Fungus Among Us

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Notes for chapter 4 in Prentice hall science books for parade of life.

Notes for chapter 4 in Prentice hall science books for parade of life.

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  • 1. Fungus Among Us 7 th Grade Life Science Mr. McKay
  • 2. Forms
    • There are 3 forms of Fungus
      • Sac
      • Club
      • Zygospore
  • 3. How Fungus Get Energy
    • Heterotrophs
      • Carnivorous
      • Parasite
        • Cordyceps Fungus
      • Symbiosis
      • Decomposers
  • 4. Structure
    • Most are Multi-cellular
      • few are unicellular
        • Yeast
    • Plantlike
      • Do not move
        • Have a cell wall
  • 5. Fungus Reproduction
    • Fruiting Body
      • Produces spores
    • Spores
      • Tiny cells enclosed in a protective cell wall
    • Budding
      • Yeasts
  • 6. Forms: Mushrooms
    • Structure
      • Stalk
      • Ring
      • Cap
        • Cap Spores
        • Gills
      • Hyphae
      • Mushroom Madness
  • 7. Toadstool Vs. Mushroom
    • “ Toadstool“
      • Often, but not exclusively, applied to poisonous mushrooms
      • German "todesstuhl" translates as "death's stool“
      • The classic example of a toadstool is Amanita muscaria .
  • 8. Forms: Mold
    • Molds
      • Include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae
        • threadlike structures that anchor and transport food to other parts of fungus
    • Mold Spore
      • Molds reproduce through small spores
      • Some can remain airborne indefinitely, and many are able to survive extremes of temperature and pressure
    Mold Video
  • 9. Sir Alexander Fleming
    • Scottish scientist
      • 1928, Discovered a substance by the mold Penicillium could kill certain bacteria that were associated with infections
      • Fleming Video
    Hyphae Spores
  • 10. Forms: Yeast
    • Single Celled
      • Bread dough rises as yeast grows and produces carbon dioxide
      • Reproduce by budding
  • 11. Fungi Affects on Other Organisms
    • Disease in plants
      • Destroy plants and crops
        • Corn Smut
    • Produce toxins
      • Can injure or kill humans and animals
        • Aflatoxin can cause cancer
          • Produced in stored grain when moist
        • Ergot – replaces grains of rye with poison spikes causes hallucinations and convulsions
  • 12. Disease in Humans
    • Athletes Foot
    • Ringworm
    • Thrush
    • Valley Fever
  • 13. Helpful Fungus
    • Fungus – root association
      • Mycorrhizae - a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant
        • Help host gather nutrients
        • Protect from disease caused by other fungi
      • Helpful fungi coat about 80% of the world’s plants
      • Fairy Rings
        • Some mycorrhizae send up mushrooms or puffballs
  • 14. Lichens
    • Lichens are very diverse in their environment
      • Lichens are made of fungus and alga
      • Very hot to very cold, neither of which either could live in alone
    • Fungus and alga live together
      • Alga
        • Uses sunlight to produce food
        • Lacks true roots, stems, and leaves
      • Fungi
        • Provides water and minerals
        • Absorbed from what it may be growing on
      • Pioneers
        • One of first living organisms
        • rocky barren areas
  • 15. Decomposers
    • Some fungi the parasitic and mutualistic symbionts, obtain their nutrients from living organisms.
    • This activity of fungi is essential for the continuation of life on earth. The fungi play an important part in degrading these molecules and thereby replenishing the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere.
    • Without degradative processes, life on earth would probably come to an end after a few decades because of the accumulation of plant remains and lack of free atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
  • 16. Fungus as Food
    • Fungi have been exploited since ancient times to produce various types of foods and beverages.
      • Ancient Egyptians regarded fermentation as a gift from the god Osiris
      • Where as ancient Romans attributed the appearance of mushrooms and truffles to lightening bolts cast to the earth by Jupiter
      • Today there are hundreds of food products which involve the use of a fungal organism for their production.
        • Examples of such food products are: fermented beverages, mushrooms, soy sauce and aged cheeses.
        • Truffle Farming
        • Fungus in Man