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  • 1. Introduction toENERGY FLOWFOOD CHAINS & WEBS
  • 2. the ultimate energy source sun eclipse with palm
  • 3. Energy Flow in EcosystemsEnergy flows from where into the biological world?
  • 4. Energy Flow How does the sun’s energy enter the biological world? What is photosynthesis?
  • 5. Energy Flow The sun’s energy flows into organisms that can change the sunlight into food then into organisms that eat them. This flow is: sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 6. Do you get more energy from the baked potato or the steak? omnivore
  • 7. PRODUCERS What are producers? Autotrophs that trap solar energy into organic molecules during photosynthesis; can produce their own food Ex. Plants, algae and some bacteriasunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 8. CONSUMERS What are consumers? Heterotrophs that eat other organisms to obtain energy Examples: deer, rabbits, cows, mice, lions, humans, hawks, snakessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 9. HERBIVORES What are herbivores? Organisms that eat plants Primary Consumers Ex. Cows, caterpillars, bunniessunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 10. CARNIVORES What are carnivores? Organisms that eat meat (other animals/consumers) Secondary Consumers Ex. tigers, wolves, snakes, hawks sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 11. TOP CARNIVORES What is a top-level carnivore? Top-level carnivores eat secondary consumers; usually nothing feeds on them Ex. killer whale eating a sea lion or hawk eating a snake. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 12. OMNIVORES What are omnivores? Consumers that eat both plants and animals Primary and Secondary Consumers Ex. bears and humans
  • 13. Where do all the dead things go? They are eaten.  They decay. YUMMMM! SMELLY!What’s the difference?Is it just a matter of taste?
  • 14. Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores and decomposers both feed on the remains of dead plants and animals and other dead matter (detritus) They rely on dead tissues for nutrients.
  • 15. Detritivore vs Decomposers Detritivores  Decomposers eat the breakdown remains of (decay) organic dead plants matter and feed and animals on itCrabs, mites, Bacteria & fungiearthworms,snails
  • 16. Detritivores and Decomposers What is a scavenger?A scavengers is a type of detritivore that feeds on carrion (dead animal remains). Ex. vultures, sharks, maggots, hyenas
  • 17. Detritivores and Decomposers On what do detritivores and decomposers feed?
  • 18. Detritivores and Decomposers Why would they be called the environmental “recyclers”? They decompose excrement, dead bodies and leaf litter, returning nutrients to the physical decomposer environment. consumer 3 sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 19. Energy Flow The series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten is called a Food Chain sunlight producer consumer 1 consumer 2
  • 20. Food Chains & Food Webs The steps in the transfer of energy from organism to organism in feeding relationships are called Trophic Levels. How does a food chain describe this path of energy? (arrows) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  • 21. Food Chains & Food Webs Name the number of the trophic levels in the food chain below. How do the trophic level numbers correspond with the “eating terms”? producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3Trophic Level 1 2 3 4
  • 22. Food Chains & Food Webs What important energy transfer is not shown in a food chain? Why is it that some energy is lost from one level to the next level? How much energy is actually passed on to the next level? (rule of thumb) producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  • 23. Food Chains & Food Webs  What vital “recycler” is not shown in this food chain? Upon which organism(s) would it feed? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  • 24. Food Chains & Food Webs If all of the snakes in this chain died, what would happen to the hawk? To the decomposers? decomposer producer consumer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3
  • 25. Food Chains & Food Webs  Most organisms feed on more than one trophic level and feed on severa different species at each trophic level. This is a food web.
  • 26. Arctic Food Webhttp://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_krembsdeming.html
  • 27. Rangeland Prairie Food Web
  • 28. Works Cited “Ring of Fire” Solar Eclipse with Palm, Online Image, http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap030530.html, Dennis Mammana, Skyscapes Grizzly Bear Eating Salmon – Mineral Management courtesy of GeekPhilosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/anGrizzlyBearFish.htm Dead Armadillo – National Biological Information Infrastructure, images.nbii.gov/guyra.php Artic Food Web – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_krembsdeming.htm Scavenger Condors – US Fish & Wildlife Service Pacific Region. http://www.fws.gov/hoppermountain/cacondor/condorprehistory. htmll
  • 29. Works Cited Dung Beetle – Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dung_beetle Rangeland Soil Food Web – National Science & Technology Center http://www.blm.gov/nstc/soil/foodweb/ Ofelia the cow –Bush Crawford Ranch– courtesy of GeekPhilosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/cowOfeliaCrawford.htm Sunset over Africa – US Fish and Wildlife photo courtesy of GeekPhlosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/skySunsetAfrica.htm Sun Through Trees – USDA photo courtesy of Geek Philosopher.com http://geekphilosopher.com/bkg/skySunriseTrees.htm Biology Curriculum Writing Team, Plano Independent School District