the ultimate energy source sun eclipse with palm
Energy Flow in EcosystemsEnergy flows from where into the biological world?
Energy Flow How does the sun’s energy enter the biological world? What is photosynthesis?
Energy Flow The sun’s energy flows into organisms that can change the sunlight into food then into organisms that eat them. This flow is: sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
Do you get more energy from the baked potato or the steak? omnivore
PRODUCERS What are producers? Autotrophs that trap solar energy into organic molecules during photosynthesis; can produce their own food Ex. Plants, algae and some bacteriasunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
CONSUMERS What are consumers? Heterotrophs that eat other organisms to obtain energy Examples: deer, rabbits, cows, mice, lions, humans, hawks, snakessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
HERBIVORES What are herbivores? Organisms that eat plants Primary Consumers Ex. Cows, caterpillars, bunniessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
CARNIVORES What are carnivores? Organisms that eat meat (other animals/consumers) Secondary Consumers Ex. tigers, wolves, snakes, hawks sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
TOP CARNIVORES What is a top-level carnivore? Top-level carnivores eat secondary consumers; usually nothing feeds on them Ex. killer whale eating a sea lion or hawk eating a snake. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
OMNIVORES What are omnivores? Consumers that eat both plants and animals Primary and Secondary Consumers Ex. bears and humans
Where do all the dead things go? They are eaten. They decay. YUMMMM! SMELLY!What’s the difference?Is it just a matter of taste?
Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores and decomposers both feed on the remains of dead plants and animals and other dead matter (detritus) They rely on dead tissues for nutrients.
Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores Decomposers eat the breakdown remains of (decay) organic dead plants matter and feed and animals on itCrabs, mites, Bacteria & fungiearthworms,snails
Detritivores and Decomposers What is a scavenger?A scavengers is a type of detritivore that feeds on carrion (dead animal remains). Ex. vultures, sharks, maggots, hyenas
Detritivores and Decomposers On what do detritivores and decomposers feed?
Detritivores and Decomposers Why would they be called the environmental “recyclers”? They decompose excrement, dead bodies and leaf litter, returning nutrients to the physical decomposer environment. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
Energy Flow The series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten is called a Food Chain sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
Food Chains & Food Webs The steps in the transfer of energy from organism to organism in feeding relationships are called Trophic Levels. How does a food chain describe this path of energy? (arrows) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
Food Chains & Food Webs Name the number of the trophic levels in the food chain below. How do the trophic level numbers correspond with the “eating terms”? producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3Trophic Level 1 2 3 4
Food Chains & Food Webs What important energy transfer is not shown in a food chain? Why is it that some energy is lost from one level to the next level? How much energy is actually passed on to the next level? (rule of thumb) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
Food Chains & Food Webs What vital “recycler” is not shown in this food chain? Upon which organism(s) would it feed? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
Food Chains & Food Webs If all of the snakes in this chain died, what would happen to the hawk? To the decomposers? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
Food Chains & Food Webs Most organisms feed on more than one trophic level and feed on severa different species at each trophic level. This is a food web.
Works Cited “Ring of Fire” Solar Eclipse with Palm, Online Image, http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap030530.html, Dennis Mammana, Skyscapes Grizzly Bear Eating Salmon – Mineral Management courtesy of GeekPhilosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/anGrizzlyBearFish.htm Dead Armadillo – National Biological Information Infrastructure, images.nbii.gov/guyra.php Artic Food Web – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_krembsdeming.htm Scavenger Condors – US Fish & Wildlife Service Pacific Region. http://www.fws.gov/hoppermountain/cacondor/condorprehistory. htmll
Works Cited Dung Beetle – Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dung_beetle Rangeland Soil Food Web – National Science & Technology Center http://www.blm.gov/nstc/soil/foodweb/ Ofelia the cow –Bush Crawford Ranch– courtesy of GeekPhilosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/cowOfeliaCrawford.htm Sunset over Africa – US Fish and Wildlife photo courtesy of GeekPhlosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/skySunsetAfrica.htm Sun Through Trees – USDA photo courtesy of Geek Philosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/skySunriseTrees.htm Biology Curriculum Writing Team, Plano Independent School District