South Asia And The Indian Subcontinent

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World Geography Unit on Indian Subcontinent

World Geography Unit on Indian Subcontinent

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  • 1. Global Studies Unit #6A: The Indian subcontinent
  • 2. South Asia
  • 3. Satellite View of South Asia
  • 4. The Size of South Asia
  • 5. Countries India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanka Afghanistan China Myanmar Iran
  • 6. South Asia: Physical Map
  • 7. The Ganges River System 1,560 miles long
  • 8. “ Mata Ganga” (Mother Ganges)
  • 9. The Brahmaputra River System 1,800 miles long
  • 10. Floods on the Brahmaputra: 2003
  • 11. Flooding on the Brahmaputra
  • 12. The Indus River System 1,975 miles long
  • 13. Elevation Levels
  • 14. Mountains & Peaks Himalayas Mt. Everest ▲ Karakoran Mts. Hindu Kush Vindhya Hills Eastern Ghats Western Ghats Khyber Pass I I
  • 15. The Himalayas
    • “ him” [snow]
    • “ aalaya” [home]
    • Mt. Everest is 29,035 feet. It is the highest mt. peak in the world.
  • 16. The Himalayas
  • 17. The Deccan Plateau
    • 31,800 square miles in size.
    • Elevation range: 2,000 – 8,000 feet high.
    • From the Sanskrit word, “dakshina” [“the south”].
  • 18. The tibetan Plateau
    • The “Roof of the World.”
    • average elevation is 16,400 feet.
  • 19. Climate of South Asia
  • 20. Climate Regions of South Asia
  • 21. Winter Monsoons: Nov.-April
  • 22. Summer Monsoons: May-Oct.
  • 23. Vegetation of South Asia
  • 24. Major Farming Systems of South Asia
  • 25. Economic Activities & Resources
  • 26. Demographic Data for South Asia
  • 27. Population Density
  • 28. Population Density
  • 29. Eastern Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism
  • 30. Eastern Religious Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism
    • Hinduism
    • Old Indian religion
    • Both polytheistic and monotheistic
    • All powerful world soul or force in all of us
    • Based on reincarnation and the caste system
    • All of us are trying to rejoin the world’s soul
    • Buddhism
    • Siddartha Gautama – first Buddha or “enlightened one”
    • Based on understanding relationship between desire and pain
    • Eliminate desire to eliminate suffering
    • Eliminate desire = achieve Nirvana and break cycle of reincarnation
  • 31. Hinduism in Detail
    • Oldest surviving major world religion
    • Polytheistic and monotheistic at the same time
    • Brahman – the world’s soul (monotheistic)
    • Different Hindu gods -- really just manifestations of Brahman
    • Creation – Brahman shattered – each of us has a piece of Brahman – it’s the “life force” in all living things
    • Reincarnation – cycle of rebirth based on Karma (the way you live your life)– we’re all eventually trying to rejoin Brahman – only members of the priest class with good Karma will be able to rejoin Brahman
    • Caste system: 14 levels of humans from Brahmin (priest class) to Untouchables (lowest humans)
  • 32. What do Hindus believe?
    • One impersonal Ultimate Reality – Brahman
    • Manifest as many personal deities
    • True essence of life – the soul is Brahman trapped in matter
    • Reincarnation – Brahman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime
    • Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad)
    • Ultimate goal of life – to reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman
  • 33. Who do Hindus worship? – the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma , the creator god
  • 34. All deities are but forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman
  • 35. Buddhism in Detail
    • Siddhartha Gautama – Hindu prince who had a crisis of faith and walked among the people and observed the world
    • Four Noble Truths
      • Everyone suffers
      • Suffering is caused by desire
      • To eliminate suffering – eliminate desire
      • To eliminate desire – follow the Eight fold path to righteousness
    • Eliminating desire would thus allow a person to become “enlightened” or a Buddha. This was called achieving a state called Nirvana
    • Achieve Nirvana and break the cycle of reincarnation and join the world’s soul
    • Anyone not achieving Nirvana would ensure their good Karma and would go up on the ladder of reincarnation
  • 36. Religions of South Asia
  • 37. Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)
    • Born in NE India (Nepal).
    • Raised in great luxury to be a king.
    • At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.
    • Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.
    • Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana .
    • Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
  • 38. What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!
    • Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
  • 39. Four Noble Truths
    • There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. ( Dukkha )
      • The Buddha found this out when he was young and experienced suffering and death in others.
  • 40. Four Noble Truths
    • The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. ( Tanha )
  • 41. Four Noble Truths
    • The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. ( Nirvana = “extinction” )
  • 42. Four Noble Truths
    • To reach nirvana , one must follow the Eightfold Path.
  • 43. Eightfold Path Nirvana
    • The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.
    • Escape from the cycle of rebirth.