Basic intro


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Basic intro

  1. 1. Human Anatomy Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
  2. 2. I. Definitions <ul><li>Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy – examining large easily observable body structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscope anatomy – examining cells and tissues using a microscope. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I. Definitions (con’t) <ul><li>Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology – explains how the nervous system works. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac physiology studies the functions of the heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomy and physiology are always related. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION. </li></ul>
  4. 4. II. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atoms – building blocks of matter. They combine to form: </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules – water, sugars, and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules associate in specific ways to form cells. </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. Levels of Organization (Con’t) <ul><li>Cells are the smallest units of all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that are similar and have a common function are called tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>An organ is a structure, composed of two or more tissue types, that performs a specific function for the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose is called an organ system. </li></ul><ul><li>All 11 organ systems make up an organism . </li></ul>
  6. 6. II. Levels of Organization
  7. 7. Integumentary System <ul><li>External covering of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Waterproofs, cushions and protects </li></ul><ul><li>Excretes salts and urea in sweat and helps regulate body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sense organ – pain and pressure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Skeletal System <ul><li>Bone, cartilage, ligaments, and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Support and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment of the skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Hematopoiesis – the formation of blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Store house of minerals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Muscular System <ul><li>Only one function – contract </li></ul><ul><li>Movement occurs when muscles contract </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles - movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardial muscles - heart contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscles – intestines, internal organs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nervous System <ul><li>Fast-acting control system </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>The body must be able to respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Nervous system assesses the information received and responds. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Endocrine System <ul><li>Slow acting control system of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces and releases hormones into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, testes, and parathyroid glands. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Made up of the heart and blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is the transporting fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from the cells where waste is exchanged and removed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Closely related to the cardiovascular system. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other organs like the spleen and tonsils. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid leaks from the blood vessels and this system returns the fluid back to the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes help cleanse the blood and house the cells involved in immunity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Respiratory System <ul><li>Keep the body constantly supplied with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs have tiny air sacs in which gas exchange occurs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Digestive System <ul><li>Tube within a tube system running from the mouth to the anus. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the oral cavity (mouth), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and the rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>Break down food into usable macromolecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestines job is to reclaim water. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Urinary System <ul><li>The body produces waste which must be removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous wastes (urea and uric acid) must be removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called the excretory system </li></ul><ul><li>Includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains body’s water and salt balance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reproductive System <ul><li>Produce offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm produced by testes </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs produced by ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization occurs when sperm is deposited into the female by the penis. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HOMEOSTASIS <ul><li>The key to understanding the interactions of the body systems as well as disease and wellness is understanding homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis is the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Language of Anatomy <ul><li>To accurately describe body parts and position we have to have a reference point that is accepted universally. This is helpful when the coroner finds a body and must describe the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical position – The assumption that the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Directional Terms (pg. 12) Between a medial and lateral structure Intermediate Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of Lateral Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of Medial Toward the back of the body; behind Posterior (dorsal) Toward the front of the body (belly) Anterior (ventral) Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a body or structure; below Inferior (caudal) Toward the head or upper part of the body or structure; above Superior/cranial/cephalad
  21. 21. Directional Terms (pg. 12) Away from the body surface; more internal Deep Toward or at the body surface Superficial Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a lumb to the body truck Distal Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Proximal
  22. 22. Anterior Body Landmarks (pg. 13) Neck region Cervical Wrist Carpal Cheek area Buccal Arm Brachial Armpit Axillary Anterior surface of the elbow Antecubital Anterior body trunk inferior to the ribs Abdominal
  23. 23. Anterior Body Landmarks (pg 13) Anterior knee Patellar Eye area Orbital Mouth Oral Nose area Nasal Area where thigh meets the trunk Inguinal Thigh Femoral Fingers and toes Digital
  24. 24. Anterior Body Landmarks (pg 13) Navel Umbilical Chest Thoracic Ankle region Tarsal Breasbone area Sternal Genital region Pubic Lateral part of the leg Peroneal
  25. 25. Posterior Body Landmarks (pg 13) Area of the spine Vertebral The area of the calf muscle Sural Shoulder blade region Scapular Posterior knee area Popliteal Posterior surface of the head Occipital Lower back Lumbar Butt Gluteal Curve of the shoulder Deltoid Head Cephalic
  26. 26. Body Planes (pg 14) <ul><li>Body planes and sections can be used to describe either the entire body or any part of the body such as an organ. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several ways to “cut” body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal section – cut down the middle to create left and right sides. (aka midsagittal or median section if the cut makes equal sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal or coronal section – a cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior sides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse or cross sections – A cut is made along the horizontal plane dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. </li></ul></ul>