Ch11 physical fitness


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Essential of Healthy Living, 6th Edition

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Ch11 physical fitness

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Physical Fitness
  2. 2. Physical Fitness • Most people can derive important health benefits by exercising regularly and becoming more physically active. • Each year, lack of regular physical activity contributes to thousands of American deaths, primarily from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. • Physically fit people have the strength, endurance, and flexibility to perform activities of daily living
  3. 3. Physical Fitness • Healthy adults under age 65 should perform moderate-intensity physical activity for 150 minutes per week (minimum) • Moderate to vigorous activities should be performed in bouts that last at least 10 minutes, preferably spread throughout the week. • In 2010, 1/3 of American adults did not exercise during their leisure time.
  4. 4. Principles of Physical Fitness The Body in Motion – Physical movement involves the functioning of the muscular and skeletal system • often referred to as musculoskeletal system – Skeletal muscles provide shape, support, and movement. – Skeletal muscle made up of muscle fibers.
  5. 5. Principles of Physical Fitness The Body in Motion – Tendons connect muscle to bone – Joints are where bones come together – Ligaments connect bone to bone
  6. 6. The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems • Heart and lung function is interrelated • The heart pumps blood to the lungs • Oxygenated blood returns to the heart where it is pumped to rest of body • Oxygen leaves blood and enters cells • Waste products such as carbon dioxide leave cells and enter blood • Blood carries waste products to kidneys and back to the heart
  7. 7. •Resting heart rate decreases 15 to 20 beats per minute •Stroke volume increases •Cardiac output increases during maximal effort Circulatory System Principles
  8. 8. Principles of Physical Fitness Physical Activity vs Exercise Physical Activity- mowing, walking, gardening Exercise- planned and performed to improve or maintain physical condition
  9. 9. RECOMMENDATION FOR EXERCISE Every U.S. adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate intense physical activity on most and preferably all days of the week. American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control
  10. 10. Benefits of Exercise
  11. 11. • Reduces risk of chronic diseases. – Heart disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis • Reduces risk of obesity. • Improves immune system. • Improves and maintains muscle strength and joint function. • Improves balance. • Reduces risk of premature death.
  12. 12. • Reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression. • Fosters improvement in mood and sense of well- being. • Can improve quality of sleep. • Stimulates release of endorphins. • May relieve stress.
  13. 13. The Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
  14. 14. Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition
  15. 15. • Intense physical activity requires more oxygen to support the work of skeletal muscles. • Individuals with high degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, or endurance, can perform intense physical activity longer without becoming fatigued. • Cardiorespiratory fitness can be developed through aerobic activities (e.g., running, swimming, rope skipping). Cardiorespiratory Fitness
  16. 16. Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness To raise heart rates sufficiently to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the physical activity should raise heart rates to within the target zone, generally 55% to 90% of one’s maximum heart rate
  17. 17. Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular strength: ability of muscles to apply maximum force against an object that is resisting that force Muscular endurance: ability to contract muscles repeatedly without becoming fatigued easily Training Effect: an increase in size and strength of the muscle
  18. 18. Training Effect Hypertrophy: a condition in which muscles become larger and stronger Atrophy: when muscles lose size and strength from lack of use
  19. 19. Lifting Repetition: the completion of a single movement (exercise) that overloads a particular muscle group Set: involves performing the same exercise movement a number of times Strength - 6 to 12 reps Endurance - 15+ reps
  20. 20. Types of Contractions • Isotonic: Muscle length changes –Concentric- shortens –Eccentric - lengthens • Isometric: muscle doesn’t change length
  21. 21. Flexibility • the ability to move a joint through its normal (entire) range of motion Static stretching:slowly and fully extending muscles and joints within natural range of motion (book says 15-30 seconds) Ballistic stretching: (rapid bouncing) not recommended for general fitness training
  22. 22. Body Composition • The percentages of body weight contributed by lean tissue (LBM) and fat • Some fat is essential to good health (about 4% in men and 10% in women) • Spot exercising does not reduce fat in the exercised region • Exercising can increase metabolic rate • Engaging in moderate to vigorous–intensity aerobic activity for about 60 minutes, nearly every day, while not exceeding daily calorie needs, “burns” body fat
  23. 23. Athletic Performance
  24. 24. Speed—rate of movement Power—ability to concentrate force Coordination—ability to perform a series of movements in a continuous manner Agility—ability to make quick precise movements Balance—ability to maintain poised upright body position Reaction time—time needed to adjust body position to a changing environment Sports Related Components of Physical Fitness
  25. 25. Diet and Performance • Drink adequate amounts of water and choose a well-balanced diet composed of a variety of foods (same size does not fit all-IIFYM) • Eating more protein than needed does not result in bigger muscles (not true) • High protein diets may cause dehydration and accelerate the loss of calcium from bones • Carbohydrate loading can help certain athletes
  26. 26. Ergogenic Aids • There are a variety of products that supposedly enhance physical development or performance. • Dietary supplements, drugs, and mechanical devices • Some are beneficial and/or harmless. • Others are dangerous or illegal. • Anabolic steroids
  27. 27. Anabolic Steroids • Synthetic and natural substances chemically related to testosterone and have muscle- building properties. • Often illegally obtained and abused by athletes who want to enhance muscle development and physical performance. • Give individuals unfair competitive advantage over other athletes.
  28. 28. Steroids: Side Effects Men: • Premature balding • Severe acne • Sleep disturbance • Increased aggression • Testicle shrinkage • Increased blood pressure and increased risk of developing heart and kidney disease, certain cancers, and liver tumors
  29. 29. Steroids: Side Effects Women: • Severe acne • Increased body hair, including facial hair • Scalp hair loss • Menstrual irregularities
  30. 30. Exercising for Health
  31. 31. F.I.T.T. Principle F- frequency (number of days per week) I - intensity (how hard you train) T- time (how long you train) T- type (what you choose to do)
  32. 32. A Well Planned Workout 1. Warm up: low intensity activity for 5 minutes 2. Engage in aerobic activity for 30 minutes 3. Warm down with less intense activity for 5 minutes 4. Stretch: 5 minutes
  33. 33. Danger Signs Stop and consult a physician if you experience: • Irregular heartbeat, sensation that heart is pounding in throat, or fluttering sensation in chest • Pain or pressure in the chest, throat, or arms • Shortness of breath • Dizziness • Sudden loss of coordination • Cold sweating • Fainting
  34. 34. Preventing and Managing Exercise Injuries Strains and Sprains No clear clinical definitions exists • Strain generally refers to damage that a muscle or tendon sustains when overextended rapidly. • Sprain usually refers to a damaged ligament –usually more serious
  35. 35. Preventing and Managing Exercise Injuries Strains and Sprains RICE—effective for treating strains and sprains • Rest • Ice • Compression • Elevation Consult a physician if injured area does not improve in 2 days, or if pain worsens.
  36. 36. Preventing and Managing Exercise Injuries Dislocation • A joint becoming displaced by force • Joints are susceptible to dislocation during certain strenuous physical activities
  37. 37. Heat Related Issues Dehydration: extreme loss of body water Hyperthermia: higher than normal body temperature • Heat cramps • Heat exhaustion • Heatstroke
  38. 38. Heat Related Issues To prevent dehydration and hyperthermia: • Avoid physical exertion outdoors during hottest time of the day. • Drink enough fluids to replace that which is lost through sweat. • Wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing when exercising in warm conditions. • Consider reducing the intensity and duration of activity when weather is hot and humid. • Avoid alcoholic beverages.
  39. 39. Cold Related Issues Frostbite • Ice crystals form in the deeper tissues of skin when exposed to extreme cold • Causes damage to tissues Hypothermia • Body’s core temperature drops below 95°F –Shivering –Tiredness –Poor judgment –Disorientation –Loss of consciousness
  40. 40. Cold Related Issues Preventing Hypothermia • When in cold temperatures, wear: –Layers of warm dry clothing –A hat that can be pulled down over ears –Scarf –Gloves or mittens –Thick socks
  41. 41. Developing a Personal Fitness Program • Determine your needs, interests, and limitations. • Set general fitness goals. • Choose activities that you enjoy. • Incorporates fitness session into your routine.
  42. 42. Across the Life Span • Physical activities adopted in childhood are likely to be practiced for a lifetime • Healthy, physically fit women can generally continue engaging in mild- to moderate- intensity exercise during pregnancy • Pregnant women who perform strenuous regular exercise can increase their risk of having low-birth-weight babies • Pregnant women should discuss exercise plans with their physicians
  43. 43. Across the Life Span • Most Americans become less active as they age. • However, it is important for people to continue exercising. • Light regular physical activity can help: • Reduce risk of heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. • Maintain or improve joint flexibility and muscle strength and endurance. • Improve mood. • Increase ability to live independently.