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Pesticides history

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  • 1. Pesticides
  • 2. What is a Pest?
    • A. Latin for plague - refers to any troublesome, destructive or annoying organism        
  • 3. What is a Pest?
    •       i.  Insects - mosquitoes, grasshoppers, boll weevils
    •      ii.  Fungi - Irish potato crop famine
    •      iii. Viruses - microorganisms
  • 4.
    • B. Not all are Pests
        • i. Only 1 out of 8 insects are classified as pests
    •       ii.  Penicillin, antibiotics, cheese, bread, and wine all come from fungi
    What is a Pest?
  • 5. Pesticides Past to Present
    • A.    Pesticides - chemicals that kill insects, fungi, nematodes, and weeds
  • 6. Pesticides Past to Present
    •       i.  Avicides - bird killers
    •      ii.  Insecticides - insect killers
    •     iii.  Fungicides - fungus killers
    •     iv.  Nematocides - nematodes (round worm) killers
    • v. Herbicides - plant killers
  • 7. Pesticides Past to Present
    • B.  First pesticides
    • i. Naturally occurring minerals (arsenic, copper, lead mercury, sulfur, and zinc)
  • 8. Pesticides Past to Present
    • ii.  Natural chemicals produced by plants
    • a. expensive and not effective
  • 9. Pesticides Past to Present
    • C.  Man Made chemicals were used during WW II
      • i. Insects were used to test chemicals (nerve gases) instead of humans
  • 10. Pesticides Past to Present
    • D.   Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide (FIFR) Act of 1947
  • 11. Pesticides Past to Present
    •        i.  Originally tested for short-term effects
    •       ii.   Amended to test for long term effects in 1972
    • iii. By 1970 most chlorinated hydrocarbons were banned in the US
  • 12. Pesticides Past to Present
    • E. Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996
    •   EPA regulates all pesticides based on human health issues and FDA monitors pesticide levels in food.
  • 13. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
    • A. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
    •     i.  Most prevalent insecticide (kills so many different insects)
    •    ii.  Cheap and easy to use
    •    iii. Not very toxic to humans in small amounts
  • 14. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
    • iv. Best known: dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT)
    •       a. Banned in the US in 1972 - found in human tissue
    • - killing birds
    •     b. Still in production and widely
    • used in other countries to kill
    • insects that cause diseases
  • 15. 2 Major Groups of Pesticides
    • B.  Organic Phosphates
    •         i.   Mainly used in insecticides
    • ex. Durasban