new cells, all of those new cells must have 4...
Chromosome Number <ul><li>The doubling of the chromosomes is actually DNA making an exact copy of itself.  This is called ...
<ul><li>Create a Venn diagram for asexual and sexual reproduction. </li></ul>TRY THIS!
A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does a cell divide? </li></ul><ul><li>Most of a cell’s life cycle is spent in  Interphase...
A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does a cell divide? </li></ul>Only a small part of the cell cycle  is spent in division. ...
A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does DNA replication occur? </li></ul><ul><li>During  Interphase , (in the S/Synthesis ph...
DNA Replication <ul><li>Before a cell divides the DNA must  replicate  (make an exact copy of itself)  so the new cells ha...
DNA Replication <ul><li>Each new cell must have the same chromosome number (and same DNA) as the parent cell to function p...
DNA Replication <ul><li>Replication occurs in 3 easy steps… </li></ul>
DNA Replication <ul><li>1. DNA Unzips </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme unzips the molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds that ...
DNA Replication: 1. DNA Unzips Left 5’ Strand of Original DNA Right 3’ Strand of Original DNA 3’End 5’End A T T C C G 3’En...
2. Bases Pair <ul><li>Complementary bases match with each base in the original DNA strand </li></ul><ul><li>What is the co...
DNA Base Pairing – Step 2 3’End 5’End 3’End 5’End A T A G G C A T T C C G T C A G G C A T G T A C
3. Two Identical DNA molecules <ul><li>Two new DNA molecules each  have the same DNA nitrogen base sequence. </li></ul><ul...
DNA Replication Review <ul><li>Explain what is happening at each step in DNA Replication. </li></ul>Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
DNA Replication Review <ul><li>What process is occurring? </li></ul>I II V V III IV <ul><li>What molecule is at I? </li></...
DNA Replication Review <ul><li>What is happening at IV?? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the two molecules at V? </li></ul><ul>...
MITOSIS <ul><li>Now that DNA has replicated and the cell now has two identical sets of DNA/ chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>...
MITOSIS <ul><li>What is the purpose of DNA replication? </li></ul><ul><li>(Hint: think of the importance to the cells prod...
TRY THIS! <ul><li>On your paper create a 3 Column Self-Assessment Chart for Cell Reproduction and DNA Replication </li></u...
Works Cited <ul><li>There is a nice animation of DNA Replication at  http://www.ncc.gmu.edu/dna/repanim.htm </li></ul><ul>...
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Reproduction dna replication

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  • This PowerPoint has many animated slide progressions. You may only want to print the following slides: 1-11, 14-15, 22-47
  • Answers are animated so you can ask students the question before you reveal the answers Maintain workable surface area to volume - too big-can’t work!! Replace damaged cells
  • Binary Fission - split in two (bacteria) Budding- (Yeast) Vegetative Propagation - (Plants) Regeneration -
  • Rapid production of offspring (bacteria) Replacement of lost body parts Desirable characteristics are continually passed on
  • Formation of a new individual through the union of parent cells The number of chromosomes are animated so you can ask students the answers before it comes up
  • Meiosis is the production of sex cells (gametes). During meiosis, the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells are reduced from the number of chromosomes in the parent cell (this is extremely important).
  • Since two cells with different DNA (gene traits) unite, the individual is different from any other organism, including the parents. Genetic material is passed from the parents in chromosome sets.
  • Since two cells with different DNA (gene traits) unite, the individual is different from any other organism, including the parents. Genetic material is passed from the parents in chromosome sets.
  • Since two cells with different DNA (gene traits) unite, the individual is different from any other organism, including the parents. Genetic material is passed from the parents in chromosome sets.
  • Since two cells with different DNA (gene traits) unite, the individual is different from any other organism, including the parents. Genetic material is passed from the parents in chromosome sets.
  • Since two cells with different DNA (gene traits) unite, the individual is different from any other organism, including the parents. Genetic material is passed from the parents in chromosome sets.
  • Haploid – number of chromosomes in sex cells represented by n indicating one chromosome Diploid - number of chromosomes in somatic cells represented by 2n indicating a set or double number of chromosomes
  • Haploid – number of chromosomes in sex cells represented by n indicating one chromosome Diploid - number of chromosomes in somatic cells represented by 2n indicating a set or double number of chromosomes
  • If body cells do not have the correct 2n chromosome number, the cell will not be able to function properly
  • Have students notice that the majority of a cell’s life is spent in interphase and during that time, the cell is performing all it’s cellular processes needed to survive. Indicate that M is Mitosis, the small amount of time the cell spends dividing. Picture taken from http://www.sol.duke.edu/mitosis/cycle/
  • Have students notice that the majority of a cell’s life is spent in interphase and during that time, the cell is performing all it’s cellular processes needed to survive. Indicate that M is Mitosis, the small amount of time the cell spends dividing. Picture taken from http://www.sol.duke.edu/mitosis/cycle/
  • Have students notice that the majority of a cell’s life is spent in interphase and during that time, the cell is performing all it’s cellular processes needed to survive. Indicate that M is Mitosis, the small amount of time the cell spends dividing. Picture taken from http://www.sol.duke.edu/mitosis/cycle/
  • The DNA molecule will “unzip.” The enzyme helicase (the light blue circle) will break the weak hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases. The molecule can then be separated. In an actual cell, the entire molecule of DNA does not separate at once. It separates in pieces.
  • Another enzyme named DNA polymerase will match new DNA nucleotides (one by one) to the corresponding nitrogen base in the existing DNA strand. Then, and enzyme called DNA ligase will attach the hydrogen bonds between the bases, acting as a “glue” to connect the two strands. Each DNA molecule contains a new strand as well as an existing strand from the original molecule.
  • Step 1 – DNA unzips Step 2 – Complementary bases match with each DNA strand in the open helix Step 3 – DNA zips up
  • Step 1 – DNA unzips Step 2 – Complementary bases match with each DNA strand in the open helix Step 3 – DNA zips up
  • Step 1 – DNA unzips Step 2 – Complementary bases match with each DNA strand in the open helix Step 3 – DNA zips up
  • Remind students Mitosis is an asexual cellular reproduction
  • Remind students Mitosis is an asexual cellular reproduction
  • This can be done individually, in small groups, or as a class activity. During the brainstorming phase, emphasize getting lots of ideas rather than debating or discussing the idea as they are generated. Debates, clarifications, and discussion of ideas occur once the brainstorming is over.
  • Reproduction dna replication

    1. 1. Teacher Notes <ul><li>This PPT was revised November 19, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>This PPT is a companion PPT to Mitosis & Meiosis. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a handout for this PPT. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Reproduction & DNA Replication How does DNA copy itself?
    3. 3. Why do cells divide? <ul><li>to increase surface area </li></ul><ul><li>to repair damaged cells </li></ul><ul><li>to produce sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>to grow </li></ul>
    4. 4. Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Cells reproduce either sexually or asexually. </li></ul>Bacteria
    5. 5. <ul><li>Requires only one parent </li></ul><ul><li>Binary Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Budding </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration </li></ul>Asexual Reproduction
    6. 6. Advantages of Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>offspring cells are exactly like the parent cell (clones) </li></ul>Speed Desirable Characteristics Replacement
    7. 7. TRY THIS! <ul><li>On your notebook paper draw a Verbal Visual table for Asexual Reproduction </li></ul>Non-Example Drawing Definition Vocabulary Term
    8. 8. TRY THIS! Non-example sperm and egg Drawing Definition Requires only one parent Vocabulary Term Asexual Reproduction
    9. 9. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual reproduction requires two parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Two sex cells (called gametes) must unite. </li></ul>Fertilized Egg Cell
    10. 10. Fertilization <ul><li>Fertilization is the union of egg & sperm. </li></ul>New Individual 46 Mom 23 Dad 23
    11. 11. Advantages of Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Offspring are unlike the parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction provides diversity in a species. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Chromosome Number <ul><li>Every species has a specific number of chromosomes that every body cell is supposed to have. </li></ul>ant 2 chromosomes crayfish 200 chromosomes human 46 chromosomes dog 78 chromosomes
    13. 13. Chromosome Number <ul><li>Since you inherit half of your chromosomes from each parent, you carry two complete sets of chromosomes. </li></ul>mother crayfish 100 chromosomes father crayfish 100 chromosomes 1 set of 100 1 set of 100 2 sets = 200 crayfish 200 chromosomes
    14. 14. Homologous Chromosomes <ul><li>These two complete sets of chromosomes are homologous , the chromosomes from the female parent have a corresponding chromosome from the male parent. </li></ul>mother crayfish 100 chromosomes father crayfish 100 chromosomes 1 set of 100 1 set of 100 2 sets = 200 crayfish 200 chromosomes
    15. 15. Homologous Chromosomes <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes are similar in size and shape and control the same traits. </li></ul>from from from from from from
    16. 16. Chromosome Number <ul><li>Humans inherit one set of 23 chromosomes in the egg from the mother and one set of 23 on the sperm from the father. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives the child 2 homologous sets of chromosomes. </li></ul>46 46 23 46 23
    17. 17. Chromosome Number <ul><li>The single set of one chromosome of each type inherited from one parent is called haploid. </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 set of chromosomes (n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found in gametes (egg or sperm) </li></ul></ul>23 Chromosomes
    18. 18. Chromosome Number <ul><li>A cell (such as a fertilized egg) with two sets of homologous chromosomes is called diploid . </li></ul><ul><li>Diploid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 sets of chromosomes (2n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found in body cells (somatic) </li></ul></ul>46 chromosomes
    19. 19. Chromosome Number <ul><li>Recall that every body cell in an organism must have the specific 2n chromosome number for that species. </li></ul><ul><li>If body cells do not have the correct 2n chromosome number, the cell will not _?_. </li></ul>humans must have 46 chromosomes <ul><li>Why is it important for every body cell in an organism to have the specific 2n chromosome number for that species? . </li></ul>
    20. 20. How does this happen? <ul><li>When we grow by our cells dividing to make two new cells, all of those new cells must have 46 chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get 92 chromosomes (46 for each new cell) from a cell with only 46 chromosomes? </li></ul>46 46 46
    21. 21. Chromosome Number <ul><li>The doubling of the chromosomes is actually DNA making an exact copy of itself. This is called DNA replication . </li></ul>Then each new cell can receive the correct number of chromosomes (DNA). 46 46 46 92
    22. 22. <ul><li>Create a Venn diagram for asexual and sexual reproduction. </li></ul>TRY THIS!
    23. 23. A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does a cell divide? </li></ul><ul><li>Most of a cell’s life cycle is spent in Interphase when it performs normal life functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Green section </li></ul>Interphase M G 1 S G 2 G 1 C
    24. 24. A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does a cell divide? </li></ul>Only a small part of the cell cycle is spent in division. The RED section marked letter M Interphase M G 1 S G 2 G 1 C
    25. 25. A Cell’s Life Cycle <ul><li>When does DNA replication occur? </li></ul><ul><li>During Interphase , (in the S/Synthesis phase), the DNA replicates (makes a copy of itself). </li></ul>Interphase M G 1 S G 2 G 1 C
    26. 26. DNA Replication <ul><li>Before a cell divides the DNA must replicate (make an exact copy of itself) so the new cells have the right 2n # of chromosomes. </li></ul>
    27. 27. DNA Replication <ul><li>Each new cell must have the same chromosome number (and same DNA) as the parent cell to function properly. </li></ul>
    28. 28. DNA Replication <ul><li>Replication occurs in 3 easy steps… </li></ul>
    29. 29. DNA Replication <ul><li>1. DNA Unzips </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme unzips the molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold the nitrogen bases together. </li></ul>
    30. 30. DNA Replication: 1. DNA Unzips Left 5’ Strand of Original DNA Right 3’ Strand of Original DNA 3’End 5’End A T T C C G 3’End 5’End A T A G G C 5” End
    31. 31. 2. Bases Pair <ul><li>Complementary bases match with each base in the original DNA strand </li></ul><ul><li>What is the complementary base pairing rule? </li></ul><ul><li>A = T </li></ul><ul><li>G  C </li></ul>
    32. 32. DNA Base Pairing – Step 2 3’End 5’End 3’End 5’End A T A G G C A T T C C G T C A G G C A T G T A C
    33. 33. 3. Two Identical DNA molecules <ul><li>Two new DNA molecules each have the same DNA nitrogen base sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The new DNA molecules are exactly like the original. </li></ul>T C C A G G T C C A G G T C C A G G
    34. 34. DNA Replication Review <ul><li>Explain what is happening at each step in DNA Replication. </li></ul>Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
    35. 35. DNA Replication Review <ul><li>What process is occurring? </li></ul>I II V V III IV <ul><li>What molecule is at I? </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening at II (the arrow)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the structures at III (circle)? </li></ul>
    36. 36. DNA Replication Review <ul><li>What is happening at IV?? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the two molecules at V? </li></ul><ul><li>How many strands are formed? </li></ul>I II V V III IV <ul><li>What are the new strands like compared to the original? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the new strands like compared to each other? </li></ul>
    37. 37. MITOSIS <ul><li>Now that DNA has replicated and the cell now has two identical sets of DNA/ chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>cell division (m itosis/meiosis ) can begin.. </li></ul>46 92 T C C A G G T C C A G G
    38. 38. MITOSIS <ul><li>What is the purpose of DNA replication? </li></ul><ul><li>(Hint: think of the importance to the cells produced) </li></ul>T C C A G G T C C A G G 46 46 46 92
    39. 39. TRY THIS! <ul><li>On your paper create a 3 Column Self-Assessment Chart for Cell Reproduction and DNA Replication </li></ul>What I Wish I Knew… What I Don’t Know… What I Know…
    40. 40. Works Cited <ul><li>There is a nice animation of DNA Replication at http://www.ncc.gmu.edu/dna/repanim.htm </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication diagram, artist Darryl Leja, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10000552 </li></ul><ul><li>Background DNA Replicaiton image, DOE Human Genome project, Department of Energy, (http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication diagram, artist Darryl Leja, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10000552 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fertilization - sperm fertilizing egg”, (No Date). Wikipedia.com, Retrieved June 20, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Fertilisation.jpg, Website Copyright Permission: This image is copyrighted . However, the copyright holder has irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain. </li></ul>

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