Lifetime fitness ch 3


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Wellness Concepts and Applications, 8th Edition

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Lifetime fitness ch 3

  1. 1. Increasing Cardiorespiratory Endurance Chapter 3
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Define aerobic capacity List and define Fitness Characteristics List and define Performance Characteristics Define F.I.T.T. Define 3 primary principles of Training List Benefits of Fitness Training Describe Heat Related Issues to Exercise Describe Cold Related Issues to Exercise
  3. 3. PHYSICAL FITNESS • Physical Fitness • Performance-related fitness • Health-related fitness • Physical Activity vs. Exercise • Physical Activity - raking leaves, cleaning house, or climbing stairs • Exercise -jogging, basketball, circuit training, intervals
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE-RELATED FITNESS • Speed • Power • Balance • Coordination • Agility • Reaction time
  5. 5. COMPONENTS OF HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS • Cardiorespiratory endurance • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Flexibility • Body composition
  6. 6. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to take in, deliver, and extract oxygen for physical work • Also called aerobic capacity • (maximum oxygen consumption) • Aerobic means “with oxygen” • For health, this is the most important component of physical fitness
  7. 7. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CARDIORESPIRATORY TRAINING •Resting heart rate decreases 15 to 20 beats per minute •Stroke volume increases •Cardiac output increases during maximal effort
  8. 8. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CARDIORESPIRATORY TRAINING (2) • Total blood volume increases, lowering blood viscosity • Heart volume and heart weight increase • Vital capacity and maximal pulmonary ventilation increase while residual volume decreases • Aerobic capacity increases 5% to 25% in previously untrained, healthy adults • Reaches a peak after 6 months to a year of endurance • Decreases with age
  9. 9. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE AND WELLNESS •Consistent participation in exercise is necessary to improve health •Regular aerobic exercise reduces many risks associated with cardiovascular disease •Seventy percent of American adults are inactive or marginally active
  10. 10. RECOMMENDATION FOR EXERCISE Every U.S. adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate intense physical activity on most and preferably all days of the week. American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control
  11. 11. F.I.T.T. Principle F- frequency (number of days per week) I - intensity (how hard you train) T- time (how long you train) T- type (what you choose to do)
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING •Progression—Systematic, gradual application of overload to improve fitness •Overload—Subjecting the body to unaccustomed stress by increasing a work level (intensity, frequency, or duration) •Specificity—Physical adaptations are specific to the type of exercise
  13. 13. WARMING UP FOR EXERCISE • The purpose of warm-up is to prepare the body for activity • Heart rate should gradually increase and the person should start to sweat • Warm-up can be tailored to the activity and should last about 10 to 15 minutes • Passive warm-up should not be used to replace active warm-up • Ballistic stretch only after warming up
  14. 14. WARMING DOWN FROM EXERCISE • Warmdown should last about 8 to 10 minutes • First, walk or do some other light activity; then stretch • Warmdown boosts circulation needed for recovery, reducing stress on the heart • Warmdown speeds the removal of lactic acid which causes muscle fatigue
  15. 15. SELECTING AN ACTIVITY • Choose any rhythmic, continuous activity that uses large muscle groups and can be performed for extended periods of time • Select activities based on: • Personal objectives • Skill level • Availability of equipment • and facilities • Availability of instruction • Climate
  16. 16. SELECTING AN ACTIVITY (2) • Cross-training is the participation in a variety of activities for the purpose of developing physical fitness • Cross-training relieves boredom and reduces risk of stress-related injuries • Don’t “play yourself into shape”; get into shape to play
  17. 17. Training Model for Performance
  18. 18. HEAT RELATED CONDITIONS • Physical activity increases body heat levels •Hyperthermia—Abnormally high body temperature that can cause illness or death •Heat exhaustion—A serious condition characterized by dizziness, fainting, rapid pulse, and cool skin •Heat stroke—A life-threatening, medical emergency
  19. 19. HYDRATION AND FLUID CONSUMPTION • Dehydration- excessive water loss • Can lead to inadequate oxygen delivery • Results in lowered blood volume • Creates inability for body to dispel heat • Helpful Hints • Thirst not good indicator of dehydration • Drink 6-8 oz. Every 15 minutes during exercise • Replace fluid after exercise • If exercising >60 minutes, mix • sugar and sodium with water
  20. 20. GUIDELINES FOR EXERCISING IN THE HEAT • Take precautions when the temperature is above 80°F or the relative humidity is above 60% • Allow yourself time to acclimate to the heat and keep your body’s fluid levels normal • Modify your program • Don’t take salt tablets • Use sunscreen if it’s sunny or hazy
  21. 21. EXERCISING IN THE COLD • Hypothermia—Abnormally low body temperature • Frostbite—Can cause permanent damage or loss of a body part due to gangrene • When exercising in the cold • Protect exposed skin • Use a stocking cap to cover your head • Dress in insulating layers of clothing