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Biochemistry and nutrition 2011

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  • 1. Nutrition and Health
    Biochemistry of Food
  • 2. Elements
    What are they?
    Common Elements in Biology
    N, C, O, H 96% of human body
    Other 4% = trace elements
    EX: S, K, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg, P, I, Fe, F
    How important are trace elements?
    Sulfur
    Sodium
  • 3. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components
  • 4. Monomer to polymer
  • 5. Carbohydrates
    C, H, O
    Simple sugars (monomer)
    Monosaccharides- glucose, fructose
    Complex sugars (polymer)
    Dissacharides - Sucrose
    Polysaccharides– starch, glycogen, cellulose
    Functions:
    Provide energy
    Monosaccharid + Monosaccharid = Disaccharid
    Hydrolysis
  • 6. Dehydration Synthesis
  • 7. Carbohydrates and Diet
    Pasta, bread, potatoes, cereal, rice, fruits,
    Complex carbs are broken into simple carbs
    Simple carbs are absorbed through the intestines into the bloodstream
    The blood delivers the glucose to the body cells to make ATP (energy)
    Extra sugars taken to liver and stored as glycogen
    Excess sugars stored as fat
  • 8. Lipids
    C, H, and a small amount of O
    Fatty Acids (monomer)
    Triglyceride (polymer)
    Fats, oils, waxes, steroids
    Insoluble in water
    Functions:
    Composes the cell membrane
    Shock absorption and protection
    Insulation
  • 9. Lipids and Diet
    Fats are essential nutrient
    Fats create the cell membrane
    Used to synthesize hormones
    insulate our nerve cells
    keeps us warm
    Meats, nuts, dairy products, cooking oils
    Broken into fatty acids and glycerol and absorbed by small intestines
    Trans fats = preservative
    Saturated = bad
    Unsaturated = useful
  • 10. Proteins
    C, H, O, N, and sometimes S
    Made up of amino acids (monomer)
    20 total amino acids
    Polypeptide (polymer)
    Peptide bond
    Functions:
    Muscle contraction
    Structural components – hair, nails, skin
    Transports O2 in the blood
    Provides immunity
    Enzymes
  • 11. Proteins and Diet
    Meats, beans, whole grains, eggs, dairy
    Proteins broken down into amino acids by digestion
    Absorbed by intestines, sent through blood to liver and cells
    Cells store amino acids until they need to make proteins
    Essential amino acids (8)
    Non-essential amino acids (12)
  • 12. Enzymes
    Protein structures
    Usually end is ‘ase’
    Catalyze a reaction (usually speeds it up)
    Affected by temperature and pH
    Substrates
    Active sites
    Lock and key
  • 13. Enzymes
    Enzymes are protein catalyst
    Catalyst- speed up the rate of a chemical reaction
    Activation energy w/o enzyme
    Activation energy with enzyme
  • 14. Calories and Metabolism
    Calorie – energy content of food
    2000 calories a day – AVERAGE, depends on a persons metabolism
    Metabolism – the rate at which energy is burned or how fast your body processes
    Metabolism controlled by thyroid gland
    Factors affecting metabolism
    Age
    Gender
    Level of activity
    Weight
  • 15.
  • 16. Nucleic Acids
    • DNA and RNA
    • 17. Building blocks are nucleotides
    • 18. Nucleotides – phosphate, sugar, nitrogen base
    • 19. Store hereditary information that is translated into proteins
    - ATP
    - Energy molecule of cell
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Water
    Structure
    2 hydrogen covalently bonded to 1 oxygen
    Polar
    Uneven charge
    Results in hydrogen bonding
  • 24. Solution
    Water is the universal solvent!
    Ionic compounds disassociate in water
    Solvent
    Does the “dissolving”
    Solute
    Gets “dissolved”
  • 25. Hydrogen bonding
  • 26. Surface tension
    Adhesion - Attraction between two different substances – capillary action
    Cohesion - Attraction between particles of the same substance
  • 27. pH
    pH scale
    Acid (higher H+)
    Below 7
    Base (higher OH-)
    Above 7
    Neutral (H+ = OH -)
    =7
  • 28. Ice, water, vapor
  • 29. Bubbling Potatoes
    Place a couple of drops of hydrogen peroxide on the potato and the potato chip.
    Write your observations.
    Hypothesize what is occurring.