Plants Without Seeds
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Plants Without Seeds



Seedless plants notes

Seedless plants notes



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    Plants Without Seeds Plants Without Seeds Presentation Transcript

    • Plants Without Seeds Life Science Mr. McKay
    • Multicellular Algae
      • Algae- Any Simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce food
        • Scientists do not agree on the classification of algae
          • Some think algae should be classified as protists
          • Others think should be with plants
    • Multicellular Algae
      • Algae were the first type of plants on Earth
        • Oldest fossils are around 900 million years old
      • Algae lack the special tubes that transport water and minerals that land plants have
        • No true roots, stems, or leaves
      • Algae do not have seeds
        • Must live in or near water
    • Algae Phyla
      • Algae are divided into three different phylum
        • Brown Algae
        • Red Algae
        • Green Algae
          • They get their names from the Pigments found within their cells
      • Pigments
        • Green Algae has a noticeable pigment that is the green chlorophyll
          • This captures light energy for food making processes
            • Energy
        • Brown and red algae
          • They both have chlorophyll but it is masked by other accessory pigments
            • These pigments absorb light and transfer it to chlorophyll
              • These other pigments include: pink, red, reddish purple, and reddish black
      Algae Phyla Continued
    • Brown Algae
      • Sargassum
        • Found in tropics
          • Perfect environment is calm winds and gentle waves
          • Floats on surface by use of tiny air filed sacs that act as life preservers
          • Needs sunlight to produce food
      • Sargasso Sea
        • This is a favorite hot spot for eels
          • Snake like fishes
          • Eels lay eggs in Brown algae
            • Travel thousands of miles to do so
      • Brown algae has long been used as food for humans
        • In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand
          • Seaweed
      Brown Algae
    • Red Algae
      • Like brown algae, red algae is multicellular and live in the ocean.
      • Red algae can grow to be several meters long
        • Never reach the size of brown algae though
      • Some grow as clumps of delicate, branching red threads
      • Others produce hard stiff branches that are rich in calcium carbonate
    • Red Algae
      • Red algae usually grow attached to rocks on the ocean floor
        • Can grow at depths of 170 meters
          • Far deeper than any other algae
      • How does red algae make food?
        • Accessory pigments
          • They Absorb little light and convert it to chlorophyll
    • Red Algae
      • Uses include
        • Food
          • Ice cream
          • Dressing
          • Chocolate milk
          • Frosting
        • Agar
          • A substance that is jellylike and used in growing cultures of nutrient bacteria
    • Green Algae
      • Green Algae
        • Similar to land plants
          • Life cycles
          • Pigments
          • Stored food supplies
      • Earliest forms
        • Unicellular
        • Then colonies
        • Finally Multicellular
          • Uses
            • Bio-fuel
    • Green Algae
      • Green algae and our environment
      • Some May live in unusual places
        • Symbiotic with fungi and lichens
          • Assignment Earth
          • Green Algae
    • Green Algae
      • After 450 Million Years
        • Land plants evolved
          • Mosses and relatives
          • Ferns and complex plants
    • Land Plants
      • Land plants need to
        • support the leaves and other parts of the body so they do not collapse
        • obtain water and minerals
        • transport food, water, minerals from one part the structure to another
        • prevent excess water loss to the environment
        • Get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur
    • Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
      • Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are tiny plants that live in moist places
        • Found on
          • Wet rocks
          • Damp tree bark
          • Muddy banks of ponds and streams
          • In some cases they may cover the ground like fuzzy green carpet
            • Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
    • Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
      • Size means:
        • No need for special transport system as in other land plants
          • They simply transport nutrients from one cell to the next
        • No need for stems or other supporting structures
    • Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
      • Size means:
        • They do not need a special adaption to prevent water loss
          • Such as a waxy covering
            • However the reproduction cells have a thick water-tight coat
    • Uses of Mosses
      • Dried Sphagnum
        • Mixed with soil to aide in water retention
        • Also aides in changing the chemical balance of the soil to improve plant growth
        • Prevents certain disease causing bacteria
        • In past, used to cover wounds to aide in preventing disease causing bacteria to grow
    • Uses of Mosses
      • Sphagnum moss
        • Under correct conditions Peat may form
          • This substance can allow for decay to be slowed greatly
            • Ancient times used it to slow decay of bodies
              • Peat Moss Mummies
    • Vascular Plants
      • Ferns
        • They have vascular tissue
          • Plants that lack this tissue are nonvascular
            • Such as algae
          • Unlike other seedless plants they do have special adaptations
            • Waxy covering
            • Roots that enable water gathering
            • System of tubes that transport nutrients
              • This is what is known as a vascular system
    • Vascular Plants
      • Vascular plants are much more adapted to the land due to the vascular system
        • The stem is strengthened with cells that are extremely thick and strong
        • This allows ferns to grow in great size compared to the mosses
          • Range in height from a few cm to about a meter
    • Vascular Plants
      • Ferns
        • Although they are better adapted to the land than nonvascular they still are not fully adapted
          • They require standing water in order to reproduce
          • The water needs to be in abundance for this to occur
          • Tiny pockets in the fern’s leaves provide a home for special blue-green bacteria that produce a natural fertilizer
    • Vascular Plants
      • Ferns as food
        • In spring fern fiddleheads are sold in specialty food stores
          • When properly cooked they are delicious
          • You should not gather fiddleheads for food unless you are certain they are edible