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World History Unit2 Ancientgreece
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World History Unit2 Ancientgreece


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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Minoan
    • Trading community on the island of Crete
    • Highly advanced for the time
    • Capital: Knossos
    • Labyrinth and Minotaur myth
    • Around 1600 BC: disappears
    • May be the lost civilization of Atlantis (destroyed by volcanic explosion of Thera)
    • Mycenaean
    • Powerful city-state on the Greek mainland
    • Iliad and the Odyssey
      • Story of the Trojan War
      • Written by Homer
      • Shows the ideal Greek hero as being one who outsmarts his enemies
      • Greeks see themselves grounded in logic and reasoning
  • 5.
    • No such place as “Greece” in the ancient world
    • Really a collection of city-states:
      • separate political units
      • united by a common culture
    • Largest city-states and rivals:
      • Athens and Sparta
  • 6.
    • On the sea – trading center
    • Very wealthy with a great navy
    • Individuals matter – freedom rules
    • Government:
      • Democracy – every citizen votes on every law
    • Sets the ideal structure for democracies and republics of the present
    • Problem – capitalism leads to inequality and poverty for some – wealth and success for others
  • 7.
    • Ruled by a military dictatorship / council
    • Society runs on absolute obedience to the state – even women have roles to play
    • Society of absolute equality – unique in the ancient world
    • Individualism is suppressed for the good of the state
    • Men – serve in the army from age 7
    • Women – serve the state by having babies for the army
    • Disobedience and waste is forbidden
    • Spartan army is the most efficient fighting machine in the ancient world
  • 8.
    • Foundation for Western Civilization
      • Greek Science and Mathematics
      • Humanism – man can observe and figure out his own world based on reasoning
      • Greek Philosophy – development of logical reasoning
  • 9.
    • Astronomy
      • Earth is Round – based on lunar Eclipse
      • Earth’s circumference determined (quite accurately) using math and observation
      • Geocentric model of the universe
        • Model based on observation and reasoning
        • Puts the Earth at the center of the universe
        • Everything revolves around the Earth
    • Greek Medicine
      • Hippocrates – developed ideas behind the Four Humors
        • Tried to observe then diagnose
        • Step towards modern medicine
    • Development of Geometry
      • Mathematics of Space and volume
      • Mathematical principles based on a logical reasoning
  • 10.
    • Philosophy – The search for Wisdom
    • Philosopher – one who seeks wisdom
    • Wisdom
      • Different from facts and knowledge
      • Uses facts and knowledge to understand how to question
      • Really just the search for knowledge
      • Best described in Plato’s Analogy of the Cave
  • 11.
    • Socrates at his Death
    • Born in Athens -- 469 BC
    • Originally a stonecutter
    • Told by the Oracle at Delphi at the Temple of Apollo that he was the wisest man in Athens and spent the remainder of his life trying to prove her wrong – he never did
    • Went around Athens asking questions and trying to find “wise” people
    • Teacher (called “Master”)– people left everything to follow him (similar to Jesus)
    • Greatest student – Plato
    • Question Everything – the answers themselves don’t matter, as long as one understands the need to question
    • Sentenced to death by Athenian court for corrupting the youth in 399 BC
  • 12.
    • Plato (from the painting “School of Athens”)
    • Socrates’ greatest student
    • Recorded the life and wisdom of Socrates
    • Wrote a series of dialogues – like reading conversations between Socrates and the citizens of Athens
    • Question Everything (from Socrates), but if one asked the right questions, one would eventually come up with the correct answers (True Forms)
    • Most famous book – The Republic
  • 13.
    • Plato’s greatest book – done in a series of chapters (called books by Plato)
    • True form of government – The Republic (people vote for reps – reps vote on the laws for the people)
    • True form of reps – “philosopher kings”
    • How does one become a philosopher? Develop wisdom
    • How does one develop wisdom? Understand the “cave” and get out of it.
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Aristotle
    • Student of Plato
    • Mathematician and scientist
    • Developed the idea behind logical reasoning
    • True forms are only true if they can be defended by logic
    • Answers to questions then, can be different and yet both answers can be right, depending on one’s perspective
    • Only had one student: Alexander the Great – he would take the ideas of Ancient Greece and spread them around the known world