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Pesticides history

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    Pesticides history Pesticides history Presentation Transcript

    • Pesticides
    • What is a Pest?
      • A. Latin for plague - refers to any troublesome, destructive or annoying organism        
    • What is a Pest?
      •       i.  Insects - mosquitoes, grasshoppers, boll weevils
      •      ii.  Fungi - Irish potato crop famine
      •      iii. Viruses - microorganisms
      • B. Not all are Pests
          • i. Only 1 out of 8 insects are classified as pests
      •       ii.  Penicillin, antibiotics, cheese, bread, and wine all come from fungi
      What is a Pest?
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • A.    Pesticides - chemicals that kill insects, fungi, nematodes, and weeds
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      •       i.  Avicides - bird killers
      •      ii.  Insecticides - insect killers
      •     iii.  Fungicides - fungus killers
      •     iv.  Nematocides - nematodes (round worm) killers
      • v. Herbicides - plant killers
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • B.  First pesticides
      • i. Naturally occurring minerals (arsenic, copper, lead mercury, sulfur, and zinc)
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • ii.  Natural chemicals produced by plants
      • a. expensive and not effective
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • C.  Man Made chemicals were used during WW II
        • i. Insects were used to test chemicals (nerve gases) instead of humans
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • D.   Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide (FIFR) Act of 1947
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      •        i.  Originally tested for short-term effects
      •       ii.   Amended to test for long term effects in 1972
      • iii. By 1970 most chlorinated hydrocarbons were banned in the US
    • Pesticides Past to Present
      • E. Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996
      •   EPA regulates all pesticides based on human health issues and FDA monitors pesticide levels in food.
    • 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
      • A. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
      •     i.  Most prevalent insecticide (kills so many different insects)
      •    ii.  Cheap and easy to use
      •    iii. Not very toxic to humans in small amounts
    • 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
      • iv. Best known: dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT)
      •       a. Banned in the US in 1972 - found in human tissue
      • - killing birds
      •     b. Still in production and widely
      • used in other countries to kill
      • insects that cause diseases
    • 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
      • B.  Organic Phosphates
      •         i.   Mainly used in insecticides
      • ex. Durasban