Lifetime Fitness: Ch 5


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Wellness Concepts and Applications, 8th Edition

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Lifetime Fitness: Ch 5

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES • Define and describe flexibility • Discuss difference between joint mobility and flexibility • List and describe three types of stretching • Discuss purpose of a dynamic warmup • List in order a proper workout session • Name and describe the most effective flexibility tool
  3. 3. FLEXIBILITY • Flexibility is the pliability of muscle tissue thru range of motion between joints • Flexibility is influenced by: • bony structure • amount of tissue at the joint • skin • elasticity of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments at the joint
  4. 4. FLEXIBILITY • Flexibility begins to decline by the mid-20s • Flexibility is influenced by age, gender, and physical activity • Flexibility is important for: • performing activities of daily life • maintaining good posture • preventing low back pain • reducing joint deterioration • Joint Mobility (synovial fluid) • Flexibility is most important for preventing lower-back injury • Posterior Kinetic Chain
  5. 5. SCIENCE OF STRETCHING • STRETCH REFLEX: • Muscles contract in response to rapid stretching • Can limit ROM as the muscle resists • Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO): • Located in tendons and is increasingly activated with tension in the muscle • Inhibits muscle activation in an effort to decrease muscle and tendon tension
  6. 6. SCIENCE OF STRETCHING CONT. • Reciprocal Inhibition: • The ability of the muscle opposing the muscle being stretched to remain relaxed during the stretch • Autogenic inhibition: • A muscle's ability to relax while experiencing tension • Stretch Reflex and the effects of the GTO must be overcome to achieve muscle adaptations during flexibility training
  7. 7. TYPES OF STRETCHING •Static •Ballistic •PNF - Proprioneuromuscular Facilitation
  8. 8. STATIC STRETCHING • Lengthen the muscle to its point of tolerance • Hold end position for an extended period • Research indicates 6 one minute sets to overcome SR • Maintain form the entire duration of the stretch • Should only be done POST workout • Very little risk of injury
  9. 9. STATIC GUIDELINES • Warm up before stretching • Stretch to the point of discomfort, but not pain • Hold each stretch 1 minute minimum • Breathe rhythmically and continuously • Perform 2 to 3 times per day
  10. 10. STATIC CONTRAINDICATIONS • Does not increase core body temperature • Performance requires the use of movement, static stretching is stationary • Reduces strength and power production • Decreases immediate explosiveness affecting: • Vertical jump • First step quickness • Agility
  11. 11. BALLISTIC STRETCHING • Rhythmic bouncing motion • Rapidly moving the muscle through a cycle of being lengthened and shortened • End positions not held • Often triggers the stretch reflex • Typically done pre-workout • Slight risk of injury
  12. 12. PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION (PNF) •PNF is the most effective stretching technique but takes more time, requires a partner, and has an increased risk of injury •PNF stretching combines passive movement with isometric contractions •Flexibility is usually measured with a goniometer
  13. 13. PNF HOLD-RELAX (PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION) • Phase 1: Passive stretch held for 10 sec. • Phase 2: Partner then presses to further lengthen the muscle while the athlete “holds” resisting the partners force • Phase 3: Athlete is then instructed to relax while the partner presses and holds the limb in a passive 30 sec. stretch • You should see increased ROM during this phase due to autogenic inhibition
  14. 14. PNF CONTRACT-RELAX (PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION) • Phase 1: Passive stretch held for 10 sec. • Phase 2: The athlete then contracts the muscle being stretched while the partner resists the contraction through a joints full ROM • Phase 3: At the end of the ROM the athlete is instructed to relax while the partner presses and holds the limb in a passive 30 sec. stretch • You should see increased ROM during this phase due to autogenic inhibition
  15. 15. • Phase 1 & 2 are identical to the PNF Hold-Relax • Phase 3: • Athlete is instructed to relax while the partner presses and holds the limb in a passive 30 sec. stretch • While this stretch is being held the athlete performs a concentric contraction of the agonist muscles • Example: while stretching the hamstring, the quadriceps and hip flexors would contract to flex the hip while the partner presses to flex the hip • You should see increased ROM during this phase due to autogenic inhibition, as well as reciprocal inhibition SLOW REVERSAL-HOLD-RELAX (SRHR)
  16. 16. SLOW REVERSAL-HOLD-RELAX (SRHR) Contract – Relax Slow Reversal – Hold-Relax
  17. 17. PURPOSE OF DYNAMIC WARM-UP • Increase core body temperature • Increase heart rate • Lubrication of joints • Prepare proper motor patterns, coordination, and balance • Prepare neurological pathways for rapid response • Improve Performance
  18. 18. DYNAMIC WARM-UP SHOULD… • Last between 10-15 minutes • Start at a low intensity • Include: • Aerobic component: • Low intensity jogging • Jumping: • Jumping jacks, seal jumps, quick pogo’s • Movement drills: • Walking lunges, hurdle walks, body weight squats
  19. 19. STRENGTH BANDS • Most effective stretching tool available • Allows the athlete to benefit from all three types of stretching without needing the help of a partner • Provides unlimited ability to focus on the most important aspect of injury prevention and enhanced performance
  20. 20. THE WARM-DOWN • Stretch at the end of each workout • Combine the use of all three types of stretching • Benefits • Muscle recovery • Increased Flexibility • Improve performance
  21. 21. RECOMMENDATIONS • Pre-exercise preparation should be a dynamic warm-up • Avoid static stretching prior to performance • Stretching for benefits in flexibility should be done at the end of each workout
  22. 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Baechle, Thomas R., & Earle, Roger W. (Eds.). (2008) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd ed.). Illinois: National Strength and Conditioning Association. • Bandy, William D., & Nelson, Russell T. (2005) An Update on Flexibility. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 27(1), 10-16. • Hatler, Brian S., McMillian, Danny J., Moore, Josef H., & Taylor, Dean C. (2006) Dynamic vs. Static-Stretching Warm Up: The Effect on Power and Agility Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 492-499. • Mann, Douglas P., & Jones, Margaret T. (1999) Guidelines to Implementation of a Dynamic Stretching Program. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 21(6), 53-55. • Yamaguchi, Taichi, & Ishii, Kojiro. (2005) Effects of Static Stretching for 30 seconds and Dynamic Stretching on Leg Extension Power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 677-683.