Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Unit 1 The Gilded Age
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Unit 1 The Gilded Age

9,384

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
13 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
9,384
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
13
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Gilded Age<br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 2A, 3A, 3B. 3C<br />
  • 2. Historical Eras<br />Characteristics of an Historical Era<br />They have certain recognizable characteristics.<br />They often overlap with other eras and time periods.<br />They are often unique to a specific country or area.<br />
  • 3. Historical Eras<br />Historical Eras of U.S. History (since 1877)<br />Gilded Age ……………………….. (1870s-1900)<br />Progressive Era ………………. (1900-1920)<br />World War I ……………………….. (1914-1918)<br />Roaring ‘’20s …………………….. (1920-1929)<br /> Great Depression …………… (1929-1939)<br />World War II …………………….. (1939-1945)<br />Cold War ………………………….. (1945-1991)<br />Civil Rights Movement …. (1950s-60s)<br />
  • 4. The Gilded Age<br />The term “Gilded Age” was coined by writer Mark Twain<br />
  • 5. The Gilded Age<br />The Gilded Age is the period in U.S. history between 1870 to around 1900<br />
  • 6. The Gilded Age<br />The era was called the Gilded Age because although life in the U.S. looked bright and shiny, underneath the surface, there was lots of poverty and corruption.<br />
  • 7. Characteristics of Gilded Age<br />New policies dealing with Native Americans<br />Rise of political machines running local politics<br />The growth of industrialization<br />
  • 8. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />Native Americans<br />Native Americans were forced onto reservations and their children were forced to assimilate into American culture<br />
  • 9. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />African Americans<br />Blacks were denied many basic rights and lynching of blacks was a common occurrence in the South<br />
  • 10. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />Farmers<br />Overproduction of goods and price gauging by railroads drove many farmers out of business<br />
  • 11. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />Immigrants<br />Many immigrants were discriminated against and most lived in horrible inner city conditions<br />
  • 12. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />Women<br />Women were denied the right to vote in most states and could not work the same jobs as men<br />
  • 13. The Gilded Age<br />Groups that suffered during the Gilded Age:<br />Children<br />Most children lacked good educations because they went to work after they learned to read and write<br />
  • 14. Coming up next:<br />The Old West<br />
  • 15. TheOldWest<br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3A, 12A, 15A<br />
  • 16. Rise of the Iron Horse<br />Following the Civil War, many Americans began moving West. The growth of railroads quickened this migration.<br />Most people who moved west were ranchers who raised cattle or farmed the land, or were miners looking for gold or silver. <br />
  • 17. Railroad Pioneers<br />Cornelius Vanderbilt<br />Leland Stanford<br />Founded Central Pacific Railroad, the largest railroad company in the West<br />Largest railroad tycoon in the Eastern United States during the late 1800s<br />
  • 18. Transcontinental Railroad<br />The railway completed in 1869 between Omaha, Nebraska and Sacramento, California <br />It was built in large part by Chinese immigrants<br />
  • 19. Transcontinental Railroad<br />It joined the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads and greatly improved travel from the eastern United States to the West.<br />
  • 20. Homestead Act<br />The law passed in 1862 that encouraged the settlement of the Great Plains<br />People got a plot of land for free as long as they:<br />Filed a application<br />Improved the land<br />Filed for a deed ($10)<br />
  • 21. Settlement of the West<br />Four things drew settlers to the Central Plains<br />the Homestead Act allowed people to own their own land<br /> the land was rich and fertile for farming<br /> the development of the steel plow made farming easier<br /> the land was flat without any major mountains<br />
  • 22. Settlement of the West<br />This flood of people moving westward angered many Native Americans living in the Plains. <br />
  • 23. Settlement of the West<br />To make room for white settlers, herds of buffalo were killed and Native Americans were placed on reservations, leading to…<br />
  • 24. “Indian Wars”<br />The movement west led to a series of “Indian wars” between homesteaders and Native Americans<br />The clashes led to numerous massacres, throughout the late 1800s<br />Among these were the Sand Creek Massacre, Fetterman Massacre and the Massacre at Wounded Knee<br />
  • 25. Indian Peace Commission<br />Three years after the Sand Creek Massacre, the federal government tried to step in and settle disputes between U.S. settlers and Native Americans by creating the Indian Peace Commission in 1867<br />The Indian Peace Commission tried to end conflicts by creating new lands for Native Americans only. These lands were known as reservations.<br />
  • 26. Indian Reservations<br />
  • 27. The Dawes Act<br />Law passed in 1887<br />attempting to assimilate Native Americans into <br />American society<br />The law led to the creation of “Indian Territory”<br />in what is today the state of Oklahoma<br />
  • 28. The Dawes Act<br />Native American children were forced to learn English and became more “Americanized”<br />Native American families were forced from their homelands and onto reservations<br />The U.S. government had to use force to move some Native American<br />
  • 29. Flight of the Nez Perce<br />Often, Native Americans were chased off land that they had been settled on for centuries<br />The Nez Perce tribe – led by Chief Joseph – refused to move from their lands to a reservation in Idaho<br />The army chased the Nez Perce all the way to Canada before Chief Joseph surrendered<br />
  • 30. Famous Indian Chiefs<br />Sitting Bull<br />Crazy Horse<br />Red Cloud<br />Geronimo<br />
  • 31. Custer’s Last Stand<br />The Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876 was one of the most famous massacres in U.S. history<br />It was in this battle Lt. Colonel George Custer and the U.S. 7th Army was ambushed by Native Americans. It became known as Custer’s Last Stand<br />
  • 32. Coming Up Next<br />The Industrial Revolution<br />
  • 33. The Industrial Revolution<br />By Brad Harris, <br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3B, 3C, 24B<br />
  • 34. Presidents of the Gilded Age<br />During the Gilded Age, it can be argued that the President of the United States had less power than the business leaders<br />Grover Cleveland<br />Chester A. Arthur<br />Benjamin Harrison<br />James Garfield<br />The policies and actions of the U.S. government during the Gilded Age gave large corporations the freedom to do most whatever it wanted, leading to an industrial boom in the U.S.<br />
  • 35. Free Enterprise System<br />The free enterprise system is the economic system in which citizens are free to run a business the way they want<br />The system is based on the laissez-faire theory, meaning a business will succeed or fail and the government will not interfere<br />
  • 36. Free Enterprise System<br />The free enterprise system allowed the United States to become a world industrial giant in the late 1800s and led to numerous new inventions<br />
  • 37. Bell develops telephone<br />The free enterprise system helped to lead to new inventions by private businesses. One of the most dramatic inventions of the late 1800s was in the field of communications.<br />In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell developed the first telephone, which revolutionized communication by increasing the scale and speed of nationwide communications.<br />"Mr. Watson -- come here -- I want to see you."<br />
  • 38. Edison and the Light Bulb<br />In 1879, American inventor Thomas Edison developed the first light bulb. The invention led to the wide spread use of electrical power and factories being able to run at night.<br />This in turn produced more jobs and more product, which led to lower prices.<br />Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name. <br />
  • 39. The Bessemer Process<br />The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel. <br />By the late 1880s an immigrant by the name of Andrew Carnegie used this process to become a millionaire<br />
  • 40. Captains of Industry<br />Entrepreneurs & Industrialists like Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan were able to build great fortunes during the Gilded Age<br />Oil<br />Steel<br />Railroads<br />Banking<br />John D. Rockefeller<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />Cornelius Vanderbilt<br />J.P. Morgan<br />The government created policies to support the industrialists<br /><ul><li> High tariffs led to lower prices for American made goods
  • 41. There were very few government regulations on big business
  • 42. Government supported owners over workers in labor disputes</li></li></ul><li>Captains of Industry …<br />…or Robber Barons? <br />
  • 43. Millionaire’s Row, New York<br />Carnegie Mansion<br />
  • 44. Millionaire’s Row, New York<br />Vanderbilt Chateau<br />
  • 45. Tenements in New York City<br />
  • 46. Tenements in New York City<br />
  • 47. The Gospel of Wealth<br />Many Christians rejected Social Darwinism because it contradicted the Bible<br />Many believed that those who profited from society owed something in return. This philosophy of giving back to society became known as the Gospel of Wealth.<br />The Captain of Industry who most believed in the Gospel of Wealth was Andrew Carnegie, who gave millions of dollars to numerous charities<br />
  • 48. ©CSCOPE 2008<br />47<br />Ups and Downs of the Economy<br />During the Gilded Age, the U.S. economy went through periods of growth and depressions, due to tariff and currency policies <br /> 1870-1900<br />Major depressions occurred in 1873 and 1893<br />Farmers were especially hard hit. Since the U.S. put high tariffs on imports, Europe refused to buy our agricultural products <br />
  • 49.
  • 50. ©CSCOPE 2008<br />49<br />Rich vs. Poor<br />While wealth and affluence were growing and the middle class was rising, the number of poor were also growing<br />The poor (immigrants, minorities, unskilled laborers) flooded to the cities looking for work in the factories <br />Farmers were greatly impacted by increased production (which seems like a good thing), but it drove prices down.<br />
  • 51. “Rags to Riches”<br />Immigrants came to America with the hope they could become rich and successful if they worked hard enough<br />Novelist Horatio Alger wrote stories where the main character went from “rags to riches.”<br />Rich Uncle Pennybags<br />The belief that people who worked hard could raise their standard of living was known as “Individualism”<br />Going from “rags to riches” became known as achieving “The American Dream”<br />
  • 52. Social Darwinism<br />Not everyone was able to achieve the American Dream<br />Many people ended up broke trying to achieve wealth <br />The belief that things that can not adapt to their environment will eventually die out is known as Social Darwinism<br />“Survival of the fittest”<br />
  • 53. Coming Up Next…<br />Immigration during the Gilded Age<br />
  • 54. The Industrial Revolution<br />By Brad Harris, <br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3B, 3C, 24B<br />
  • 55. Presidents of the Gilded Age<br />During the Gilded Age, it can be argued that the President of the United States had less power than the business leaders<br />Grover Cleveland<br />Chester A. Arthur<br />Benjamin Harrison<br />James Garfield<br />The policies and actions of the U.S. government during the Gilded Age gave large corporations the freedom to do most whatever it wanted, leading to an industrial boom in the U.S.<br />
  • 56. Free Enterprise System<br />The free enterprise system is the economic system in which citizens are free to run a business the way they want<br />The system is based on the laissez-faire theory, meaning a business will succeed or fail and the government will not interfere<br />
  • 57. Free Enterprise System<br />The free enterprise system allowed the United States to become a world industrial giant in the late 1800s and led to numerous new inventions<br />
  • 58. Bell develops telephone<br />The free enterprise system helped to lead to new inventions by private businesses. One of the most dramatic inventions of the late 1800s was in the field of communications.<br />In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell developed the first telephone, which revolutionized communication by increasing the scale and speed of nationwide communications.<br />"Mr. Watson -- come here -- I want to see you."<br />
  • 59. Edison and the Light Bulb<br />In 1879, American inventor Thomas Edison developed the first light bulb. The invention led to the wide spread use of electrical power and factories being able to run at night.<br />This in turn produced more jobs and more product, which led to lower prices.<br />Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name. <br />
  • 60. The Bessemer Process<br />The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel. <br />By the late 1880s an immigrant by the name of Andrew Carnegie used this process to become a millionaire<br />
  • 61. Captains of Industry<br />Entrepreneurs & Industrialists like Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan were able to build great fortunes during the Gilded Age<br />Oil<br />Steel<br />Railroads<br />Banking<br />John D. Rockefeller<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />Cornelius Vanderbilt<br />J.P. Morgan<br />The government created policies to support the industrialists<br /><ul><li> High tariffs led to lower prices for American made goods
  • 62. There were very few government regulations on big business
  • 63. Government supported owners over workers in labor disputes</li></li></ul><li>Captains of Industry …<br />…or Robber Barons? <br />
  • 64. Millionaire’s Row, New York<br />Carnegie Mansion<br />
  • 65. Millionaire’s Row, New York<br />Vanderbilt Chateau<br />
  • 66. Tenements in New York City<br />
  • 67. Tenements in New York City<br />
  • 68. The Gospel of Wealth<br />Many Christians rejected Social Darwinism because it contradicted the Bible<br />Many believed that those who profited from society owed something in return. This philosophy of giving back to society became known as the Gospel of Wealth.<br />The Captain of Industry who most believed in the Gospel of Wealth was Andrew Carnegie, who gave millions of dollars to numerous charities<br />
  • 69. ©CSCOPE 2008<br />67<br />Ups and Downs of the Economy<br />During the Gilded Age, the U.S. economy went through periods of growth and depressions, due to tariff and currency policies <br /> 1870-1900<br />Major depressions occurred in 1873 and 1893<br />Farmers were especially hard hit. Since the U.S. put high tariffs on imports, Europe refused to buy our agricultural products <br />
  • 70.
  • 71. ©CSCOPE 2008<br />69<br />Rich vs. Poor<br />While wealth and affluence were growing and the middle class was rising, the number of poor were also growing<br />The poor (immigrants, minorities, unskilled laborers) flooded to the cities looking for work in the factories <br />Farmers were greatly impacted by increased production (which seems like a good thing), but it drove prices down.<br />
  • 72. “Rags to Riches”<br />Immigrants came to America with the hope they could become rich and successful if they worked hard enough<br />Novelist Horatio Alger wrote stories where the main character went from “rags to riches.”<br />Rich Uncle Pennybags<br />The belief that people who worked hard could raise their standard of living was known as “Individualism”<br />Going from “rags to riches” became known as achieving “The American Dream”<br />
  • 73. Social Darwinism<br />Not everyone was able to achieve the American Dream<br />Many people ended up broke trying to achieve wealth <br />The belief that things that can not adapt to their environment will eventually die out is known as Social Darwinism<br />“Survival of the fittest”<br />
  • 74. Coming Up Next…<br />Immigration during the Gilded Age<br />
  • 75. Child Labor during the Gilded Age<br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3C<br />
  • 76. Child Labor<br />Immigrant children were put to work in sweatshops – jobs with harsh working conditions<br />
  • 77. Child Labor<br />Businesses wanted to hire children because they were a cheap source of labor. <br />
  • 78. Child Labor<br />Parents wanted children to work for 3 reasons: <br />1) their families needed the money<br />2) they thought hard work built character<br />3) they believed once children learned how to read, write,<br /> and do basic math, they were educated enough<br />
  • 79. Child Labor<br />Child labor included factory work, mining or quarrying, agriculture, or doing odd jobs.<br />
  • 80. Child Labor<br />Children often worked in dangerous factory jobs…<br />
  • 81. Child Labor<br />...or dangerous jobs in mines because of their size<br />
  • 82. Child Labor<br />Newspaper carriers were known as “Newsies”<br />
  • 83. Coming up next…<br />Political Machines and Inner City Corruption<br />
  • 84. Politics of the Gilded Age<br />SE: US 3A<br />City Bosses and Political Machines<br />
  • 85. Political Machines<br />Political machines controlled the activities of political parties in the city. <br />Ward bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to: <br /> ensure that their candidates were elected;<br /> make sure that city government worked to their advantage. <br />
  • 86. Machine Organization <br />Like a pyramid: local precinct workers and captains at the base, ward bosses in the middle, and the city boss at the top<br />City Boss = Power broker (most were democrats and many were immigrants themselves)<br />
  • 87. Role of the Political Boss<br />The “Boss” (typically the mayor) controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court system.<br />Precinct captains and ward bosses, often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants, helped new immigrants with jobs, housing, and naturalization in exchange for votes. <br />Boss Tweed ran NYC<br />
  • 88. Residents Vote for candidates supported by political machines.<br />How the Political Machine works<br />Machines hand out jobs,contracts, and favors to<br />City Residents<br />Machines maintainpower over city governments<br />Political Machines work to control city politics<br />Run by powerful “Boss”who has influence with or over city officials<br />
  • 89. Role of Immigrants<br />Immigrants were the workers who ran the political machine. <br />They offered their loyalty and votes in exchange for favors and solutions to their problems.<br />
  • 90. Graft and Scandal<br />Some political bosses were corrupt and their political machines practiced election fraud by using fake names and voting multiple times to ensure victory.<br />Bribeswere common and construction contracts often resulted in kick-backs. Because the police were hired by the boss, there was no close scrutiny.<br />
  • 91. What is Graft?<br />Graft is the illegal use of political influence for personal gain. <br />How did the bosses use graft for their own personal gain?<br />To win elections<br />To make themselves richer<br />To finance the operations of the political machine<br />
  • 92. What are kickbacks?<br />A Kickback is the illegal practice of getting contract workers hired by the bosses to overcharge the city for their services. Then the overpayment would be split between the city boss and the contract-worker <br />How did the bosses use kickbacks for their own personal gain?<br />The bosses would enrich themselves as well as the machine<br />
  • 93. Boss Tweed, Tammany Hall<br />William M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed,was head of Tammany Hall, New York City’s powerful Democratic political machine. <br />Between 1869-1871, he led the Tweed Ring of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. <br />Convicted of 120 counts of fraud & extortion, he was sentenced to 12 years in jail, but released after one. Rearrested, he escaped to Spain.<br />
  • 94. Boss Tweed <br />©CSCOPE 2008<br />92<br />"Stop them damn pictures. I don't care what the papers write about me. My constituents can't read. But, damn it, they can see the pictures." <br />William “Boss” Tweed<br />Tammy Hall Party Boss<br />
  • 95. New_York_City__Five_Points_Neighborhood_and_Tammany_Hall (1)<br />
  • 96. 94<br />Thomas Nast<br />As a political cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly, Nast attacked the Tammany Hall (Democratic) political machine that ran New York City in the late 1800s . <br />Along the way, Nast created the Democratic Donkey (he did not like the Democrats), and the Republican Elephant symbols, the Tammany Tiger, and even Santa Claus. <br />Tammany Tiger<br />Democratic Donkey<br />Republican Elephant<br />
  • 97.
  • 98. Coming up Next…<br />The Birth of Unions<br />
  • 99. The Birth of Unions<br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3B<br />
  • 100. What is a Labor Union?<br />A labor union is an organization of workers who unite to protect the rights of the workers from abusive practices of the employer<br />
  • 101. What is a Labor Strike?<br />A labor strike is when a labor union refuses to go to work in order to shut down a business because of poor working conditions or poor pay<br />
  • 102. Early Unions<br />The free enterprise system meant that businesses made their own rules<br />Without government interference, business owners could pay their workers what they wanted and make them work as long as they wanted<br />Industrialization during the late 1800s contributed to the development of organized labor because it created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace.<br />
  • 103. Suppressing the Unions<br /><ul><li>Union organizers were blacklisted, making it impossible for them to get a job
  • 104. Businesses locked workers out and refused to pay them
  • 105. Workers were forced to sign contracts saying they would not join a union</li></li></ul><li>Karl Marx<br />Karl Marx was the German philosopher, whose ideas are credited as the foundation of modern communism.<br />Marx argued that free market capitalism, like previous socio-economic systems, will inevitably produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction<br />
  • 106. Marxism<br />Marx believed that workers would eventually revolt, take control of factories, and overthrow the government. Once the workers did this, the new workers-led government would take all private property and distribute wealth evenly among every citizen. <br />Marxism greatly influenced European unions and led to numerous revolutions in Europe in the mid-1800s. When immigrants came to the U.S. from Europe, many feared they would bring their ideas of workers revolutions with them, leading to a distrust of many Americans of immigrant workers.<br />
  • 107. Mary Harris “Mother” Jones<br />Mother Jones was the nation’s most prominent woman union leader during the American Industrial Revolution<br />Jones became an organizer for the United Mine Workers<br />She traveled to numerous mining camps to see conditions miners had to endure. She gave fiery speeches for miners to unite to fight for better working conditions and better pay.<br />
  • 108. Eugene V. Debs<br />Eugene V. Debs was the powerful leader of the American Railway Union.<br />Debs would run for president four times as a candidate for the Socialist Party<br />
  • 109. American Federation of Labor<br />The American Federation of Labor was the union of over 20 trade unions<br />Samuel Gompers was the union’s first leader. <br />Gompers believed unions should stay out of politics and that they should negotiate rather than go on strike. <br />
  • 110. Great Railroad Strike of 1877<br />In 1877, an economic recession led to some railroads cutting wages, triggering the first nationwide labor strike. It became known as the Great Railroad Strike.<br />
  • 111. Great Railroad Strike of 1877<br />Some workers turned violent and numerous states had to call out their state militias to stop the violence.<br />
  • 112. Knights of Labor<br />In response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, labor organizers formed the first nationwide industrial union – the Knights of Labor. <br />The Knights called for an eight-hour workday, supported the use of arbitration AND began to organize strikes.<br />
  • 113. Haymarket Riot<br />The Haymarket Riot was the disturbance that took place on May 4, 1886, in Chicago, and began as a rally in support of striking workers. <br />
  • 114. Haymarket Riot<br />A bomb was thrown during the rally, which started a riot. Eight men were convicted and four of them were executed. One was a member of the Knights of Labor.<br />
  • 115. Homestead Strike<br />The Homestead Strike occurred in 1892 when workers of Andrew Carnegie’s U.S. Steel went on strike after a tense labor dispute led to a lockout. <br />
  • 116. Homestead Strike<br />The Homestead Strike one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history and was a major setback for unions. <br />
  • 117. Pullman Strike<br />The Pullman Strike refers to a nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred near Chicago in 1894. <br />
  • 118. Pullman Strike<br />Following the firing of union workers, Debs organized a strike that shut down the nation’s railroads and threatened the economy.<br />
  • 119. Impact of union strikes<br />Union membership declined as manypeople saw unions as being Un-American and violent<br />
  • 120. IWW (Wobblies)<br />The International Workers of the World (IWW) is the union created in Chicago in 1905 that was made up primarily of socialists and anarchists<br />The IWW called for all workers to be united as a class and no wage system<br />
  • 121. Women’s Trade Union League<br />In the early 1900s, women were paid less than men, and most unions did not include women.<br />As a result, in 1903 the Women’s Trade Union League was formed<br />This was the first union organized to address women’s labor issues.<br />
  • 122.
  • 123.
  • 124. Summary<br /><ul><li>The free enterprise system is based on the laissez-faire theory, meaning that the government should not interfere with or regulate business
  • 125. Industrialization contributed to the development of labor unions because it created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace
  • 126. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 led to the first nationwide industrial union – the Knights of Labor
  • 127. Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Labor, the largest trade union in the nation</li></li></ul><li>Coming up Next…<br />Politics and Reform during the Gilded Age<br />
  • 128. The GildedAge<br />Politics and Reform<br />
  • 129. Stalemate<br />Two sides are even and there is not a way for one side to beat the other<br />
  • 130. Republicans<br /><ul><li>Party of morality
  • 131. Reformers
  • 132. Abolition
  • 133. Temperance</li></li></ul><li>Democrats<br /><ul><li>Party of Personal Liberty
  • 134. Dominated the South</li></li></ul><li>Unusual Elections<br /><ul><li>1876 and 1888
  • 135. Presidents Hayes and Harrison win the Electoral College but lose the popular vote
  • 136. Has this happened recently?</li></li></ul><li>
  • 137.
  • 138. Patronage<br /><ul><li>The act of giving government jobs to supporters of the winning party in an election
  • 139. Also called the "Spoils System” </li></li></ul><li>
  • 140.
  • 141. Half-breeds<br />Republican reformers who wanted an end<br /> to the patronage system<br />
  • 142. Stalwarts<br /><ul><li>Republicans who supported patronage
  • 143. Government jobs went to family and friends</li></li></ul><li>Assassination of a President<br />President James Garfield is assassinated in 1881 in a train station by a supporter who did not receive a job after the election<br />“I am a Stalwart and Arthur is President now!!”<br />
  • 144. Pendleton Act<br />Was passed in reaction to Garfield's assassination <br />Jobs must be filled according to the rules made by a bipartisan committee (Civil Service Commission)<br />Candidates must take an examination (Civil Service Exam) to qualify<br />
  • 145. Civil Service Replaces Patronage<br />Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system, which had been based onPatronage (giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get elected). Reformers pushed for adoption of amerit system (hiring the most qualified for jobs). The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance.<br />Applicants for federal jobs are required to take a Civil Service Exam<br />
  • 146. Rise of Monopolies<br />A monopoly is having exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices. <br />
  • 147. Robber Barons<br />The 19th century term for a businessman or banker who dominated a respective industry and amassed huge personal fortunes, typically by anti-competitive or unfair business practices.<br />Examples:<br /><ul><li>Andrew Carnegie (steel) U.S. Steel
  • 148. Milton S. Hershey (Chocolate)
  • 149. J. P. Morgan (banking, finance, industrial consolidation)
  • 150. John D. Rockefeller (oil) Standard Oil
  • 151. Leland Stanford (railroads)
  • 152. Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)</li></li></ul><li>Economic Issues<br /><ul><li>Railroads gave rebates to large corporations because of their volume seemingly gouging smaller volume customers
  • 153. Tariffs increased prices on manufactured goods and made it difficult for farmers to export</li></li></ul><li>Wabash v. Illinois<br />The federal government has the power to regulate rates for traffic between states<br />
  • 154. Interstate Commerce Commission<br /><ul><li>In response to Wabash v. Illinois, Congress passed a law that rates must be reasonable and just (fair)
  • 155. It also made it illegal to charge higher rates for shorter hauls (prohibited discriminating against small markets)
  • 156. It was ineffective because there was no enforcement of the law</li></li></ul><li>Sherman Antitrust Act<br />Made it illegal to combine a company into a trust or conspire to restrain trade or commerce <br />The law was ineffective because it was vague and the courts did not enforce it<br />
  • 157.
  • 158. So What?<br /><ul><li>Although the ICC and Sherman Antitrust Act were ineffective they did set a precedent for government regulation
  • 159. Garfield's assassination leads to reforms that are still in practice today</li></li></ul><li>Populism<br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie, TX<br />SE: US 3A<br />
  • 160. Farmers Struggle<br />During the 1880s, new inventions greatly increased farm production<br />But greater production led to lower prices for farm goods<br />
  • 161. Farmers Struggle<br />A economic depression hit the nation and many farmers went bankrupt. <br />They believed the only way to convince the government to help them was to organize. <br />
  • 162. The Grange<br />The first national farm organization was the Patrons of Husbandry, also known as The Grange<br />Many farmers joined the Grange to get help during the difficult economic times<br />The Grangers pressured railroads to reduce their rates to haul their goods to market. <br />Grangers created cooperatives, which were marketing organizations that worked for the benefit of their members<br />
  • 163. Farmers’ Alliance<br />By the late 1880s, a new organization known as the Farmers Alliance began to form<br />Farmers Alliances were created throughout the south and west but alliance failed help the farmers enough<br />
  • 164. Populism<br />The struggle of the farmers led to a rise of a belief known as Populism<br />Populism was the movement to increase farmers’ political power to work to pass laws in their interest<br />
  • 165. Populist Demands<br />unlimited coinage of silver<br />federal ownership of railroads<br />a graduated income tax <br />direct election of U.S. Senators <br />
  • 166. Goldbugs v. Sliverites<br />Coining unlimited silver would solve the nations economic crisis<br />America’s currency should be based on Gold<br />
  • 167. Election of 1896<br />When farmers found that the Democratic Party would not meet their demands, many broke away and created the People’s Party, also known as the Populists<br />In the Election of 1896, a major issue was improving the U.S. economy<br />Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan, a supporter of unlimited silver, drawing most Populists back to the Democratic Party<br />William Jennings Bryan<br />William McKinley<br />
  • 168. Bryan: The Farmers Friend<br />18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”<br />
  • 169. William Jennings Bryan<br /><ul><li>Was backed by people in the South and West, especially farmers
  • 170. Silverite, was opposed to the “gold standard”
  • 171. “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”</li></li></ul><li>“Cross of Gold” Speech<br />William Jennings Bryan’s speech denouncing the gold standard and calling for the U.S. to use silver, which would lower the value of the dollar, thus leading to an increase in the value of goods<br />
  • 172.
  • 173. William Jennings Bryan<br />The Democratic Party became split because of Bryan’s support for many Populist beliefs<br />
  • 174.
  • 175. William McKinley<br />Governor of Ohio who was supported by the industrial part of the nation (Northeast and Midwest)<br />
  • 176. McKinley supported the gold standard which would strengthen the value of the dollar and big business<br />
  • 177. Election of 1896<br />Because many “Gold Democrats” would not vote for Bryan, McKinley won the election. The Populists lost most of its followingand Populism died out.<br />
  • 178. Gold Triumphs Over Silver<br /><ul><li>1900  GoldStandard Act
  • 179. confirmed the nation’s commitment tothe gold standard.
  • 180. A victory for the forces ofconservatism.
  • 181. Republicans would dominate politics the next decade</li></li></ul><li>Decline of Populism<br /><ul><li>The depression ends during the McKinley administration
  • 182. Objections to the gold standard lessen
  • 183. The Gold Standard is adopted when Congress passed the Gold Standard Act in 1900</li></li></ul><li>Wizard of Oz connection<br />
  • 184. “Parable of the Populists”?<br /><ul><li>Tornado  ?
  • 185. Dorothy  ?
  • 186. Kansas  ?
  • 187. Wicked Witch of theEast  ?
  • 188. Tin Woodsman  ?
  • 189. Scarecrow  ?
  • 190. Cowardly Lion  ?
  • 191. Yellow Brick Road  ?
  • 192. Silver Slippers  ?
  • 193. Emerald City  ?
  • 194. Oz  ?
  • 195. The Wizard  ?
  • 196. Munchkins  ?
  • 197. Wicked Witch of the West  ?
  • 198. Flying Monkeys  ?</li></li></ul><li>So What?<br /><ul><li>The United States stays on the Gold Standard until the 1970s
  • 199. Third Parties can cause major parties to change agendas
  • 200. Depressions cause panic in the moment but are soon forgotten once prosperity begins
  • 201. Many of the beliefs of the Populists were the root of Progressives</li></li></ul><li>The Fight for Civil Rights during the Gilded Age <br />By Brad Harris,<br />Grand Prairie HS<br />SE: US 3C<br />

×