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Unit #1    Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography
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Unit #1 Foundations Of World Cultures And Geography

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Global Studies Unit #1

Global Studies Unit #1

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  • 1. Global Studies Unit #1 Foundations, Tools and Concepts
  • 2. What is Global Studies? Why do students have to take it?
    • The study of a globe?
    • A class for freshmen?
    • A boring class with a boring textbook?
    • Something STM students have to take so that Coach Flo has a job?
    • I have no idea…….. Why is he asking me this? Doesn’t he already know?
  • 3. Global Studies – A Working Definition
    • Global Studies is an in depth study of major regions around the globe that uses geography, history and current events to help students gain a basic understanding of those regions
    • Students are able to see how each region and / or country is similar to others
    • Students are able to see how each region and / or country is unique to itself
  • 4. Our Star: the Sun
    • The Sun provides light and the energy needed for life on Earth
    • The Earth is 93 Million miles (150 million KM) away from the Sun
    • It takes approximately 8 minutes for sunlight to reach Earth
    • The Earth travels around the sun in an oval shaped orbit
  • 5. Revolutions, Rotations and Seasons
    • Revolution – one orbit around the sun (365 ¼ days)
    • Rotation – one complete turn of the earth on its axis (24 hours)
    • Seasons – caused by the tilt of the Earth and amount of sunlight different parts of the globe receive at different times of the year
  • 6. Using Globes and Maps
    • Globes
      • Show the world in three dimensions
      • Shows the oceans, seas and continents much as they are
      • Only difference would be the scale, or size
      • Problem – can not be both small enough to use and detailed enough to be useful
  • 7. Using Globes and Maps
    • Maps
      • Great for showing details – small pieces can be examined in great detail
      • Problem – the Earth is round
      • Distortion is a problem
      • Mercator Projection Map
        • Developed in the 16 th century
        • “ stretches” everything above 70 degrees – makes Greenland huge
        • Practically unusable for true distances in northern and southern polar areas
  • 8. Longitude and Latitude
    • Longitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from north to south (from pole to pole)
    • Latitude – imaginary lines that go around the globe from east to west
      • Equator – latitude line exactly halfway between the north and south poles
      • Tropic of Cancer – latitude line in the Northern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on June 21/22
      • Tropic of Capricorn – latitude line in the Southern Hemisphere where the sun is directly overhead on Dec 21/22
  • 9. The Earth Third Rock from the Sun Physical Geography
  • 10. Inside the Earth – Third Rock from the Sun
    • The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers
    • Inner Core – solid iron and nickel
    • Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel (contains the basis for our magnetic field – that protects us from most forms of solar radiation)
    • Mantle – semisoft melted rock
    • Crust – thin cooled skin that “floats” on the mantle – contains cracks and moves
    • Movement of the crust causes earthquakes and volcanoes
  • 11. Plate Tectonics
    • The Earth’s crust is broken into plates
    • The plates move along the flowing mantle in different directions
    • Pressure between the plates builds up until it is released by an earthquake
    • Ring of Fire – hundreds of volcanoes around the Pacific Rim where the Pacific plate interacts with other plates
  • 12. Air and Water – Necessary for Life on Earth
    • Air
      • Contained with the Earth’s atmosphere – a layer of gasses that surround the planet
      • Actually composed of many different types of gasses
        • Nitrogen – about 78% (essential for development of proteins)
        • Oxygen – about 21% (essential for respiration)
        • Others – about 1% combined
    • Water
      • 97% of the water on Earth is found in the Ocean – it’s salty
      • Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh
        • Mostly found in the polar caps and glaciers (huge ice sheets found on mountains, Antarctica and Greenland)
        • Great deal is underground – sometimes miles deep
        • Very little (0.3%) is at the surface (mostly lakes) and therefore useable by living organisms – very important to conserve and keep clean what we have
  • 13. Water Cycle
  • 14. Types of Natural Resources found on Earth
    • Recyclable Resources
      • Recycle naturally through the earth itself
      • Water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen
      • Can refer to items that can be reused without replacing the resource
        • Aluminum
        • Plastic
        • Paper
    • Renewable Resources
      • Resources that can be replaced by man
      • Wood – trees can be replanted
      • Biodiesel and ethanol – crops can be replanted
    • Nonrenewable Resources
      • Can not be replaced
      • Important to conserve and use wisely -- they’re no longer being created
      • Oil, natural gas, coal, minerals
  • 15. Climate vs. Weather
    • Climate
      • Long term average weather in any one place or region
      • “ the climate in Jamaica is tropical”
      • Largely affected by wind patterns, water currents and major landforms
      • Changes take place over years or even millennia
    • Weather
      • Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperature
      • “ It’s 90 degrees today”
      • Affected by the movement of storms around the planet
      • Changes rapidly over a few days
  • 16. Broad Types of Climate on Earth
    • Tropical
      • Low latitudes around the Equator
      • Generally hot, wet and sunny
      • Rain forests dominate
    • Dry
      • Different places around the Earth – generally on the opposite side of mountain ranges from wind flow
      • Little to rain with sandy soil
      • Sparse to no vegetation
    • Moderate
      • Found in the middle latitudes (like Connecticut)
      • Temperatures and rainfall are generally moderate enough every year to promote agricultural production
    • Continental
      • Hot summers and bitterly cold winters
      • Generally drier than moderate climates
      • Large grasslands in some areas and forests in others
    • Polar
      • Found in high latitudes
      • Cold all year round
      • Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses
      • Very little life found in these regions
  • 17. Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating
    • Wind
      • Hot air rises – so air in the tropics rises and is carried towards the polar regions
      • Cold air in the polar regions sinks to the surface and flows towards the tropics
      • Cold air – can not hold much water vapor
      • Warm air – can hold more water vapor
      • Wind happens when the air flows from the areas where it’s sinking to areas where it’s rising
      • The Earth’s rotation helps drive wind direction
    • Water
      • Warm water is lighter than cold, dense water
      • Water in tropical regions flows slowly towards the polar regions
      • Cold water in the polar regions sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south towards the tropical regions, where the cycle begins all over
  • 18. Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current
  • 19. Who lives on the Rock? The Story behind Earth’s Human and Cultural Geography
  • 20. Population of the Earth
    • Now at 6.6 billion (United Nations Study – June 2007)
    • Growing at a rate of about 75 million per year
    • Some areas experiencing negative or stagnant growth
      • Central and Eastern Europe (due to low birth rates and high rates of emigration to other areas)
      • Some regions in Africa (due to the AIDS epidemic)
      • Western Europe (declining birth rates)
    • Some areas experiencing moderate to high growth rates (declining death rates, high birth rates and / or high immigration rates – often coupled with better medicine, industrialization and job growth)
      • Middle East
      • Sub-Saharan Africa
      • Latin America
      • India
      • United States (now 3 rd largest country in the world with a summer 2007 estimate of just over 300 million people)
  • 21. India and China – Huge population centers
    • China
      • Largest population in the world – 1.3 billion
      • Largely stable with a small amount of growth
      • Communist government has a “One Child Policy” which attempts to curb growth, especially among urban citizens
    • India
      • Second largest population in the world – 1.2 billion
      • Big rate of growth (almost 25% since 1991), due largely to industrialization, better medicine and high birth rates
      • Projected to surpass China in the next 20 years
    • Together these two countries have approx. 2.3 billion people
    • That’s about 1/3 of the world’s population
    • combine that with the 235 million from Indonesia – the world’s 4 th largest country, and it means that Asia’s “big 3” have almost 4 billion people (remember – the world itself has about 6.6 billion)
  • 22. Global Urbanization and Overcrowding of Cities
    • As the overall population has expanded, so has the growth of cities around the world
    • Industrialization and Modernization have driven people off the farms
    • Problem – overcrowding and extreme poverty has forced people into slums
    • Urban sprawl is another issue, as is a lack of suitable infrastructure and sanitation
    • Picture is of a slum in Jakarta, Indonesia after a heavy rainstorm
  • 23. Major Religions of the World
    • Western (Judeo-based) Religions
      • Judaism (15-18 million)
      • Christianity (2.1 billion)
      • Islam (1.3 billion – also the fastest growing religion)
    • Eastern (philosophical) Religions
      • Hinduism (900 million)
      • Buddhism (400 million)
  • 24. Major Economic Systems
    • Traditional Economy
      • Based on local customs and laws
      • Most often involves trading or bartering of some kind
      • Oldest form of economy – impractical in the large scale economies of the modern age
    • Market Economy (Capitalism)
      • Characterized by private ownership of industries
      • Prices and availability of products are based on supply and demand
      • High supply + low demand = lower prices
      • Low supply + high demand = higher prices
    • Command Economy (Socialism)
      • Government control of the economy
      • Government control of society
    • Most economies are a mix of command and market. It just depends how far a country swings to either side
      • USA – mostly capitalism, but some socialism (welfare and minimum wage)
      • Italy – High amount of capitalism, but nationalized industries such as healthcare, telephone company, airlines and others
      • China – Socialism, but with some private ownership – moving towards capitalism
      • North Korea – Hard line Socialism -- resisting capitalism
  • 25. Major forms of government around the world
    • Monarchy
      • Old form of government not seen much in the modern world
      • noble families -- rule generally passes from father to son
    • Democracy
      • Direct – citizens vote on laws – mostly seen today in small communities
      • Indirect – citizens vote for representatives – reps vote on laws
      • True democracy (rule by the people) is rare
    • Republic
      • Representatives (mostly elected, but sometimes appointed) vote on the laws for the people
      • Most countries today are republics
        • USA – US Congress and the President
        • China – National People’s Congress
    • Dictatorship
      • Where a person rules through fear and/ or force
      • Mostly happens when a military general takes over in a coup
      • Can happen in a republic if the dictator controls the representative body