The Stuff of Ecosystems
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>A.  Biotic factors :  the living components that can change a population </li></ul>
<ul><li>1.  predators </li></ul><ul><li>2.  food supply </li></ul>The Stuff of Ecosystems
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>3.  spread of disease </li></ul><ul><li>4.  population density </li></ul>
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>5.  birth rate </li></ul><ul><li>6.  mortality </li></ul>
B.   Abiotic factors :  physical & chemical factors (nonliving) that can change a population The Stuff of Ecosystems
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>1.  intensity of wind </li></ul><ul><li>2.  temperature </li></ul>
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>3.  water </li></ul><ul><li>4.  light </li></ul>
<ul><li>5.  soil </li></ul><ul><li>6.  air </li></ul><ul><li>7.  shape of land </li></ul>The Stuff of Ecosystems
The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem ...
BIODIVERSITY AT RISK
<ul><li>Number and variety of species on earth </li></ul><ul><li>all plants, insects, fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians,...
<ul><li>Our planet has experienced several mass extinctions, each probably caused by a change in climate </li></ul>
<ul><li>Number of known species is 1.4 million (mostly insects) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Actual estimated number of  species is 10 - 100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Why such a large variation???? </li></ul...
<ul><li>Plant & animal species are disappearing at an alarming rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal extinction- 1 out of every 1...
Reasons 4
<ul><li>1.  Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes 75% of all extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most destru...
<ul><li>2. Hunting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in US no longer a major cause of extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>still a th...
<ul><ul><li>3. Poaching (illegal hunting) threatens animals with extinction </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>4. Exotic/invasive species   (not native to a particular region) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natives have no defense...
_______ _______
FUTURE OF  BIODIVERSITY
Saving individual species <ul><li>Zoos & wildlife parks carefully manage  captive breeding programs  </li></ul><ul><li>Goa...
<ul><ul><li>EX:  California condor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheetahs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden lion tamarin </li...
Save plants too..? <ul><li>Botanical Garden - storehouse of genetic diversity </li></ul>
Save plants too..? <ul><li>Germ Plasm Bank -  store germ plasm (reproductive cells) for future use in case species become ...
The Ecosystem Approach <ul><li>Save the entire ecosystem rather than an individual species </li></ul>
<ul><li>Protection of entire habitats most efficient way to save many species </li></ul>The Ecosystem Approach
Other Benefits from preserving ecosystems <ul><li>Forests-add oxygen, remove pollution </li></ul><ul><li>wetlands-clean wa...
How much land should we protect?? <ul><li>“ Hot spots ”-unusually large amount of biodiverity should be protected first </...
What about human needs? <ul><li>Must find ways to meet human need and manage living resources at the same time. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Developing countries-life or death conflicts between human needs and biodiversity </li></ul>What about human needs?
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9.4 stuff of ecosystems

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  • 9.4 stuff of ecosystems

    1. 1. The Stuff of Ecosystems
    2. 2. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>A. Biotic factors : the living components that can change a population </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>1. predators </li></ul><ul><li>2. food supply </li></ul>The Stuff of Ecosystems
    4. 4. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>3. spread of disease </li></ul><ul><li>4. population density </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>5. birth rate </li></ul><ul><li>6. mortality </li></ul>
    6. 6. B. Abiotic factors : physical & chemical factors (nonliving) that can change a population The Stuff of Ecosystems
    7. 7. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>1. intensity of wind </li></ul><ul><li>2. temperature </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>3. water </li></ul><ul><li>4. light </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>5. soil </li></ul><ul><li>6. air </li></ul><ul><li>7. shape of land </li></ul>The Stuff of Ecosystems
    10. 10. The Stuff of Ecosystems <ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>
    11. 11. BIODIVERSITY AT RISK
    12. 12. <ul><li>Number and variety of species on earth </li></ul><ul><li>all plants, insects, fish, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, bacteria….etc </li></ul>BIODIVERSITY
    13. 13. <ul><li>Our planet has experienced several mass extinctions, each probably caused by a change in climate </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Number of known species is 1.4 million (mostly insects) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Actual estimated number of species is 10 - 100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Why such a large variation???? </li></ul><ul><li>Many species have yet to be discovered. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Plant & animal species are disappearing at an alarming rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal extinction- 1 out of every 10,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>today-over 4000x that…. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Reasons 4
    18. 18. <ul><li>1. Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes 75% of all extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most destruction in tropical rain forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd most at coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by huge rate of human population growth. (260,000 humans per day). </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>2. Hunting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in US no longer a major cause of extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>still a threat in developing countries. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>3. Poaching (illegal hunting) threatens animals with extinction </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>4. Exotic/invasive species (not native to a particular region) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natives have no defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcompete native species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No natural predators </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. _______ _______
    23. 23. FUTURE OF BIODIVERSITY
    24. 24. Saving individual species <ul><li>Zoos & wildlife parks carefully manage captive breeding programs </li></ul><ul><li>Goal - release species back into the wild </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><ul><li>EX: California condor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheetahs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden lion tamarin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SSP-Species Survival Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breeding for most genetic diversity </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Save plants too..? <ul><li>Botanical Garden - storehouse of genetic diversity </li></ul>
    27. 27. Save plants too..? <ul><li>Germ Plasm Bank - store germ plasm (reproductive cells) for future use in case species become extinct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frozen and stored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloning…? </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. The Ecosystem Approach <ul><li>Save the entire ecosystem rather than an individual species </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Protection of entire habitats most efficient way to save many species </li></ul>The Ecosystem Approach
    30. 30. Other Benefits from preserving ecosystems <ul><li>Forests-add oxygen, remove pollution </li></ul><ul><li>wetlands-clean water, support breeding grounds </li></ul><ul><li>health of biosphere!! </li></ul>
    31. 31. How much land should we protect?? <ul><li>“ Hot spots ”-unusually large amount of biodiverity should be protected first </li></ul><ul><li>Different species require different amounts of resources and habitat </li></ul>
    32. 32. What about human needs? <ul><li>Must find ways to meet human need and manage living resources at the same time. </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Developing countries-life or death conflicts between human needs and biodiversity </li></ul>What about human needs?
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