Intro to cells

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Brief Introduction to cells

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  • See pages 170-171. Janet Plowe demonstrated how the cell membrane works. Janet is on here because she’s a woman and recent! Not for testing.
  • 1665 – Robert Hooke publishes his book which contains his drawings of sections of cork as seen through one of the first microscopes. Coined the term “cells”.
  • 1673 – Anton van Leeuwenhook – perfects the simple microscope and observes cells and microorganisms. Four years later, he discovers protozoa.
  • Levels of Organization: how organisms are arranged from simple to complex
  • Levels of Organization: how organisms are arranged from simple to complex
  • Introduction to cell parts. Functions will be covered with the appropriate process.
  • Introduction to cell parts. Functions will be covered with the appropriate process.
  • Intro to cells

    1. 1. TEACHER NOTES <ul><li>This PPT was revised JUNE 14, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>This PPT is to be used as Introduction to Cells in Semester 1 in the Energy Conversion Unit. This same ( or similar ppt is also to be used to review cells at the beginning of the Kingdoms Unit </li></ul><ul><li>There is a TEKS handout to accompany this PPT. It may be used for regular if desired. </li></ul><ul><li>The last slide starts an optional assignment that has students make cell drawings and then add to the diagram unit by unit. </li></ul>
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO CELLS Pages 169 – 183 in Textbook
    3. 3. History of the Cell Robert Hooke, 1665 Anton von Leeuwenhoek, 1674 Theodor Schwann, 1839 Rudolph Virchow, 1855 Janet Plowe, 1931 Matthias Schleiden, 1838
    4. 4. Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect.... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) <ul><li>In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia , which contains his drawings of sections of cork as seen through one of the first microscopes (shown at right). </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first person to use the term “cells”. </li></ul>ROBERT HOOKE: looked at cork with a microscope and saw little structures he called “cells”
    5. 5. Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 <ul><li>In 1673 Anton van Leeuwenhook perfects the simple microscope and observes cells and microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><li>He discovered bacteria in 1674 and four years later, he discovers protozoa. </li></ul>LEEUWENHOEK: looked at water with a microscope and saw tiny living organisms (microorganisms)
    6. 6. Cell Theory Matthias Schleiden all plants are made of cells Cell Theory Theodore Schwann all animals are made of cells Rudolf Virchow all cells came from pre-existing cells
    7. 7. Cell Theory <ul><li>Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><li>all living things are made up of cells </li></ul><ul><li>cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism </li></ul><ul><li>new cells are produced from existing cells </li></ul>Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are made of cells (1838) Theodore Schwann concluded that all animals are made of cells (1839) Rudolf Virchow concluded that all cells came from pre-existing cells (1855)
    8. 8. Cell Specialization <ul><li>Cells in organisms are specialized to perform different tasks. </li></ul>Photos from Biology , Prentice Hall Stomata Muscle Cells Red Blood Cells
    9. 9. The Levels of Organization Multicellular organisms are arranged from simple to complex according to their level of cellular grouping. cell tissue organ organ system organism
    10. 10. <ul><li>What is the benefit of being made of all of these cells? </li></ul>Levels of Organization Nervous System Brain Nervous Tissue Neuron Organ system Organ Tissues Cells Different organs function together Different tissues function together Similar cells function together Cells can perform special jobs Level Function Example
    11. 11. Cell Types <ul><li>PROKARYOTE </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Most cells are 1 -10 μ m in size/ simple </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved 3.5 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in Archae bacteria and Eu bacteria Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>EUKARYOTE </li></ul><ul><li>Has nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Many organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can be between 2 - 1,000 μ m in size/ complex </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved 1.5 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia Kingdoms </li></ul>
    12. 12. Cell Type: Prokaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes , which includes all bacteria, are the simplest cellular organisms. They have genetic material but no nucleus. </li></ul>Typical bacteria cell Bacteria cells
    13. 13. Cell Types: Eukaryotes <ul><li>Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and numerous membrane -enclosed organelles (e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus) not found in prokaryotes. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Different Types of Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul>no nucleus protists, fungi, plants, animals only in bacteria small small ribosomes larger ribosomes very small organelles no organelles nucleus no nucleus small ribosomes organelles no organelles nucleus protists, fungi, plants, animals only in bacteria small 2-1000  m very small 1-10  m larger ribosomes
    15. 15. What Parts Do All Cells Have <ul><li>What cell parts to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common? </li></ul><ul><li>All cells have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic material </li></ul></ul>cytoplasm genetic mateial
    16. 16. All Cells Have <ul><li>All cells have four main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic material (which may or may not be enclosed in a nucleus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul>prokaryote eukaryote two types of cells
    17. 17. Parts of Cells cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane chloroplast vacuole mitochondria cell wall ribosomes cytoplasm : semi-liquid material that fills the cell (p. 175) nucleus : controls most cell processes, contains hereditary information (DNA) chloroplast : capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy (food), (photosynthesis occurs here) vacuole : sac-like structure that stores water, salts, foods, etc ribosomes : manufacture proteins mitochondria : convert chemical energy stored in food into ATP (cellular respiration occurs here) cell membrane : regulates what enters and leaves the cell, protection and support cell wall : outer layer in plant cells, support and protection
    18. 18. Plant Cell cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane chloroplast vacuole mitochondria cell wall ribosomes (p. 175)
    19. 19. ANIMAL CELL <ul><li>p. 175 </li></ul>cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane mitochondria lysosome ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body
    20. 20. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul>Cell Membrane Mitochondria Chloroplast Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleus Lysosome Golgi Body Vacuole Ribosome Cell Wall
    21. 21. Works Cited <ul><li>Red Blood Cells , Online Image June 5, 2006, NIH Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, http://www.cc.nih.gov/dtm/dtm_whole_blood.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Stomata. Online Image, June 5, 2006, Energy Biosciences Program http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/eb/Highlights/CaOscillate/body_caoscillate.html </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal Muscle. Cell Online Image, June 5, 2006, Medline Plus, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19495.htm </li></ul>
    22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>Bacteria Cells. Online Image, June 5, 2006, NASA Astrobiology Institute, http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/news_stories/news_detail.cfm?article=old/meaning_of_life.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cell. Online Images, June 5, 2006, NASA Astrobiology Institute, http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/news_stories/news_detail.cfm?article=old/domains.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Background Cell . Online Images, June 14, 2007, National Science Foundaton. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nsf.gov/news/overviews/biology/int_full.jsp </li></ul>

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