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Plants Without Seeds


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Seedless plants notes

Seedless plants notes

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  • 1. Plants Without Seeds Life Science Mr. McKay
  • 2. Multicellular Algae
    • Algae- Any Simple plantlike autotroph that uses sunlight to produce food
      • Scientists do not agree on the classification of algae
        • Some think algae should be classified as protists
        • Others think should be with plants
  • 3. Multicellular Algae
    • Algae were the first type of plants on Earth
      • Oldest fossils are around 900 million years old
    • Algae lack the special tubes that transport water and minerals that land plants have
      • No true roots, stems, or leaves
    • Algae do not have seeds
      • Must live in or near water
  • 4. Algae Phyla
    • Algae are divided into three different phylum
      • Brown Algae
      • Red Algae
      • Green Algae
        • They get their names from the Pigments found within their cells
  • 5.
    • Pigments
      • Green Algae has a noticeable pigment that is the green chlorophyll
        • This captures light energy for food making processes
          • Energy
      • Brown and red algae
        • They both have chlorophyll but it is masked by other accessory pigments
          • These pigments absorb light and transfer it to chlorophyll
            • These other pigments include: pink, red, reddish purple, and reddish black
    Algae Phyla Continued
  • 6. Brown Algae
    • Sargassum
      • Found in tropics
        • Perfect environment is calm winds and gentle waves
        • Floats on surface by use of tiny air filed sacs that act as life preservers
        • Needs sunlight to produce food
  • 7.
    • Sargasso Sea
      • This is a favorite hot spot for eels
        • Snake like fishes
        • Eels lay eggs in Brown algae
          • Travel thousands of miles to do so
    • Brown algae has long been used as food for humans
      • In China, Japan, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand
        • Seaweed
    Brown Algae
  • 8. Red Algae
    • Like brown algae, red algae is multicellular and live in the ocean.
    • Red algae can grow to be several meters long
      • Never reach the size of brown algae though
    • Some grow as clumps of delicate, branching red threads
    • Others produce hard stiff branches that are rich in calcium carbonate
  • 9. Red Algae
    • Red algae usually grow attached to rocks on the ocean floor
      • Can grow at depths of 170 meters
        • Far deeper than any other algae
    • How does red algae make food?
      • Accessory pigments
        • They Absorb little light and convert it to chlorophyll
  • 10. Red Algae
    • Uses include
      • Food
        • Ice cream
        • Dressing
        • Chocolate milk
        • Frosting
      • Agar
        • A substance that is jellylike and used in growing cultures of nutrient bacteria
  • 11. Green Algae
    • Green Algae
      • Similar to land plants
        • Life cycles
        • Pigments
        • Stored food supplies
    • Earliest forms
      • Unicellular
      • Then colonies
      • Finally Multicellular
        • Uses
          • Bio-fuel
  • 12. Green Algae
    • Green algae and our environment
    • Some May live in unusual places
      • Symbiotic with fungi and lichens
        • Assignment Earth
        • Green Algae
  • 13. Green Algae
    • After 450 Million Years
      • Land plants evolved
        • Mosses and relatives
        • Ferns and complex plants
  • 14. Land Plants
    • Land plants need to
      • support the leaves and other parts of the body so they do not collapse
      • obtain water and minerals
      • transport food, water, minerals from one part the structure to another
      • prevent excess water loss to the environment
      • Get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur
  • 15. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
    • Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are tiny plants that live in moist places
      • Found on
        • Wet rocks
        • Damp tree bark
        • Muddy banks of ponds and streams
        • In some cases they may cover the ground like fuzzy green carpet
          • Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
  • 16. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
    • Size means:
      • No need for special transport system as in other land plants
        • They simply transport nutrients from one cell to the next
      • No need for stems or other supporting structures
  • 17. Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
    • Size means:
      • They do not need a special adaption to prevent water loss
        • Such as a waxy covering
          • However the reproduction cells have a thick water-tight coat
  • 18. Uses of Mosses
    • Dried Sphagnum
      • Mixed with soil to aide in water retention
      • Also aides in changing the chemical balance of the soil to improve plant growth
      • Prevents certain disease causing bacteria
      • In past, used to cover wounds to aide in preventing disease causing bacteria to grow
  • 19. Uses of Mosses
    • Sphagnum moss
      • Under correct conditions Peat may form
        • This substance can allow for decay to be slowed greatly
          • Ancient times used it to slow decay of bodies
            • Peat Moss Mummies
  • 20. Vascular Plants
    • Ferns
      • They have vascular tissue
        • Plants that lack this tissue are nonvascular
          • Such as algae
        • Unlike other seedless plants they do have special adaptations
          • Waxy covering
          • Roots that enable water gathering
          • System of tubes that transport nutrients
            • This is what is known as a vascular system
  • 21. Vascular Plants
    • Vascular plants are much more adapted to the land due to the vascular system
      • The stem is strengthened with cells that are extremely thick and strong
      • This allows ferns to grow in great size compared to the mosses
        • Range in height from a few cm to about a meter
  • 22. Vascular Plants
    • Ferns
      • Although they are better adapted to the land than nonvascular they still are not fully adapted
        • They require standing water in order to reproduce
        • The water needs to be in abundance for this to occur
        • Tiny pockets in the fern’s leaves provide a home for special blue-green bacteria that produce a natural fertilizer
  • 23. Vascular Plants
    • Ferns as food
      • In spring fern fiddleheads are sold in specialty food stores
        • When properly cooked they are delicious
        • You should not gather fiddleheads for food unless you are certain they are edible