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Unit 10 PowerPoint (The 1950s and 1960s)
 

Unit 10 PowerPoint (The 1950s and 1960s)

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    Unit 10 PowerPoint (The 1950s and 1960s) Unit 10 PowerPoint (The 1950s and 1960s) Presentation Transcript

    • AMERICA in the ’50s
    • Provided college for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs) THE G.I. BILL Millions of GIs bought homes, attended college, started business venture, or found jobs Provided one year of unemployment compensation
    • THE G.I. BILL VA Mortgages paid for nearly 5 million new homes, by making homes affordable with low interest rates and 30 year loans. Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 13 million new homes to its housing stock President Franklin Roosevelt signs the GI Bill in 1944
    • Truman and Civil Rights One of the major acts Harry Truman made as president was in when 1948 Truman made an executive order to end segregation in the armed forces Truman also asked Congress to pass a civil rights bill that would make lynching a federal crime
    • ELECTION of 1948 Thomas Dewey Harry S Truman Strom Thurmond Many people didn’t think he would be re-elected Truman angered many Southern Democrats by supporting segregation People were so sure that Truman would lose that one headline even incorrectly said that Dewey had won Historians view the Election of 1948 as the greatest election upset in American history
      • Southern Democrats leave national party in response to Truman's support for Civil Rights
      • Strom Thurmond – South Carolina Senator, runs for president as a Dixicrat
      • Dixicrats were Southern Democrats who backed racial segregation and limiting the voting rights of African Americans. The party was also known as the States Rights Party.
      • Thomas Dewey, New York’s Governor, runs for the Republicans
      • Truman appeared to lose – but appeals directly to the people, citing the “Do-nothing Republican Congress” and wins the Election
      ELECTION of 1948
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    • Truman’s “Fair Deal” Truman said that all Americans had the right to expect a “fair deal” from the government
      • What did the Fair Deal do?
      • It increased the minimum wage
      • Expansion of Social Security benefits
      • National Housing Act was passed to provide funding to build low-income housing
      “ The buck stops here.” -- Harry Truman
    • The Taft-Hartley Act The federal law that greatly restricting the activities and power of labor unions
      • Closed shops illegal (Businesses could hire non-union workers)
      • Union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees.
      • No more jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts.
      • Employers have right to be exempted from bargaining with unions
    • The Taft-Hartley Act Labor unions hated the Taft-Hartley Act
    • Interstate Highways Built The Federal Highway Act was passed in 1956 This was the largest public works program in American history. Law called for the building of 40,000 miles of interstate Interstate roads in DFW are I-20, I-30, I-35 and I-45
    • Suburbia in America During the ’50s, many people began to move into the suburbs. Suburbs are places outside the city where many white-collar workers live The New York suburb of Levittown was the first modern suburb
    • Suburbs = The American Dream
      • Affordable single-family housing
      • Good schools
      • Friendly neighbors like themselves
      13 million homes built in the 1950s – 85% were suburban
      • New highways, affordable automobiles, low gasoline prices
      • A safe, healthy environment for children
    • The Baby Boom From 1945 -61 more than 65 million children were born Contributing factors: The end of wars led to more young couples getting married G.I. Bill encouraged growth of families by offering generous benefits for home purchases This period became known as the Baby Boom The American birthrate exploded after World War II. Pop culture glorified pregnancy, parenthood and large families
    • Technological Breakthroughs
    • Jonas Salk and polio vaccine
      • Medical advances of the 1950s:
      • antibiotics to fight infections
      • new drugs to fight cancer, diabetes and heart disease
      • polio vaccine developed
      Jonas Salk developed the vaccine that prevented polio. Not long after, the threat of polio would almost completely disappear
    • Birth of television Shows like I Love Lucy and The Honeymooners were the most popular TV shows of the ’50s By 1957, there were about 40 million television sets in use and TV became an important source of information
    • Pop Culture of the 1950s Father Knows Best 1954-1958 The Ozzie and Harriet Show 1952-1966 Leave it to Beaver 1957-1963
    • Hollywood : apex of the biblical epics. It’s un-American to be un-religious ! -- The Christian Century , 1954 The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben Hur 1953 1956 1959 Pop Culture of the 1950s
    • First McDonald’s (1955) America became a more homogeneous nation because of the automobile . Drive-In Movies Holiday Inn The Automobile Culture
    • Birth of Rock ’n Roll In the 1950s, many teenagers rebelled against the middle-class suburban values, particularly conformity and wanted to be unique.
      • It was during this period that many youths turned to new and unconventional styles of music
      • Soon white artists began making music that was based on African American rhythm and blues
      • This form of music became known as rock ‘n’ roll and it became wildly popular with the nation’s teenagers
    • Elvis Presley The King of Rock ’n Roll Presley’s extraordinary popularity established rock ’n’ roll as an unprecedented mass-market phenomenon His reputation as a performer endured up to his death in 1977 at the age of 42. Graceland, his home in Memphis, is now a public museum visited by upwards of 600,000 people annually.
    • The Generation Gap
      • Many parents viewed rock ’n’ roll as loud and dangerous.
      • The music was banned in some communities.
      • The music united teens in their own world and helped to create what became known as the generation gap.
      • The generation gap was the cultural separation between children and their parents.
    • The Beat Generation The major works of Beat writing are Allen Ginsberg's Howl , William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouac's On the Road Members of the Beat Generation were referred to as “beatniks” and set the stage for the rise of the counter-culture and hippies during the 1960s The Beat Generation was the cultural movement of the 1950s when young people – often writers – ditched society’s normal standards for new ways of thinking
    • Juvenile Delinquency Another problem facing the nation was juvenile delinquency, which was antisocial or criminal behavior by teenagers Juvenile crime rose 45% between 1948 and 1953. Car thefts by juveniles increased and more teenagers joined street gangs Many attributed this rise in teenage rebellion to movies such as “Rebel Without a Cause” and books like J.D. Salinger’s “The Catcher in the Rye”
    • Pop Culture of the 50s The Lone Ranger Top TV Shows The Honeymooners Father Knows Best
    • Pop Culture of the 50s Top in Movies
    • Coming Up: The 1960s
    • THE TURBULENT ’60s
    • The Election of 1960 TV played a vital part in the election Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy while the Republicans nominated vice-president Richard M. Nixon For the first time, the nation got to see candidates as they campaigned
    • The Election of 1960
    • Kennedy beats Nixon “ Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” -- John F. Kennedy Inauguration Speech, 1961 In one of the closest presidential elections in U.S. history, Kennedy defeated Nixon “ Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans.” -- John F. Kennedy, Inauguration Speech, 1961 In his inauguration speech, Kennedy inspired people with his optimism, his youthfulness and his ability to handle the media.
    • Camelot JFK was a very popular president with the American people. His youthful energy, looks, glamorous wife Jacqueline, and their young children led to constant coverage by the media. People often refer to Kennedy’s presidency as “Camelot” because of the potential and promise for the future, and the period was symbolic of hope
    • The Kennedy White House JFK’s closest confidant was his brother Bobby RFK was appointed to the important position of Attorney General
    • The New Frontier JFK’s domestic programs became known as the New Frontier.
      • Main goals of the New Frontier:
      • Increase federal aid to education
      • Provide health insurance to the elderly
      • Create a Department of Urban Affairs to deal with problems in the inner cities
      • Create an organization of volunteers to help fight poverty in other countries
    • One of Kennedy’s first presidential acts was creating the Peace Corps The main purpose of the Peace Corps was to fight poverty is less developed countries. Americans volunteered to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care and construction Peace Corps
    • The Warren Court Dwight D. Eisenhower nominated Earl Warren to be Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Cour t Many thought Warren would be a conservative, but he was not The Warren Court was an active one that made numerous key rulings
    • Key Supreme Court rulings Reynolds v. Sims: Voting districts in many states were unequal. The case ruled that voting districts had to be equal in size. Established the principle of “one man, one vote.” Gideon v. Wainwright: Defendant in a state court had the right to a lawyer, regardless of his ability to pay Engel v. Vitale: Court ruled that government-funded schools could not require prayer in public schools
    • Miranda v. Arizona Ernesto Miranda was arrested for raping an 18 year old. He later confessed to robbery and attempted rape under interrogation by police Miranda had confessed without knowing that he had the right to remain silent (5 th Amendment) Supreme Court ruled that his constitutional rights were violated by the police who interrogated him
    • Key events of JFK presidency
      • The New Frontier program
      • Establishment of the Peace Corps
      • Bay of Pigs invasion
      • Cuban Missile Crisis
      • Rulings of the Warren Court
      • Vision of putting a man on the moon
      • Assassination in Dallas
    • Assassination in Dallas On Nov. 22, 1963, Kennedy and his wife traveled to Dallas to make some political appearances As the motorcade rode through downtown Dallas, JFK was shot in the hea d Lee Harvey Oswald was the man who was accused of shooting Kennedy
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    • Conspiracy Theory The Warren Commission investigated his assassination, but concluded that Oswald acted alone Oswald shot Kennedy from the Sixth Floor of the Texas School Book Depository Building Many people believe there was a second shooter on a grassy knoll in front of the JFK limousine
    • LBJ becomes President Hours after JFK’s assassination, vice-president Lyndon Johnson of Texas was sworn in as president
      • Biggest issues facing LBJ as president:
      • The Civil Rights Movement
      • The growing poverty in America
      • The conflict in Vietnam
    • The War on Poverty “ America needs to build a ‘Great Society.’ I am declaring a war on poverty.” - - Lyndon B. Johnson University of Michigan, 1964 In his book The Other America , Michael Harrington showed that many Americans lived in poverty in the United States. The book influenced the thinking of both John F. Kennedy and his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, as they both made the elimination of poverty a major goal.
    • LBJ’s Great Society Once Johnson was elected in 1964, he began working on his plan for domestic programs to help the United States. He called his program the Great Society. Although there were many, the key programs of the Great Society were Medicare, Medicaid, Head Start, and HUD.
    • In the 60s, thousands of teenagers became part of the “counterculture.” These “hippies” rebelled against the traditional American culture. Hippies believed in a world free of war and hate and full of peace and love The hippie look was long hair, tie-dyed shirts, and use of drugs like marijuana, LSD and heroin
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    • Famous music groups of the Hippie Movement The Beatles Jimi Hendrix Bob Dylan Jim Morrison and the Doors Music played a large part of the Hippie Movement Jefferson Airplane
    • W o o d s t o c k Music festival held in upstate New York in 1969 that exemplified the counterculture of the 1960s Thirty-two of the best-known musicians of the day performed in front of nearly half a million concert-goers Woodstock is regarded as one of the greatest moments in pop music history
    • Martin Luther King shot in April of 1968 Robert F. Kennedy shot in June of 1968 Tet Offensive showed U.S. was not winning the Vietnam War Riots occurred at the Democratic National Convention in August of 1968
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    • Coming Up: T h e V i e t n a m W a r
    • T H E V I E T N A M W A R
    • Key figures in the Vietnam War Ho Chi Minh William Westmoreland Lyndon B. Johnson American commander in South Vietnam who told people in the media that the United States was close to winning the war, even though it wasn’t American commander in Vietnam who told American people that we were close to winning the war, even though we weren’t President of North Vietnam who led the efforts to defeat South Vietnam, hero to most Vietnamese President during much of Vietnam War; greatly escalated the U.S. soldier involvement in the conflict
    • Key figures in the Vietnam War Robert McNamara Richard Nixon Ngo Dinh Diem U.S. Secretary of Defense during the Vietnam War who made the American public feel like we were winning the war President of South Vietnam who whose corruption and harsh standards led numerous people to turn to the Vietcong President of the United States during the latter part of the Vietnam War
    • Vietnam in the ’50s Southeast Asia (aka: French Indochina) Following World War II, the French controlled southeast Asia (known as Indochina) Ho Chi Minh led a revolt against the French to gain independence for Vietnam By 1954, the French fell to the Vietminh and they withdrew from Indochina, leaving Vietnam a divided country
    • Domino Theory The Domino Theory was the belief that if one country fell to communism, the other Southeast Asian nations would eventually fall to communism as well
    • This map from an American magazine published 14th November 1950 shows how much they feared the spread of Communism in the Far East.
    • South Vietnam problems A Buddhist monk commits suicide in protest to the harsh policies of the S. Vietnamese government The people of South Vietnam hated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem. He was corrupt and did not govern in the best interest of the citizens. Diem was disliked because he discriminated against the Buddhist population Some Buddhist monks protested Diem’s rule by setting themselves on fire
    • Gulf of Tonkin Incident USS Maddox In August of 1964, Pres. Johnson announced that North Vietnam ships had fired on two American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin Johnson insisted that the North Vietnamese attack was unprovoked and responded by ordering American airplanes to attack North Vietnam
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution When, in August of 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Congress handed over war powers to the president After accusing N. Vietnam of attacking the U.S., Johnson asked Congress to give him the authorization to use force to defend American forces The President had the power to send U.S. troops into battle without a declaration of war
    • Operation Rolling Thunder The U.S. bombing campaign conducted against the North Vietnam from 1965 until 1968 The three-year assault was intended to get North Vietnam to stop supporting South Vietnamese guerrillas Operation became most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War
    • Vietcong Guerrilla army based in South Vietnam (also known as the NLF) that fought the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War The Vietcong were South Vietnamese communists who fought for Vietnamese unification on the side of the North Vietnamese
    • Vietcong Advantages
      • They were familiar with the landscape (rivers, lakes, etc.)
      • They could find a safe haven in Cambodia, Laos or South Vietnam
      • They could often count on the support of the local population
    • Ho Chi Minh Trail Red line indicates Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia A look at the Ho Chi Minh Trail from road level, with camouflaged convoy truck approaching. Path that ran from North Vietnam to South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia system providing manpower and weapons to the Vietcong
    • Tet Offensive January 30 – June 8, 1968 In early 1968, the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese launched a surprise attack on the South during the Tet, which is the Vietnamese New Year A Vietcong agent is shot during the Tet Offensive
    • Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive in 1968 was a surprise attack by the Vietcong throughout South Vietnam While the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, it was a major political victory for the Vietcong Tet was the turning point in the war and showed that the U.S. was nowhere close to winning the war
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    • Credibility Gap William Westmoreland Robert McNamara Opposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960s Many Americans were suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about the war Many Americans believed a credibility gap had developed (people lost trust in what the government was telling them)
    • My Lai Massacre March 16 th , 1968 Unidentified Vietnamese man and child killed by US soldiers A village set afire during the My Lai Massacre American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who they thought were members of the Vietcong in a village called My Lai Most of the victims were old men, women and children My Lai massacre increased feelings among many Americans that the war was brutal and senseless
    • Election of 1968 "I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." March 31, 1968 Johnson refuses to run for re-election After Johnson refused to run for re-election and Bobby Kennedy was assassinated, the Democrats ended up choosing LBJ’s vice-president, Hubert Humphrey, as their presidential candidate Republicans nominate former vice-president Richard Nixon, who lost to JFK in 1960
    • Election of 1968 Nixon becomes president!
    • Draft Lottery Begins December 1 st , 1969 Many Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft system Minorities made up a large percentage of soldiers in Vietnam. As the war continued, more people were drafted
    • Some folks are born made to wave the flag, ooh, they're red, white and blue. And when the band plays "Hail To The Chief", oh, they point the cannon at you, Lord, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no senator's son, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no, Some folks are born silver spoon in hand, Lord, don't they help themselves? oh. But when the taxman come to the door, Lord, the house look a like a rummage sale, yes, Fortunate Son (CCR)
    • It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no millionaire's son, no, no. It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no. Yeh, some folks inherit star spangled eyes, ooh, they send you down to war, Lord, And when you ask them, how much should we give, oh, they only answer, more, more, more, yoh, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no military son, SON, NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, NO NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no no no, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate son, son son son
    • Kent State Massacre May 4, 1970 In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia Anti-war protestors saw this as an escalation of the war, sparking violent protests on college campuses At Kent State University in Ohio, protestors became violent. The Ohio National Guard was called in and fired upon the student demonstrators, killing four students
    • Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'. We're finally on our own. This summer I hear the drummin'. Four dead in Ohio. Ohio (Neil Young) Gotta get down to it. Soldiers are gunning us down. Should have been done long ago. What if you knew her and Found her dead on the ground? How can you run when you know?
    • Gotta get down to it. Soldiers are cutting us down. Should have been done long ago. What if you knew her and Found her dead on the ground? How can you run when you know? Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'. We're finally on our own. This summer I hear the drummin'.
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    • 26 th Amendment ratified President Nixon signs the 26th Amendment guaranteeing the right to vote for people over 18. Anger over the draft led to debates about the voting age. Demonstrators help public rallies and marches. The average age of a American soldier in Vietnam was 19. Because you had to be 21 to vote, many people called for changes in voting laws, saying that if you’re old enough to fight in war, you should be old enough to vote. In 1971, the 26 th Amendment was ratified, lowered the legal voting age from 21 to 18
    • 26 th Amendment ratified During the Vietnam War, the average age of U.S. soldier was 19 Most soldiers were old enough to fight, but not old enough to vote Anger over the draft led to numerous protests The 26 th Amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
    • Vietnamization Vietnamization called for a gradual withdrawal of American troops as South Vietnamese took more control Even though the U.S. had begun cutting back its involvement in the Vietnam War, the American home front remained divided and volatile as Nixon’s war policies stirred up new waves of protest
    • U.S. pulls out of Vietnam In January of 1973, North and South Vietnamese reach a cease-fire agreement; by 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from Vietnam
    • War Powers Act (1973) Law was an attempt to set limits on the power of the president during wartime Required the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops with 48 hours
    • The Pentagon Papers In 1971, a former Defense Department worker leaked what were known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times The documents showed how various administrations deceived Congress, the media, and the public about how the war was going The government had not been honest with the American people
    • Coming up next: The 1970s: Nixon and Watergate
    • T H E V I E T N A M W A R
    • Tet Offensive After the Tet Offensive, many Americans began to question whether we should be in Vietnam. Many Americans felt the nation had been deceived by the government, creating what was known as…
    • The Credibility Gap William Westmoreland Robert McNamara Opposition to the Vietnam War grew in the United States in the late 1960s Many Americans were suspicious of the government’s truthfulness about the war Many Americans believed a credibility gap had developed (people lost trust in what the government was telling them)
    • My Lai Massacre March 16 th , 1968 Unidentified Vietnamese man and child killed by US soldiers A village set afire during the My Lai Massacre American platoon had massacred more than 200 South Vietnamese civilians who they thought were members of the Vietcong in a village called My Lai Most of the victims were old men, women and children My Lai massacre increased feelings among many Americans that the war was brutal and senseless
    • LBJ Quits "I shall not seek, and I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your President." March 31, 1968 Johnson refuses to run for re-election in the Election of 1968
    • Election of 1968 At the Democratic Convention in Chicago in 1968, Democrats choose vice-president Hubert Humphrey as their candidate But the biggest news was the rioting outside the convention when police beat hundreds of protestors
    • Election of 1968 Republicans nominate former vice-president Richard Nixon as their candidate Nixon makes a campaign promise to get the United States out of the Vietnam War
    • Election of 1968 Nixon becomes president!
    • Draft Lottery Begins December 1 st , 1969 Many Americans who were against the war believed the United States had an unfair draft system
    • The Draft Minorities made up a large percentage of soldiers in Vietnam. As the war continued, more people were drafted
    • The Draft Many men refused to go into the military. As a sign of protest, many burned their draft cards or dodged the draft by leaving the country
    • Some folks are born made to wave the flag, ooh, they're red, white and blue. And when the band plays "Hail To The Chief", oh, they point the cannon at you, Lord, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no senator's son, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no, Some folks are born silver spoon in hand, Lord, don't they help themselves? oh. But when the taxman come to the door, Lord, the house look a like a rummage sale, yes, Fortunate Son (CCR)
    • It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no millionaire's son, no, no. It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no. Yeh, some folks inherit star spangled eyes, ooh, they send you down to war, Lord, And when you ask them, how much should we give, oh, they only answer, more, more, more, yoh, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no military son, SON, NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, NO NO It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate one, no no no, It ain't me, it ain't me, I ain't no fortunate son, son son son
    • Nixon Invades Cambodia In April of 1970, President Nixon announced that American troops had invaded Cambodia
    • Nixon Invades Cambodia Anti-war protestors saw this as an escalation of the war, sparking violent protests on college campuses
    • Kent State Massacre May 4, 1970 At Kent State University in Ohio, protestors became violent. The Ohio National Guard was called in and fired upon the student demonstrators, killing four
    • Ohio Neil Young Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young
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    • Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'. We're finally on our own.
    • This summer I hear the drummin'. Four dead in Ohio.
    • Gotta get down to it. Soldiers are gunning us down. Should have been done long ago.
    • What if you knew her and Found her dead on the ground? How can you run when you know?
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    • Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na. Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
    • Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na. Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
    • Gotta get down to it. Soldiers are gunning us down. Should have been done long ago.
    • What if you knew her and Found her dead on the ground? How can you run when you know?
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    • Tin soldiers and Nixon's comin'. We're finally on our own.
    • This summer I hear the drummin'. Four dead in Ohio.
    • Four dead in Ohio.
    • Four dead in Ohio.
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    • Television impact on war Television coverage from Vietnam brought the war into many peoples living rooms and helped to turn many people against the war
    • Television impact on war When CBS anchorman Walter Cronkite said following the Tet Offensive that the war was unwinnable, most Americans believed him
    • Anti-War Protests Escalate As the Vietnam conflict dragged on into the 1970s, more and more Americans called for the U.S. to get out of Vietnam
    • For What It’s Worth Buffalo Springfield
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    • 26 th Amendment ratified During the Vietnam War, the average age of U.S. soldier was 19 Most soldiers were old enough to fight, but not old enough to vote Many Americans called for changes to the voting age The 26 th Amendment lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
    • Vietnamization Vietnamization called for a gradual withdrawal of American troops as South Vietnamese took more control Even though the U.S. had begun cutting back its involvement in the Vietnam War, the American home front remained divided and volatile as Nixon’s war policies stirred up new waves of protest
    • U.S. pulls out of Vietnam In January of 1973, North and South Vietnamese reach a cease-fire agreement; by 1975, the United States withdraws all of its people from Vietnam
    • War Powers Act (1973) Law was an attempt to set limits on the power of the president during wartime Required the president to inform Congress of any commitment of troops with 48 hours
    • The Pentagon Papers In 1971, a former Defense Department worker leaked what were known as the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times The documents showed how various administrations deceived Congress, the media, and the public about how the war was going The government had not been honest with the American people
    • Coming up next: Other groups fight for their rights Latinos, Native Americans, women