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World History Unit1 Ancientworld
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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • The Past? Dates? Events? People?
    • A class that helps students prepare for college and the SATs?
    • Something students need to take so that Coach Flo has a job?
    • Something to sleep through?
    • I have no idea, but I know it sucks?
  • 3.
    • History is a story that tells us who we are … by telling us who we were.
    • The story must tie facts together, but there is no need to have all the information to tell the story
    • Stories from the past combine to help us tell our story
  • 4.
    • Time before the development of writing
    • Scientists say it may go back hundreds of thousands of years
    • No documented “story” without writing
    • Really belongs to scientists and archaeologists
    • Many human advances, including the ability of humans to domesticate agriculture – leads to settlements
  • 5.
    • Civilizations developed along major river systems all over the world
    • Some settlements are tens of thousands of years old
    • Rivers brought not just water, but silt as well, which fertilized the land
    • Certain rivers are predictable in their floods
  • 6.
    • Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates
    • Egyptian: Nile
    • Indian: Indus
    • Chinese: Yellow
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
    • Modern Day Iraq
    • Writing: Cuneiform (Wedge-shaped writing)
    • Government: City-states
    • Religion: polytheistic and tied to nature
    • Epic of Gilgamesh: Flood story
    • Hammurabi's Code: equality before the law
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • Nile River: flows north from the highlands of Ethiopia to the Med – civilization develops only along the river
    • Settlements in Egypt are probably older than in Mesopotamia, but writing developed later
    • Religion: polytheistic with Pharaoh (king) as son of Re
    • Government: first empire (multiple nations – one ruler) – Nile runs from Black Africa to Arab Africa
    • Writing System: Hieroglyphics (picture writing) – has thousands of characters – much more sophisticated than Mesopotamian cuneiform
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Phoenicians
    • Found in modern day Lebanon (north of Israel)
    • Sea traders – colonized the entire Mediterranean area
    • Traded with Egyptians and Greeks – brought goods and culture across the Med
    • Developed the alphabet to facilitate trade
    • Alphabet – set of symbols based on sounds of a language
    • Hebrews (Israelites)
    • Small and insignificant kingdom found in and around Jerusalem (eastern part of the Med.
    • Often conquered by others (Egypt, Babylonia, Rome, Alexander, Persia)
    • Religion – monotheism
      • Judaism
      • Old Testament
      • Foundation for both Christianity and Islam
  • 13.
    • Indus River – in northern India – contains the highest concentration of people in the world
    • Some settlements along the Indus may be perhaps 25,000 years old
    • Religion: Hinduism
  • 14.
    • Settlements along the Yellow River
    • Isolated by geography from the rest of the world
    • Government: ruled by dynasties (long periods of familial rule). According to tradition, dynasties would rule until they lost the “mandate of heaven” (authority from the gods)
    • Three major philosophies developed in Ancient China
      • Confucianism
      • Daoism (Taoism)
      • Legalism
  • 15.
    • Confucius
    • Chinese 6 th century BC philosopher
    • Everyone has duties and responsibilities
    • Accept your position in life
    • Correct order in life will bring stability (balance is key)
    • Ruler’s responsibility was to provide good government
    • People’s responsibility was to be respectful and loyal subjects
    • Taoism
    • Reject conflict and strife in everyday life
    • Seek to live in harmony with nature
    • Simplicity in life and the virtue of yielding to outside pressure
    • Water – yields to pressure, yet is an unstoppable force that causes immense changes
    • Best government – one that governs least
  • 16.
    • Youngest of the philosophies in Ancient China
    • Sought to unite Confucianism with Taoism under a strict code for behavior – only through a strict sense of loyalty and unity could peace and harmony with nature and self be achieved
    • Harsh rules – set down by harsh rulers
    • Government control of everything, down to the smallest facet of everyday life (made great use of paper to get the word out)
    • Rulers greatest asset – ability to control the people and provide stability
    • Control and discipline brought unity and harmony
  • 17.
    • Hinduism
    • Old Indian religion
    • Both polytheistic and monotheistic
    • All powerful world soul or force in all of us
    • Based on reincarnation and the caste system
    • All of us are trying to rejoin the world’s soul
    • Buddhism
    • Siddartha Gautama – first Buddha or “enlightened one”
    • Based on understanding relationship between desire and pain
    • Eliminate desire to eliminate suffering
    • Eliminate desire = achieve Nirvana and break cycle of reincarnation
  • 18.
    • Oldest surviving major world religion
    • Polytheistic and monotheistic at the same time
    • Brahman – the world’s soul (monotheistic)
    • Different Hindu gods -- really just manifestations of Brahman
    • Creation – Brahman shattered – each of us has a piece of Brahman – it’s the “life force” in all living things
    • Reincarnation – cycle of rebirth based on Karma (the way you live your life)– we’re all eventually trying to rejoin Brahman – only members of the priest class with good Karma will be able to rejoin Brahman
    • Caste system: 14 levels of humans from Brahmin (priest class) to Untouchables (lowest humans)
  • 19.
    • Siddhartha Gautama – Hindu prince who had a crisis of faith and walked among the people and observed the world
    • Four Noble Truths
      • Everyone suffers
      • Suffering is caused by desire
      • To eliminate suffering – eliminate desire
      • To eliminate desire – follow the Eight fold path to righteousness
    • Eliminating desire would thus allow a person to become “enlightened” or a Buddha. This was called achieving a state called Nirvana
    • Achieve Nirvana and break the cycle of reincarnation and join the world’s soul
    • Anyone not achieving Nirvana would ensure their good Karma and would go up on the ladder of reincarnation
  • 20.
    • Ancient powerful empire (550 BC to 350 BC) centered in modern day Iran
    • Stretched from the steps of India to the Greek world – largest empire of its time
    • Developed the first ideas behind Local Autonomy as a way to govern its empire
    • ran into Greek colonies in what is today Turkey (ancient Anatolia) and fought a protracted war against the united Greek city states – it’s a war that Persia will lose.
  • 21.