Science Olympiad: Anatomy


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This power point presentation describes the event Anatomy for Division B of Science Olympiad.

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Science Olympiad: Anatomy

  1. 1. Kenneth Raff
  2. 2. Event Parameters <ul><li>Non-programmable calculator </li></ul><ul><li>One 8.5 x 11 inch sheet of paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes can be in any form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can have notes on both sides of the paper </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Competition <ul><li>Students should know the basic anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems </li></ul><ul><li>Students should know how aging affects these two systems </li></ul><ul><li>Students should know specific diseases </li></ul><ul><li>The test may include various formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slides </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Skeletal System <ul><li>Students should know the major bones of the axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Axial Skeletal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Skeletal System <ul><li>Students should know the major bones of the appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of Bone <ul><li>Students should know the structure of a long bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Havercian canals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of Long Bones </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structure of Bones
  8. 8. Joints <ul><li>There are five types of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ball and Socket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the greatest range of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the shoulder and hip girdles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Joints <ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for forward and backward motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the knee and elbow </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Joints <ul><li>Pivot joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for one bone to rotate around another bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the elbow and fingers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Joints <ul><li>Gliding joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows bones to move over bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in wrists and ankles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Joints <ul><li>Fixed or Immovable joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for little to no movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the sutures of the skull and where the ribs attach to the sternum </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Diseases of the Skeletal System <ul><li>Bone diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteomalacia involves softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or problems with the metabolism of this vitamin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rickets is an abnormal bone formation in children resulting from inadequate calcium in their bones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the amount of bone is decreased and the strength of trabecular bone is reduced, cortical bone becomes thin and bones are susceptible to fracture. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Diseases of the Skeletal System <ul><li>Joint diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthritis is a generic term for inflammatory joint disease. Regardless of the cause, inflammation of the joints may cause pain, stiffness, swelling, and some redness of the skin about the joint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthrosis is a disorder of the joints characterized by progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis a chronic, frequently progressive disease in which inflammatory changes occur throughout the connective tissues of the body. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Rheumatoid Arthritis
  16. 16. Osteoarthritis
  17. 17. Rickets
  18. 18. Types of Vertebrae
  19. 19. Skeletal System <ul><li>Provides an anchor for muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the lever system which allows us to move </li></ul><ul><li>Provides support </li></ul><ul><li>Stores excess minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Protects vital internal organs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Muscular System <ul><li>Aids in movement </li></ul><ul><li>Work in opposing pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated or skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found only in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Is composed of both striated and smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Is involuntary </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 22. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Lines organs such as the stomach, intestines and esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Is involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Has many nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>No striatations </li></ul>
  23. 23. Striated muscles <ul><li>One nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Has striations </li></ul><ul><li>Called skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to bones </li></ul><ul><li>Under voluntary control </li></ul><ul><li>Can get tired </li></ul>
  24. 24. Organization of Striated Muscle
  25. 25. Structure of Striated Muscles <ul><li>Skeletal muscle is made up of thousands of cylindrical muscle fibers often running all the way from origin to insertion. The fibers are bound together by connective tissue through which run blood vessels and nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Each muscle fibers contains an array of myofibrils that are stacked lengthwise and run the entire length of the fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) </li></ul><ul><li>Many nuclei </li></ul>
  26. 26. Structure of Striated Muscles <ul><li>Because a muscle fiber is not a single cell, its parts are often given special names such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcolemma for plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sarcoplasmic reticulum for endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sarcosomes for mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sarcoplasm for cytoplasm </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Structure of a Striated Muscle <ul><li>The striated appearance of the muscle fiber is created by a pattern of alternating dark A bands and light I bands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The A bands are bisected by the H zone running through the center of which is the M line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The I bands are bisected by the Z disk. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Structure of Striated Muscles <ul><li>Each myofibril is made up of arrays of parallel filaments. </li></ul><ul><li>The thick filaments have a diameter of about 15 nm. They are composed of the protein myosin. </li></ul><ul><li>The thin filaments have a diameter of about 5 nm. They are composed chiefly of the protein actin </li></ul>
  29. 29. Structure of Striated Muscle <ul><li>The anatomy of a sarcomere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The entire array of thick and thin filaments between the Z disks is called a sarcomere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The thick filaments produce the dark A band. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The thin filaments extend in each direction from the Z disk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where they do not overlap the thick filaments, they create the light I band. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The H zone is that portion of the A band where the thick and thin filaments do not overlap. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The M line runs through the exact center of the sarcomere. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Picture of a Sarcomere
  31. 31. Websites for Muscle Contractions <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>