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World History Unit3 Ancientrome And Christianity
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World History Unit3 Ancientrome And Christianity

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  • simple really.......as Christianity spread, its new converts began to see themselves as Christians, not Romans. Official Roman persecutions of the newly converted Christians forced them underground. Thus, the new religion helped rot the empire from within during the first couple of centuries after Christ. Constantine did eventually use Christianity in a vain attempt to reunite the empire, but by the 4th century, the very idea of a 'Roman' world had been replaced by a Christian one. Citizens began to see themselves as Christian first and the pope became a much more powerful and important figure than the emperor.
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  • 1. World History Unit 3: Ancient Rome – Republic to Empire and Historical Christianity
  • 2. Map of the Mediterranean Area
  • 3. Map of Ancient Rome (from 117 AD)
  • 4. SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus Rome as a Republic 509 BC to 24 BC
  • 5. Romulus and Remus
    • Romulus and Remus
    • Legendary orphan brothers – raised by a she-wolf
    • Legend says they’re sons of the god of war: Mars
    • founded Rome in 753 BC
    • Romulus killed Remus over jealousy and rage
    • Legend is central to Roman sense of self – inside every Roman citizen will be the legacy of both the wolf and a murderer. Romans will take these traits with them wherever they go.
  • 6. True story behind the founding of Rome
    • Senate in Rome
    • Etruscans and Latins – two tribes on the Italian peninsula
    • Latins founded the town of Rome (date unknown)
    • Etruscans settled in the lands surrounding the city
    • Series of wars raged for centuries between the two groups.
    • 509 BC – Last Etruscan king is deposed – Senate is founded and the Republic Established
  • 7. Senate and the People of Rome
  • 8. Citizens of Rome Patricians and Plebeians
    • Patricians
      • Wealthy families of Rome
      • Only about 5% of the free population (25% of the population was enslaved)
      • Position based on birth – passed from father to son
      • Very patriarchal – led by the oldest male of the household
      • Controlled the Senate through money and power
    • Plebeians
      • Lower / working class citizens of Rome
      • About 95% of the free population of Rome
      • Entitled to rights and privileges due all citizens
      • Formed the basis of Roman society
      • Eventually fought to gain more control from the patricians
      • Will become the “commoners” of European society
  • 9. Expansion of the Republic in Italy (509 BC to 264 BC)
    • Rome immediately began to expand from the eternal city
    • Mostly by military conquest
    • Conquered regions (such as Tuscany and Napoli) were granted citizenship rights as long as they swore loyalty to the Senate
    • Really established a “Roman” Italy
    • Set the pattern – everyone could be Roman
    • By 264 – the Italian peninsula from the alps to the tip of the boot was under Senate control
  • 10. Punic Wars – Rome vs. Carthage
    • Three Punic Wars (Punic – Latin for Phoenicia– Carthage had been a Phoenician colony)
      • First Punic War – over Sicily – Rome and Carthage about equal strength – Rome wins and takes Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica
      • Second Punic War – attack by Carthage – Hannibal takes elephants through the Alps – Romans win at Zama and Carthage is reduced to a second rate power
      • Third Punic War – attack on the city of Carthage by Rome – unprovoked – Carthage destroyed – citizens sold into slavery or massacred – salt dumped to prevent resettlement
  • 11. Map of the Med at the beginning of the Punic Wars
  • 12. Legacy of the Punic Wars
    • Rome expands off the Italian peninsula
    • Citizenship brought to non-Italians
    • Resistance is Futile
    • Roman drive to Empire
    • Local Autonomy – decentralized government
      • Roman Procurator – taxes, administration of Roman justice and keeping the peace
      • Local Officials (different forms in each province) – administration of local / provincial laws and help keep the peace by working with Roman officials
  • 13. Roman Lands after the Punic Wars
  • 14. Corruption in the Republic
    • Over the years, the Senate became more and more corrupt
    • Senators began to serve themselves instead of the people
    • As the republic expanded, the Senate lost touch with the provinces, mostly due to the difficulty of communication
    • Eventually factions tore the Senate into different warring camps – each faction had a rival mercenary (privately paid) army
    • Roman Army – by 50 BC was fighting to expand the republic in Gaul (France) under Julius Caesar
  • 15. Julius Caesar – First among equals
    • Roman General in command of the Army in Gaul
    • Under orders from the Senate in 50BC to expand the republic
    • When civil war broke out in Rome, he decided to take the army (against orders) to the gates of Rome
    • He’s wildly popular with both the soldiers in his army and the people at large
    • 49 BC – Caesar takes Rome – tells the Senators to get back to work – it’s only temporary
    • 46 BC – Caesar has himself declared “dictator for life” by the Senate
    • March 15, 44 BC – Caesar assassinated on the steps of the Senate
  • 16. Roman Civil War
    • Octavian vs. Marc Anthony and Cleopatra
      • Octavian
        • Julius Caesar’s nephew
        • named by Caesar as successor
        • Controlled about ½ the army (because of his uncle)
      • Marc Anthony
        • Caesar’s highest ranking general and best friend
        • Gave one of the most memorable speeches of all time when Caesar died (immortalized 1500 years later by Shakespeare)
        • Refused to follow Octavian – he loved Cleopatra
        • Controlled about ½ the Roman Army
      • Cleopatra
        • Pharaoh of Egypt (not Egyptian, but rather Greek – legacy of Alexander the Great’s conquest of Egypt in the 4 th century BC)
        • Married to Julius Caesar and had a son with him
        • After Caesar’s death – sided with Anthony against Octavian
  • 17. Roman Civil War – part 2
    • Lasted 20 years (44 BC to 24 BC)
    • Control eventually swung to Octavian
    • Anthony committed suicide by falling on his sword before he was captured
    • Cleopatra was captured – while under arrest she committed suicide by having an asp brought to her by servants – within minutes of the snakebite, she was dead
    • 24 BC – Octavian becomes first emperor of Roman Empire and is granted the title of “Augustus Caesar” – he will bring stability and order to the empire
  • 18. Augustus Caesar
    • First Among Equals (first emperor)
    • Hero of the people because of his link to Julius Caesar
    • Rules for 41 years with an iron fist, but brings stability and order to Roman Empire
    • Ushered in a period of peace and prosperity (Pax Romana) for the empire
    • Ended most of the corruption and reformed the tax code
    • Massive construction projects
    • Reported to have said that he “found Rome brick and left it marble”
    • Instituted a census of the empire in 4BC (Roman year 505)
  • 19. Pax Romana
    • Period of relative peace and stability from 24 BC to 180 AD
    • Time of expansion in the empire
    • Mostly good emperors – they thought more about the empire then themselves
    • Citizenship expanded and major internal improvements took place across the empire
    • Stability and peace allowed for the expansion of Christianity (went along Roman roads that were protected by Roman soldiers )
  • 20. Biblical vs. Historical Christianity
  • 21. Historical Christianity – part 1 (birth of Jesus)
    • 4BC – Augustus orders a census of the empire
    • Israelites were required to return to their family home city
    • Records from Bethlehem, Judea show a Joseph (a carpenter) and Mary (his wife) of Nazareth with an unnamed newborn son
    • Biblical story appears to match Roman records
  • 22. Historical Christianity – part 2 (Death of Jesus)
    • Jewish and Roman records from 26 AD (Roman year 535) speak of a new rabbi – Jesus of Nazareth and his growing movement
    • 29 AD – Jesus arrested (by Jewish leaders) and executed (by the Romans)
    • INRI -- IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
    • Students should take notes from the movie
  • 23. Spread of Early Christianity
    • Peter
      • apostle who, according to biblical sources, was appointed to lead the Church by Christ himself (he’s thus the first “pope”)
      • Jesus was the fulfillment of the Jewish promise of a messiah, so one had to be Jewish first in order to accept Christianity
      • Church spread very slowly under his leadership
      • Most Jews refused to accept Jesus as a messiah
  • 24. Bringing Christianity to the Gentiles
    • Paul
      • Originally named Saul
      • Educated Jew from Tarsus, Anatolia (modern Turkey)
      • Persecuted Christians
      • According to Christian tradition, while Saul was on the way to Damascus, Syria he met the risen Christ and had an immediate conversion
      • Brought Christianity to the non-Jews (Gentiles) of the empire
      • Tradition says he walked 8000 miles around the empire establishing Churches
      • Wrote letters back to the Churches (some of them are in the Bible)
  • 25. Paul’s Journeys around the Empire (37 AD to 67 AD)
  • 26. Fall of Rome
    • Internal problems
    • Spread of Christianity
    • Bad Emperors
    • Size of the Empire
    • Lack of Communication
    • Shift of culture to the East
    • External Threats
    • Atilla – the Scourge of God
    • Huns on Europe’s doorstep
    • Germanic Invasions
      • Anglo/Saxons
      • Franks
      • Visigoths
      • Ostrogoths
  • 27. Internal Issues within the Empire
    • Christianity as a cancer
    • Lack of communication
    • Size of the Empire
    • Commodus sends empire down the toilet
    • Attempt at a solution
      • Diocletian and Constantine
      • Creation of the Byzantine Empire
    • Fall of Western Rome
  • 28. Christianity as a Cancer to Rome
    • Christianity spread among lower classes and women – the hook was salvation in the afterlife
    • Slaves picked up on it
    • At first Rome didn’t really care
    • Problem – Citizens must pray to the emperor’s god for the health of the empire
    • Christians refused – that’s treason against Rome
    • Thousands were executed
    • Emperor Nero’s bar-B-Que parties
    • As the new religion continued to spread, citizens began to identify themselves with Christianity, not with Rome. This shift took away a fundamental pillar of Roman society.
  • 29. Diocletian Split the Empire in 285 AD and appointed a sub-emperor in Byzantium
  • 30. Constantine the Great
    • Had a battlefield conversion to Christianity and soon after made Christianity a legal religion in the Empire
    • Moved the imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium in 306 AD
    • Renamed the capital after himself – Constantinople
    • Eastern Rome will thus be known as the Byzantine Empire – will last until 1453 AD
  • 31. External Invasions caused Rome’s Collapse
    • Attila and the Huns
      • Scourge of God
      • Fierce warriors from Asia
      • In Russia by about 300 AD (bad timing)
    • Germanic Invasions
      • Anglo/Saxons
      • Franks
      • Ostrogoths
      • Visigoths
  • 32. Attila and the Huns
  • 33. Germanic Invasions by 410 AD
  • 34. Germanic Invasions by 476
  • 35. Germanic Invasions
    • Anglo/Saxons
      • Invade Britannia
      • Anglo-land (becomes England)
      • Brought Germanic language to Britain (became Old English)
    • Ostrogoths
      • Finally settle on Iberian Peninsula (today’s Spain and Portugal) – adopted Christianity
      • Will be kicked out during the Muslim invasions of the 7 th century
    • Franks
      • Invade Gaul
      • Adopted Christianity very quickly
      • Strong bond between Franks and the institutional church
      • Defended Christianity against the Muslim invasion of Western Europe
    • Visigoths
      • Invaded Italy
      • Captured Rome in 476 AD and forced the last sub emperor from the throne
  • 36. Western Europe after 476 AD
    • Medieval kingdoms – decentralized governments and lack of trade
    • Decline in the cities
    • Strong institutional Church
    • Pope as the most powerful man in Europe
    • “ Dark Ages” – 476 AD to 1400 AD