World History Unit4 Byzantium And Islam
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World History Unit4 Byzantium And Islam Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Rome’s Successors in Eastern Europe and the Middle East: Byzantium Islam
  • 2. Byzantium and the Expansion of Islam
  • 3. The Byzantine Empire
    • Framework Established by Constantine
      • The Emperor
        • Held absolute civil power
        • Wanted control of the religious institutions as well
        • Caesaro-papism
        • Continuation of Roman Authority
      • Commerce centered at Constantinople
      • Great Schism of 1054 splits the Christian Church into Orthodox and Catholic
  • 4. Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople (Istanbul) – construction started in the 6 th century – largest church in Christendom for over 1000 years
  • 5. Russian and Ukrainian Patriarchs today
  • 6. Byzantium and the Slavs
        • Cyrillic Alphabet
        • Trade relations
        • Moscow absorbs Roman Culture
        • Christianity flows north
        • Art and Architecture (Russian architecture is often centered around the “onion domes”, similar to those found in the Middle East)
  • 7. Cyrillic Alphabet (Russian Version)
  • 8. ISLAM SUBMISSION TO ALLAH
  • 9. The Rise of Islam
    • Muhammad (570-632)
      • Caravan trader living in Mecca
        • First teachings of the Koran revealed, 610
        • Flees with followers to Medina, 622
          • The hejira
        • Mecca conquered in the first Jihad (632)
        • Koran – the Islamic holy book
  • 10.
      • One god, Allah and Mohammad is the Prophet
      • Prayer – 5X/day facing Mecca
      • Alms to the poor
      • Fasting during Ramadan
      • The Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca
    The Five Pillars (obligatory duties)
  • 11. The Kaba in Mecca
  • 12. Map of the Spread of Islam
  • 13. Expansion of Islam (West)
    • Largely through military conquest
      • Jihad (holy war)
      • Within 100 years, Muslims conquer territory from Holy Land to the Iberian Peninsula
      • Displays weakness of Byzantine Empire
      • Stopped in the West at the Battle of Tours (732)
    The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
      • To the West (North Africa and Europe)
  • 14. Expansion of Islam (East)
    • Largely through trade
      • Attraction as a religion of salvation
      • Arab traders control trade throughout the Indian Ocean
      • Largest Islamic country is Indonesia
      • India is 25% Muslim
      • Spices and tea trade will be important for later units
    TheTaj Mahal
      • To the East (Asia and India)
  • 15. Expansion of Islam (Africa)
      • Attraction as a religion of salvation
      • Berber traders cross the Sahara Desert
      • Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library
      • Islamic proverb states that "Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom come from Timbuktu.“
    Mosque in Timbuktu
  • 16. Map of the Spread of Islam to Africa
  • 17.
      • Draws on Greek, Persian, and Indian sources
      • Mathematics, astronomy and medicine
      • Idea that learning is a gift from Allah
      • Algebra, the Zero and Surgery
      • Developed the first hospitals where the sick could be treated by professionals
      • Advances become important components of later western culture, although it will take Christian loses in the Crusades to bring many Arab cultural ideas to Europe
    Islamic Science and Medicine
  • 18. Islamic Medicine