World / European History Unit 2 -- Ancient Greece


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World / European History Unit 2 -- Ancient Greece

  1. 1.  Minoan  Trading community on the island of Crete  Highly advanced for the time  Capital: Knossos  Labyrinth and Minotaur myth  Around 1600 BC: disappears  May be the lost civilization of Atlantis (destroyed by volcanic explosion of Thera)
  2. 2.  under the palace of Knossos was a huge intricate labyrinth (maze)  At the center lay a minataur (1/2 man + ½ bull)  Sacrifices were required to satisfy the Minataur  In reality – young slaves forced by priests into the maze and then killed  Minataur would then protect the people of Knossos
  3. 3.  Mycenaean  Powerful city-state on the Greek mainland  Writing System: Linear A and Linear B  (still being studied and is not really understood)  Much is still unknown about this civilization  Iliad and the Odyssey ◦ Story of the Trojan War ◦ Written by Homer ◦ Shows the ideal Greek hero as being one who outsmarts his enemies ◦ Greeks see themselves grounded in logic and reasoning
  4. 4.  Written by a blind poet named Homer  Story of the Trojan War between “Greeks” and Troy  Tells story of the how the Greek heroes use intellect to outsmart their enemies rather than just fighting them  Use of the Trojan Horse is a great example of Greek intellect over an enemy
  5. 5. No “Greece” in 400 BCE Really a collection of city-states: ◦separate political units ◦united by a common culture Largest city-states and rivals: ◦Athens and Sparta
  6. 6.  On the sea – trading center  Very wealthy with a great navy  Individuals matter – freedom rules
  7. 7.  Democracy – every citizen votes on every law  Sets the ideal structure for democracies and republics of the present  Problem – what if they vote for a bad law?  Problem – no protection from the mob
  8. 8.  Capitalism – economy based on individuals and trade  Gives people an incentive to make money  Problem – capitalism leads to inequality and poverty for some – wealth and success for others
  9. 9.  Ruled by a military dictatorship / council  Society runs on absolute obedience to the state – even women have roles to play  Society of absolute equality – unique in the ancient world  Individualism is suppressed for the good of the state
  10. 10.  Men – serve in the army from age 7  Women – serve the state by having babies for the army  Disobedience and waste is forbidden  Spartan army is the most efficient fighting machine in the ancient world
  11. 11.  Foundation for Western Civilization ◦Greek Science and Mathematics ◦Humanism – man can observe and figure out his own world based on reasoning ◦Greek Philosophy – development of logical reasoning
  12. 12.  Astronomy ◦ Earth is Round – based on lunar Eclipse ◦ Earth’s circumference determined (quite accurately) using math and observation ◦ Geocentric model of the universe  Model based on observation and reasoning  Puts the Earth at the center of the universe  Everything revolves around the Earth  Greek Medicine ◦ Hippocrates – developed ideas behind the Four Humors  Tried to observe then diagnose  Step towards modern medicine  Development of Geometry ◦ Mathematics of Space and volume ◦ Mathematical principles based on a logical reasoning
  13. 13.  Idea that man can figure out the world around him by observation and logical reasoning
  14. 14.  Model based on observation of the sky and logical reasoning  Puts the Earth at the center of the universe  Everything revolves around the Earth
  15. 15.  Observe and diagnose based on observation  Hippocrates– father of medicine  Four fluids in the body ◦ Blood ◦ Phlegm ◦ Yellow bile ◦ Black bile
  16. 16.  Geometery – “earth measure”  Mathematics based on observation and logical reasoning  Pytharogas – classical Greek Mathmatician  Pythagorean theorem ◦ The area of the square built upon the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares upon the remaining sides.
  17. 17.  Philosophy – The search for Wisdom  Philosopher – one who seeks wisdom  Wisdom ◦ Different from facts and knowledge ◦ Uses facts and knowledge to understand how to question ◦ Really just the search for knowledge ◦ Best described in Plato’s Analogy of the Cave
  18. 18. Socrates at his Death  Born in Athens -- 469 BC  Originally a stonecutter  Told by the Oracle at Delphi at the Temple of Apollo that he was the wisest man in Athens and spent the remainder of his life trying to prove her wrong – he never did  Went around Athens asking questions and trying to find “wise” people  Teacher (called “Master”)– people left everything to follow him (similar to Jesus)  Greatest student – Plato  Question Everything – the answers themselves don’t matter, as long as one understands the need to question  Sentenced to death by Athenian court for corrupting the youth in 399 BC
  19. 19. Plato (from the painting “School of Athens”  Socrates’ greatest student  Recorded the life and wisdom of Socrates  Wrote a series of dialogues – like reading conversations between Socrates and the citizens of Athens  Question Everything (from Socrates), but if one asked the right questions, one would eventually come up with the correct answers (True Forms)  Most famous book – The Republic
  20. 20.  Plato’s greatest book – done in a series of chapters (called books by Plato)  True form of government – The Republic (people vote for reps – reps vote on the laws for the people)  True form of reps – “philosopher kings”  How does one become a philosopher? Develop wisdom  How does one develop wisdom? Understand the “cave” and get out of it.
  21. 21. Aristotle  Student of Plato  Mathematician, philosopher and scientist  Developed the idea behind logical reasoning  True forms are only true if they can be defended by logic  Answers to questions then, can be different and yet both answers can be right, depending on one’s perspective  Only had one student: Alexander the Great – he would take the ideas of Ancient Greece and spread them around the known world
  22. 22.  United Greece vs. Persian Empire  Started with Greek Revolts in Asia Minor  The Greeks turned to Athens for help  Persia responded by trying to invade Greece  490 BCE – Battle of Marathon ◦ Greek Army defeats Persians ◦ Greek soldier runs from the battlefield to Athens (26.2 miles) – screams “nike!” (victory) and then collapses and dies
  23. 23.  Xerxes – Persian “God-king” – amassed a huge army and navy to punish the Greek City states  Reports vary, but the Persian army was at least 200,000 strong (ancient reports say 2 million)  Xerxes decided to invade from the north and to sweep through Greece  Battle of Thermopyle (Aug 480 BCE) ◦ Leonidas of Sparta led 300 of his guards to the “hot gates” and cut off the Persians ◦ Persians sent wave after wave against the Spartans ◦ Persian victory, but the valiant loss inspires and rallies the rest of Greek city states  Battle of Plataea (Jun 479 BCE) ◦ United Greek force (led by the Spartans and the Athenians) defeated a much larger Persian army ◦ Persian army remnants retreated back to Asia Minor
  24. 24.  Athens vs. Sparta  Athens – great navy  Sparta – great army  War started when Athens imposed trade restrictions on Sparta’s allies  Sparta retalitated and went to war against Athens  Sparta eventually laid seige to Athens and forced the city to surrender  War weakened all of Greece & left it weak
  25. 25.  Son of Macedonian king Phillip II  Educated by Aristotle – taught to revere Greek ideas of humanism, philosophy, science and medicine  Becomes king at age 21 when his father is killed during the Macedonian invasion of Greece
  26. 26.  Subdued Greece by force, but then incorporated Greek fighters into his army  Invaded Asia Minor to go after Persia in 334 BCE  Persian Empire (from Egypt to Indian subcontinent) quickly fell to Alexander by 329 BCE
  27. 27.  Although Alexander wanted to go after India, his soldiers were tired and wanted to go home  Problem – many of the governors appointed by Alexander to control territories in his new empire were corrupt  Alexander died under mysterious circumstances in 323 BCE in Babylon (he may have been poisoned)
  28. 28.  Greek culture adn philosophy spread across the known world (important for later units)  Establishment of many different “Alexandria” cities  Inspiration for military leaders for the next 2300 years
  29. 29.  After the general was gone, the Empire was divided by his subordinate officers  Most important to western history: Ptolemaic Empire – Egypt (kings take the title of pharoahs)
  30. 30.  Greek Culture, Science, Humanism and Philosophy becomes mixed with other cultures. This hybrid culture will be known as “Hellensitic” as opposed to “Hellenic” culture (pure Greek)  Greek world begins to decline just as we see the rise of an even greater Mediterreanan super power.....................Rome