Introduction to energy flow


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Description of Food chains and web,

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Introduction to energy flow

  1. 1. Introduction toENERGY FLOWFOOD CHAINS & WEBS
  2. 2. the ultimate energy source sun eclipse with palm
  3. 3. Energy Flow in EcosystemsEnergy flows from where into the biological world?
  4. 4. Energy Flow How does the sun’s energy enter the biological world? What is photosynthesis?
  5. 5. Energy Flow The sun’s energy flows into organisms that can change the sunlight into food then into organisms that eat them. This flow is: sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  6. 6. Do you get more energy from the baked potato or the steak? omnivore
  7. 7. PRODUCERS What are producers? Autotrophs that trap solar energy into organic molecules during photosynthesis; can produce their own food Ex. Plants, algae and some bacteriasunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  8. 8. CONSUMERS What are consumers? Heterotrophs that eat other organisms to obtain energy Examples: deer, rabbits, cows, mice, lions, humans, hawks, snakessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  9. 9. HERBIVORES What are herbivores? Organisms that eat plants Primary Consumers Ex. Cows, caterpillars, bunniessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  10. 10. CARNIVORES What are carnivores? Organisms that eat meat (other animals/consumers) Secondary Consumers Ex. tigers, wolves, snakes, hawks sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  11. 11. TOP CARNIVORES What is a top-level carnivore? Top-level carnivores eat secondary consumers; usually nothing feeds on them Ex. killer whale eating a sea lion or hawk eating a snake. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  12. 12. OMNIVORES What are omnivores? Consumers that eat both plants and animals Primary and Secondary Consumers Ex. bears and humans
  13. 13. Where do all the dead things go? They are eaten.  They decay. YUMMMM! SMELLY!What’s the difference?Is it just a matter of taste?
  14. 14. Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores and decomposers both feed on the remains of dead plants and animals and other dead matter (detritus) They rely on dead tissues for nutrients.
  15. 15. Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores  Decomposers eat the breakdown remains of (decay) organic dead plants matter and feed and animals on itCrabs, mites, Bacteria & fungiearthworms,snails
  16. 16. Detritivores and Decomposers What is a scavenger?A scavengers is a type of detritivore that feeds on carrion (dead animal remains). Ex. vultures, sharks, maggots, hyenas
  17. 17. Detritivores and Decomposers On what do detritivores and decomposers feed?
  18. 18. Detritivores and Decomposers Why would they be called the environmental “recyclers”? They decompose excrement, dead bodies and leaf litter, returning nutrients to the physical decomposer environment. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  19. 19. Energy Flow The series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten is called a Food Chain sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  20. 20. Food Chains & Food Webs The steps in the transfer of energy from organism to organism in feeding relationships are called Trophic Levels. How does a food chain describe this path of energy? (arrows) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  21. 21. Food Chains & Food Webs Name the number of the trophic levels in the food chain below. How do the trophic level numbers correspond with the “eating terms”? producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3Trophic Level 1 2 3 4
  22. 22. Food Chains & Food Webs What important energy transfer is not shown in a food chain? Why is it that some energy is lost from one level to the next level? How much energy is actually passed on to the next level? (rule of thumb) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  23. 23. Food Chains & Food Webs  What vital “recycler” is not shown in this food chain? Upon which organism(s) would it feed? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  24. 24. Food Chains & Food Webs If all of the snakes in this chain died, what would happen to the hawk? To the decomposers? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  25. 25. Food Chains & Food Webs  Most organisms feed on more than one trophic level and feed on severa different species at each trophic level. This is a food web.
  26. 26. Arctic Food Web
  27. 27. Rangeland Prairie Food Web
  28. 28. Works Cited “Ring of Fire” Solar Eclipse with Palm, Online Image,, Dennis Mammana, Skyscapes Grizzly Bear Eating Salmon – Mineral Management courtesy of Dead Armadillo – National Biological Information Infrastructure, Artic Food Web – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Scavenger Condors – US Fish & Wildlife Service Pacific Region. htmll
  29. 29. Works Cited Dung Beetle – Wikipedia, Rangeland Soil Food Web – National Science & Technology Center Ofelia the cow –Bush Crawford Ranch– courtesy of Sunset over Africa – US Fish and Wildlife photo courtesy of Sun Through Trees – USDA photo courtesy of Geek Biology Curriculum Writing Team, Plano Independent School District