Unit #5 Africa
 
<ul><li>Huge continent </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 of the total landmass of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by extremes – ...
<ul><li>Arab Africa   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>area north of the Sahara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly Muslim today – stro...
<ul><li>Great Rift Valley   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4000 mile long rip in the land where the continents pulled apart million...
<ul><li>Nile river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longest in the world (over 4000 miles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs from the m...
<ul><li>Most of Africa supports only  subsistence farming  (farming that only supports the nutritional needs of the farmer...
 
<ul><li>Egypt and Nubia  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>settlements along the Nile may be  5000+ years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
 
<ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation after 650 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berber traders crossed the Sahar...
<ul><li>Powerful west African kingdom in the bight of Africa – unknown to Europeans until the arrival of the Portuguese in...
 
<ul><li>Portugal took the lead in the slave trade  </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves went to work in the New World on Sugar pl...
European Imperialism In Africa after 1880
Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Militar...
Africa in 1880
<ul><li>Called by chancellor Bismarck of Germany to settle European issues regarding Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Major Europe...
 
 
<ul><li>“ scientific” notion that all modern species evolved from lower life forms  </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin himself never...
<ul><li>Poem written by British writer Kipling in 1899 that called on America to bring civilization to the “savages” of th...
The “White Man’s Burden”?
Punishing “Lazy” Workers
<ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Crop economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money Economies </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>African people began to reject European culture </li></ul><ul><li>Africans tried to move toward the unity of Afric...
<ul><li>European countries used African troops to help them fight the war </li></ul><ul><li>Africans believed if they were...
<ul><li>Africans saw British and French lose battles </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans were no longer seen as invincible </li></...
<ul><li>End of WWII saw the beginning of the UN </li></ul><ul><li>The UN called for self-rule by all nations </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions – boycott and strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated trans...
<ul><li>Tribalism Vs. Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes within African countries fight each other for control </li></ul...
<ul><li>White colonizers still held a majority of the businesses and land </li></ul><ul><li>Land redistribution called for...
<ul><li>America and Russia tried to influence the independence movements in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Russians preferred so...
<ul><li>Over 60 countries – mostly in black Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous growth and potential – especially in Black...
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Unit #5 Africa

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Global Studies Unit #5

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Unit #5 Africa

  1. 1. Unit #5 Africa
  2. 3. <ul><li>Huge continent </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 of the total landmass of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by extremes – huge deserts and dense jungles </li></ul><ul><li>Longest River – the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Great Rift Valley – center of original human activity </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Arab Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>area north of the Sahara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly Muslim today – strong ties to the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small strip of land for development along the Med Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sahara Desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest desert in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates black Africa from Arab Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely impenetrable, except for area around the Nile River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largely grasslands – best farming on the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some jungle areas – especially south of the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily populated region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long legacy of slavery and the slave trade </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Great Rift Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4000 mile long rip in the land where the continents pulled apart millions of years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the Red Sea and most of Africa’s major lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area where first pre-humans appeared (Olduvai Gorge) – oldest fossils may be 3.5 million years old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretches from Ethiopia to South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong ties to the east (India and Indonesia) through trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by the Great Rift Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central and South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat grasslands and deserts on a plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy diamond mines in the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast mineral resources (gold, silver, copper and uranium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy of legalized segregation (Apartheid) in South Africa and brutal colonization by European powers in other parts of the region </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Nile river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longest in the world (over 4000 miles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs from the mountains of Ethiopia north to the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very fertile delta – some settlements along the Nile may be as old as 6000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River cuts through the boundary between Black Africa and Arab Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congo River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 2750 miles long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drains the Congo Basin: an area of dense jungles and rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fully navigable due to large waterfalls and intense current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No delta: current actually flows out to sea – very little agricultural development </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Most of Africa supports only subsistence farming (farming that only supports the nutritional needs of the farmer and his family with nothing left to sell) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic factors such as climate and soil limit the ability of some regions in Africa to support wide scale agriculture </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Egypt and Nubia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>settlements along the Nile may be 5000+ years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved out an empire by about 2500 BC (multiple nations – river cuts across the line between Black Africa and Arab Africa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy of this volatile relationship can be seen in the Sudan today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bantu Migrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 4000 BC: black Africans from what is today Nigeria begin to filter down throughout the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today most of Black Africa is populated by people who are ethnically and linguistically related, yet are members of hundreds of different African tribes </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation after 650 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berber traders crossed the Sahara Desert and into West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates of 25% conversion by 1500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library </li></ul></ul>Mosque in Timbuktu
  9. 12. <ul><li>Powerful west African kingdom in the bight of Africa – unknown to Europeans until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 1450s </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized in three major trading items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt: used to preserve meat and milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold: Ghana still produces vast amounts of gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves: simply another commodity in all ancient societies – slave trade was in effect across the Sahara and into the Islamic world for hundreds of years before the Portuguese arrive </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Portugal took the lead in the slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves went to work in the New World on Sugar plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans tried to enslave the American Indians first, but 90% died within the first 100 years of colonization – mostly from smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Africans had been exposed to the same diseases as Europeans and thus were largely immune to smallpox </li></ul>
  11. 15. European Imperialism In Africa after 1880
  12. 16. Pre-19c European Trade with Africa
  13. 17. Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism “ White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism
  14. 18. Africa in 1880
  15. 19. <ul><li>Called by chancellor Bismarck of Germany to settle European issues regarding Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Major European powers divided Africa among themselves – most of the modern boundaries were actually drawn by the Europeans without regard to tribal loyalties and hatreds </li></ul><ul><li>Africans were seen as savages – not worthy of </li></ul><ul><li>French and British got the most square miles, but much of this area was either already under French or British control, or was in the Sahara desert </li></ul><ul><li>Only Liberia left alone (it was seen as a US protectorate – established in 1817 by American abolitionists) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia will remain independent – they defeat the Italian army in 1896 – Italians will eventually take Ethiopia in 1935 </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>“ scientific” notion that all modern species evolved from lower life forms </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin himself never discussed humans, but others took his work on evolution and tried to link humans to apes </li></ul><ul><li>Black Africans were lower than white Europeans </li></ul>Social Darwinism
  17. 23. <ul><li>Poem written by British writer Kipling in 1899 that called on America to bring civilization to the “savages” of the third world </li></ul><ul><li>Very paternalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Kipling saw non-whites as lacking in sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Call for the expansion of Christianity to save souls as well – call will be heeded by missionaries around the world </li></ul>The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
  18. 24. The “White Man’s Burden”?
  19. 25. Punishing “Lazy” Workers
  20. 26. <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Crop economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money Economies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads, railroads and ports were built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European style schools taught Africans Western ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European languages taught Africans a common language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans w/ European Ed. Became the leaders of independence movements </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>African people began to reject European culture </li></ul><ul><li>Africans tried to move toward the unity of African people and </li></ul><ul><li>The celebration of African culture </li></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>European countries used African troops to help them fight the war </li></ul><ul><li>Africans believed if they were good enough to fight—they should also have a say in their own government </li></ul><ul><li>Africans provided resources for the war effort as well, showing that they could be useful to themselves </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Africans saw British and French lose battles </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans were no longer seen as invincible </li></ul><ul><li>Some military losses came at the hands of the Japanese—a non-European power </li></ul><ul><li>WWII devastated the economies of imperialist powers </li></ul><ul><li>They were no longer strong enough to maintain their empires </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>End of WWII saw the beginning of the UN </li></ul><ul><li>The UN called for self-rule by all nations </li></ul><ul><li>This increased the desire of Africans for freedom and independence </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions – boycott and strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated transition of power—from Europeans to Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War for independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerrilla warfare </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Tribalism Vs. Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes within African countries fight each other for control </li></ul><ul><li>Single Party Rule </li></ul><ul><li>A strong leader would emerge and ban other parties </li></ul><ul><li>Often the military would seize power in a coup d’etat </li></ul><ul><li>This led to tyranny </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>White colonizers still held a majority of the businesses and land </li></ul><ul><li>Land redistribution called for taking the land from the land owners </li></ul><ul><li>Africans will distribute the land equally </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism – Gov’t controls some of the economic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally the gov’t distributes those resources equally </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t takes away power of big business </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>America and Russia tried to influence the independence movements in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Russians preferred socialist governments </li></ul><ul><li>America preferred anything BUT socialist gov’ts </li></ul>
  29. 35. <ul><li>Over 60 countries – mostly in black Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous growth and potential – especially in Black Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid industrialization – serious growing pains – terrible poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic, religious and tribal issues have led to terrible bloodshed over the years </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS – ravaging the continent – some countries have up to 1/3 of the population infected with the HIV virus </li></ul>
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