• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Evidences of evolution
 

Evidences of evolution

on

  • 12,336 views

Evidences of evolution

Evidences of evolution

Statistics

Views

Total Views
12,336
Views on SlideShare
11,176
Embed Views
1,160

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
181
Comments
0

1 Embed 1,160

http://coachpbiology.wikispaces.com 1160

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Population Dynamics POPULATIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS
  • Photos by cbray
  • Layers diagram by cbray
  • Genetic code table by cbray
  • Amino acid differences designed by cbray (with PPT clip art)
  • Amino acid differences chart by lpriddy
  • Amino acid differences chart by lpriddy
  • Whale pelvis diagram by cbray
  • Embryo drawings by cbray
  • Embryo drawings by cbray

Evidences of evolution Evidences of evolution Presentation Transcript

  • EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION
    • Fossil Record
    • Biochemical
    • Comparative Anatomy
    • Observable Events
  • EVOLUTION IS
    • Genetic change in a population through time .
  • Charles Darwin
    • On his journey around the world, Darwin found evidence of gradual change (evolution).
    • Darwin cited evidences he found in fossil records, geographic distribution and homologous structures.
  • Evidences of Evolution
    • Today most evidences for evolution are grouped into four main categories:
    • Biochemical
    • Fossil Record
    • Comparative Anatomy
    • Observable Events
  • 1 - FOSSIL RECORD
    • Paleontology – study of fossils
    • Fossil – remains or traces of an organism that lived long ago
    • Remains: ex. bone, tooth, or shell
    • Traces: ex. burrow, footprint, or imprint
  • 1 - FOSSIL RECORD
    • Most fossils are found in layered sedimentary rock
    • Oldest fossils are on the lowest layer
  • 1 - FOSSIL RECORD
    • Comparing fossils from different layers shows:
    • Life on Earth has changed
    • Increased number of life forms
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • THE GENETIC CODE
    • Triplets of DNA nitrogen-base sequences that code for specific amino acids
    • The amino acid triplet is the same in almost all organisms.
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • The similarity of triplet DNA codes making-up amino acids shows:
    • A probable common ancestor for all life on Earth
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • “ Universal” GENETIC CODE
    • Similar genes
    • Over the ages, the genetic code
    • has passed unchanged (or nearly so) from parent to offspring.
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • AMINO ACID SEQUENCING
    • The amino acid sequence in a particular protein is compared between organisms.
    Number of differences from human hemoglobin 45 1 67 8 27 125
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • Comparing amino acid sequence shows:
    • Closeness of relationship
    • A probable common ancestor
    Amino Acid Difference in Hemoglobin Compared with Human Human hemoglobin has 146 amino acids Amino Acid Sequencing is probably the STRONGEST evidence for relationships among organisms. Species Difference Gorilla 1 Rhesus Monkey 8 Mouse 27 Chicken 45 Frog 67 Lamprey 125
  • 2 - BIOCHEMICAL
    • CLADOGRAM: diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms.
    What organism belongs at each branch? Amino Acid Difference in Hemoglobin Compared with Human G F E D C B A Common ancestor Where would the common ancestor be? Species Difference Gorilla 1 Monkey 8 Mouse 27 Chicken 45 Frog 67 Lamprey 125 Number of Amino Acid Differences 150 100 50 0 40 20 30 10
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
    • structures with similar structure but different function
    • ex: limbs of vertebrates (turtle, alligator, bird, mammal)
    Turtle Alligator Bird Mammal
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • Homologous structures show
    • Similar genes
    • Descent from a common ancestor
    Turtle Alligator Bird Mammal Ancient lobe-finned fish
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
    • organs so reduced in size that they are nonfunctioning remnants of similar organs in other species
    • ex: human tailbone, appendix, whale pelvis
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • Vestigial structures show:
    • an organism’s evolutionary past
    • a common ancestor with species that have similar structures that are still functioning
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • EMBRYOLOGY
    • Embryos of different species may appear similar in early stages of development
    • ex: vertebrate development
  • 3 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
    • Comparison of similarities in embryos can show:
    • Relationship to a common ancestor
  • 4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS
    • Some changes in species have been observed and studied:
    Peter & Rosemary Grant’s Study of Beak Size Shift in Darwin’s Finches H. Kettlewell’s Study of Peppered Moth Color Shifts
  • 4 - OBSERVABLE EVENTS
    • Observable events show that evolution is an ongoing process
    Peter & Rosemary Grant’s Study of Beak Size Shift in Darwin’s Finches H. Kettlewell’s Study of Peppered Moth Color Shifts
  • Works Cited
    • “ Geographic Distribution of Organisms” photo: Miller, Kenneth and Levine, Joseph. (2004). Biology . Prentice Hall.